Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

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Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) English Class 10 Notes

Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
White office desk table with notebooks and pens and tree. Top view with copy space, flat lay.

A. Answer the following questions.

What are genes and genetics?

Genes are the subunits of DNA the information database of any organism that is contained inside the cell nucleus. Genes transmit character traits of parents to their offsprings. Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

Why is the discovery of a gene called a game-changer in biological sciences?

The discovery of genes is called a game-changer in biological sciences because it led to the development of genetic and the process of genetic engineering through which genetically modified plants and animals are produced.

What is genetic engineering? What role does genetic engineering play in producing genetically modified organisms?

Genetic engineering is the process of manipulation of an organism’s genes directly by transplanting DNA from other organisms in its cells. Genetically modified organisms are produced through this process having the desired traits.

Write at least two merits and two demerits of GMOs?

Two merits of GMOs are:
1. Eradication of hereditary disease.
2. Increase resistance to diseases.
Two demerits of GMOs are:
1. The unpredictability of the behavior of altered genes.
2. GMOs may take some unwanted characteristics causing harm to our health environment or ecosystem.

What is your opinion will be the effect of GMOs on our lives, lifestyle, and the environment in the future?

Ans: Although GMOs have made our lives easy and comfortable, they have some dangerous effects. The unpredictability of the behavior of altered genes, unwanted characteristics, health problems, population problems, etc are some of the concerns about GMOs that may harm the ecosystem and human health.

Have you ever used genetically modified foods? Give suggestions & solutions for the safe use of genetically modified foods?

Yes, I have used genetically modified foods. I have the following suggestions and solutions for the safe use of GMOs.
1. To test the feasibility of GMOs, for any potential risk.
2. Quality of the product should be ensured.
3. Avoid processed foods in general.
4. Avoid factory-farmed animal products.

   B. Choose the correct options.

  • (d) Genes
  • (a) A point in a chain of events ……
  • (a) Fact
  • (d) Argumentative
  • (d) A few decades ago control of genes in living org…

stopping by woods on a snowy evening summary Chapter No 11 Class 10 English Notes 2021

stopping by woods on a snowy evening theme 2021.


Q.1) In the first stanza, what two actions does the speaker engage in?

The beginning of either a fiction or poetry is of prime importance to grab the attention of the reader. The first stanza of the poem is quite motivating. In this stanza, the poet is busy in performing two major activities at the same time i.e. contemplating and seeing. He is in woods near his pal’s house, thinking about his friend who is not physically present there as well as he is spellbound in watching the breathtaking scenic beauty of the woods with snow all around giving it a fairytale ambience.

Q.2) What internal conflict do the actions create?

There exists a hidden internal conflict in the actions of the poet. Actually, he knows it very well that his friend or the person to whom the woods belong, is not around but still he is thinking to meet him. That’s why he is standing and waiting for him.   

Q.3) Describe the time and place of the poem.

The setting of the poem is precisely appealing to the one who loves winters, its loneliness and natural objects associated with the season. Time and place are specified in the title of the poem i.e. it was a snowy evening and night was just about to engulf everything that surrounded the poet. The place was the woods concealed with snow, where the poet was standing and contemplating along with his horse.

Q.4) How does the description of the time affect the meaning of the poem?

The time mentioned in the poem is emphasizing the dark side of life i.e. death. It is creating a depressive environment for the one who is experiencing dejected feelings and emotions. 

Q.5) Why has the speaker stopped in the woods?

Q.6) What sights and sounds does the speaker describe?

The first sight that captures the poet’s attention is the pristine beauty of the woods covered in snow. The expression “woods fill up with snow” implies that not only the ground but even the trees, their branches and leaves, are blanketed with snow. The view of the frozen lake is another sight that attracts the poet’s attention. It highlights the point that it is freezing cold.
The first sound is the jingle of the harness bell tied to the horse’s neck which rings aloud in the isolated place. The only other sound is the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. The poet mentions this sound to emphasize the calmness of the scene. There was complete silence and peace in the woods. 

The speaker was a nature lover. He stopped in the woods as he was hypnotized with the magnificence of the woods amalgamated with the snow all around adding more beauty to the picturesque canvas with the light brush of silver coat (snow).

Q.7) Paraphrase the second stanza of the poem.

The opening line of second stanza clears the fact that he is not alone, he is on horseback. Even the opening line shows that the horse has got the sense of perceptibility and the horse knows the fact very clear that it is unusual to stop at a place. It shows that the author also knows how the horse may assume. It is queer only because the speaker stopped at a place where there is no farmhouse near. We are very clear about the position of the poet. He stands between the frozen lake and the woods. Then the poet goes on describing how dark the evening was. He concludes the evening to be the darkest evening of the year.

Q.8) Scan the poem showing syllabic division and stress pattern.

Syllabic division:
This poem is astonishingly simple: in sixteen lines, there is not a single three-syllable word and only sixteen two-syllable words.
Stress Pattern:
The poem consists of four (almost) identically constructed stanzas. Each line is iambic, with four stressed syllables:Within the four lines of each stanza, the first, second, and fourth lines rhyme. The third line does not, but it sets up the rhymes for the next stanza. For example, in the third stanza, queer, near, and year all rhyme, but lake rhymes with shake, mistake, and flake in the following stanza.
The notable exception to this pattern comes in the final stanza, where the third line rhymes with the previous two and is repeated as the fourth line.

Q.9) Do you think any “alliteration” has been used in the poem?

Yes, some alliteration has been used in following lines of the poem:
Whose woods these are I think I know,
His house is in the village though,
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
He gives his harness bells a shake
The only other sound’s the sweep
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.


Q.1) Is nature the best manifestation of Almighty Allah’s blessings?

Nature is all around us, we just have to remove the blinds from our eyes and clear up our ears to feel the spirit of it in a true sense. Yes, nature is the best sign of Allah Almighty’s blessings because of a number of convincing reasons. If one resides in the building of nature, it is inevitable for him to experience the dense foundation of soil, pillars of trees, walls of air, windows of natural light, doors of floral fragrance, chandeliers of fruits, roof of sky, stairs of charming streams, last but not the least echo of birds and animals around him. Allah’s blessings are countless.  We have to be thankful to Him all the time for his favors and blessings and should not deny any of it. As it is mentioned in Holy Quran: “Which then, of the favors of your Lord will you twain deny?”(Surah-e-Rehman, Ayat no. 16)

Q.2) Why do you think a place like this would capture someone’s attention?

The pictorial description which the poet has given of the woods, weather and ambience is a basis of creating fascination towards such a place. Anyone of us gets attracted towards a place like that only if a person is a nature lover and admirer of Allah’s blessings. Nowadays people have to live in busy, noisy cities to meet their necessities of life. If we get a chance to live at such a place which is peaceful, beautiful and adorned with the decoration pieces of nature in the form of a lake, woods, mountain etc, for sure no one wants to miss such an opportunity.  


Q.1) Describe the effects of winter in your own words.

Seasons are the essential part of nature which follows one after another to bring change in our moods, feelings, emotions and no doubt in our life and lifestyle.  Winter season has both positive and negative effects on the life of humans, animals and birds even the plants are also the one who have to bear the effects of winter.
Positive effects of winters underlie the fact that biting flies disappear when the temperature drops. Such kinds of organisms spread diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and bilharzias three of the world’s commonest, deadliest and most devastating diseases. Secondly, winter season means lack of pollen as plants don’t make pollen in the winter in general, so it can’t get up your nose and in your eyes to cause hay fever and allergic reactions to it. Thirdly, some crops need cold temperature and rain to grow, if there would be no winters, there would be no such crops or fruits /vegetables to get pleasure from. Last but not the least, cold temperatures mean you burn more calories to stay warm. This would work to lose weight if you eat the same amount.
In my point of view, winters exhibit more negative effects as compared to the positive ones. First and the foremost effect is that heart attacks increase in frequency during the winter months usually affecting those who already have an underlying health problem. A drop in temperature increases blood pressure so placing more strain on the heart; also your body works harder to generate additional heat when it is cold. Apart from heart attack, there are a number of diseases that are closely associated to winters like frost nip and frost bite, hypothermia, immersion foot / trench foot etc. Secondly, children and teenagers are restricted to their homes due to cold outside. Their parents don’t let them play outdoor games or any other fun activities.
In order to value Allah’s blessings we should welcome winters with open arms as it has positive effects on our lives along with the negative ones.

Q.2) “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep”….. how can a dark atmosphere look lovely? Explain.

All the objects of nature are comprised of an element of magnetism and charisma for the observer. Here darkness seems to be lovely because it creates mystery and curiosity in the mind of the viewer and that grasps the attention of the person. 

Q.3) “Snowy woods, downy flakes, frozen lake”…………….. all symbolize nature. Can you name three other objects of nature  out of so many given by Almighty Allah.

i) sparkling stream
ii) blazing sun
iii) quiet night

Q.4) Here are some words and expressions connected with cold and ice. Some literally refer to wintry weather; others are used as metaphors_____that is, they are idioms.

Explain what do they mean and use them in sentences:
to make one’s teeth chatter, to give someone cold shoulder, a cold-blooded person, to break the ice, to pour cold water on someone

Idioms                MeaningsSentences
to make one’s teeth chatter to scare someone, to feel cold Standing outside in the cold is all it takes to make one’s teeth chatter.
to give someone cold  shoulder   to intentionally ignore someone or  treat someone in an unfriendly wayHe gave me the cold shoulder the whole evening at the party.
a cold blooded person without emotion or feeling; dispassionate;  cruel He was a cold blooded person that’s why he killed 7  children ruthlessly. 
to break the ice to remove the tension at a first meeting,  at the opening of a party, etc His joke really broke the ice at the conference and then we felt relaxed.
to pour cold water on someone to discourage doing something; to  reduce enthusiasm for something. When my father said that I couldn’t have the car, he poured cold water on my plans.

Oral Activity – Winter/Wintry

Q.3) Write all the rhyming words of the poem.

know, snow
queer, near, year
lake, shake, flake, mistake
sweep, deep, keep, sleep

Q.4) Use each of the following in sentences as metaphors or similes. snow, ice, frost, thaw, winter


Words                            Sentences
snow (simile) Their newly born baby is as white as snow.   
ice (simile) His attitude towards his ex-wife was as cold as ice.
frost (metaphor) The frost in her voice froze Husnain in place, his mouth agape.
thaw (metaphor) His cold behaviour thawed when he knew the real story.
winter (metaphor) Jasmine’s mind is a meadow in winter.

Q.5) The poet expresses a different opinion about nature that the fascination of the woods is felt only by the speaker and not by the horse, which is sub-human. Do you agree?

No, I must say that the woods’ fascination and desolateness were also felt by the horse which is sub-human. I can justify my point by the fact that the horse was also suspicious about the act of its owner who stopped at the woods without any purpose. He was surprised that’s why he rang his harness bell to know the reason behind.

Q.6) There is a vivid description of ‘snow and isolation’ in the poem. Can you think of any other such situation_____ e.g. railway track buried in deep snow drifts, howling blizzards, freezing wind?

One such situation can be:
Cars trapped in the thick net of fog,
busy in finding their ways through the snow trail,
to reach their homes before the hours of darkness.
Chilly winds are making the boughs sway from one side to another,
wearing the blanket of snow.
One can feel mercy for the feeble birds,
lying breathlessly on the bed of snow. 

Q.7) Now find out all you can, especially about weather forecasting e .g. Meteorology, thermometers, barometers, weather ships, wind speed scale. What are all these? Write in 2-3 lines about each.

Meteorology: Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, atmospheric phenomena, and atmospheric effects on our weather. Meteorology is a sub discipline of the atmospheric sciences, a term that covers all studies of the atmosphere.

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient. A thermometer has two important elements: (1) a temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury-in-glass thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, and (2) some means of converting this physical change into a numerical value (e.g. the visible scale that is marked on a mercury-in-glass thermometer).


Q.1 a) Write the number of the verse in which the poet is saying the following.

i) The owner of the woods lives in the village.
ii) My horse must be thinking it strange to stop here.
iii) It is the darkest evening of the year.
iv) One can hear the sound of wind and downy flake.
v) The woods took dark and lovely.
i) 2
ii) 5
iii) 8
iv) 12
v) 13

Q.1 b) What phrase is repeated in the last two lines? How does this repetition reinforce the meaning?

The phrase that is repeated in the last two lines of the poem is:
 “And miles to go before I sleep.
And miles to go before I sleep.”
It reinforces the meaning in the way that the poet covered a long distance to reach that place to experience the serenity of nature and solitude over there. He had to cover the same distance in order to reach back his home before the night had fallen and the time to sleep arrive. He just wanted to stay there for some more time but yes, he had to go as he had to keep his promise.


Q.1) What is the mood or the feeling of the poem?

The mood of the poem is quiet and reflective. The narrator has stopping in the dark evening to admire the snowy woods, and he is far from the village where the owner lives. The village would have lights, horses and pedestrians, movement and sound and life. The woods, by contrast, are dark and quiet, with no sound but that from the narrator’s horse:
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

Without these distractions, the narrator can focus on the beauty of the woods and the meaning of his own life spent bustling around “keeping promises” and “travelling miles.” He would rather go into the woods and exist in the quiet and dark, but he knows that soon he must return to his busy life. This moment of contemplation is a small joy among the daily workload, personal dealings, and responsibility.

Q.2) In what way is the setting of this poem like and unlike the place you live?

The place that is described in the poem is representing a gloomy, isolated place with few dwelling and snow covered natural beauty. It is totally opposite to the one where I live, as I reside in a busy city with broad roads, noisy traffic, winter without snow, jam-packed residential area and flood of people all around. Only in one way, it is somehow like my place as there are plenty of trees in my street and the locality but they are all green except in autumn season when some have to stand bare for sometime to welcome the coming spring. 

Q.3) Besides appreciation of nature, what else can you interpret about this poem?

The poem owns a platter of interpretation and themes. Besides admiration of the nature’s beauty, one of the most prominent theme is of “isolation and death”. The darkness and wilderness of the woods represent the ultimate destiny of mankind i.e. death perhaps suicide. The speaker had a desire to escape from the busy routine of his life but he had to resist in order to go back to city life to perform daily chores not of himself but of his family too. Apart from wilderness of the woods, the silence over there also paints the picture of death on the canvas of life.

Q.4) Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.

know, snow
queer, near, year
lake, shake, flake, mistake
sweep, deep, keep, sleep

Revision exercise unit 10 and 11- Questions

Q.1) Complete each of the unfinished similes by inserting a word from the list.

weather      judge      cucumber         feather          daisy        lark
i) as happy as a………..
ii) as light as a…………
iii) as changeable as a……………..
iv)  as fresh as a…………….
v) as sober as a……………..
vi) as cool as a……………….    
i) lark
ii) feather
iii) weather
iv) daisy
v) judge
vi) cucumber

Q.2) Try Thinking

A banker was driving his small son along one of the main thoroughfares in Melbourne. A large truck changed lanes, forcing the car to swerve off the road into a solid-brick wall. The father was not injured but the boy sustained a broken leg. Both of them were taken to a nearby hospital by ambulance, and the boy was prepared for surgery. The operation was about to begin. Just then the surgeon exclaimed: ‘I can’t operate on this boy. He’s my son!

Explain. (Who do you think was the surgeon?)
Sometimes it happens that we find people around us who are engaged in more than one job and they are performing their duties devotedly and sincerely. Here is the example of such a person who was a banker and surgeon at the same time; he was a full-time banker whereas served humanity as a surgeon doing a part-time job. This person was just like my uncle who performs his duty as an agriculture specialist in one of the renowned agricultural department of Karachi as a full time employee whereas in the evening one can find him in his personal homeopathic clinic treating his patients with utmost concentration.  

Q.3) Explain the difference in meaning of the following words. Make sentences.

‘cold’ and ice’,’  lets’ and’ let’s’,’  know’ and’ no’,’  manner’ and’ manor’

Words                        ExplanationSentences
cold It means something having a low temperature. A cold wind whistled through the trees.
ice It means frozen water, a brittle transparent  crystalline solid on something.  As the weather is about to change,  the ice starts melting. 
lets’ lets’ is to show action referring only to one  thing. My brother lets me hold his car.
let’s  It is the contraction of  let us used to express a  suggestion command,  etc, by the speaker to himself and his hearers Let’s go eat before it gets cold.
know It means be aware of through observation,  inquiry, or information  She will be shocked when she gets to  know the results.
no It is a negative used to express denial, or  refusal, as in response to a question or request) They had no idea what was in store  for them.
manner This means a way in which a thing is done or  happens. My mother is quite strict  about manners.
manor It is a landed estate or territorial unit. The King and Queen lived in a manor.

Q.4) Note the expressions of the poet in the following poem, which indicate the coming of spring season after heavy winter.

Last Snow
Although the snow still lingers
Heaped on the ivy’s blunt webbed fingers
And painting tree trunks on one side,
Here in this sunlit ride.
The fresh unchristened things appear,
Leaf, spathe and stem,
With crumbs of earth clinging to them
To show the way they came, but no flower yet to tell their name.
And one green spear
Stabbing a dead leaf from below
Kills winter at a blow.
                                                              Andrew Young
The poem describes the passing of winter and the approach of spring. Describe the various signs that the poet notices.
Andrew Young has written a spectacular poem depicting the end of heavy winter with the beginning of spring to spread colors and life all around. He has used various signs that are the true reflection of the smooth transition of weather from cold to the colorful surroundings such as:

  • The birth of the fresh unchristened things including leaf, spathe and stem are the vital signs of the approaching spring season.
  • Beautiful flowers are making their appearance on the plants but no one can classify them with their names as they are too young to be identified.
  • The green color of the emerging leaf just acts like a killer who is about to take life of the brown ones from the trees.

Q.5) Write about the pleasures and discomforts of winter.

Pleasures and discomforts are the two sides of a mirror. They are there with us every now and then. They are also the blessings of Allah Almighty in a sense to be thankful to Him for pleasures and people should behave patiently when the time of discomfort made its appearance in life.
Winter season has its own importance and beauty along with a number and pleasures and discomforts associated with it. It begins in November and lasts till February with the coldest months being December and January.
Looking at the brighter side of the season, let’s first talk about the pleasures in the warm fold of winter.

Winter appears like a knight in shining armor. It saves us from the scorching sun and exhausting environment of the summer followed by the filthy and muddy rainy season. This season enhances our capacity to do more and more. We never feel tired and exhausted. Rather we feel more enthusiasm, energy, taste and vigor in life.
It is a season that makes us hale and hearty as we get ample of green vegetables, colorful flowers and nutritional fruits. We relax ourselves in the bright sun. The sun which seems to troublesome during summer becomes so pleasant during winter.

The farmers too are very happy. They work in the fields in the open sun. Had there been no winter, we would have suffered a bit at the hands of burning summer or flowing rainy water.
Thus, the winter gives us a power to perceive, tolerance to suffer and a hope to mend our ways. We can treasure a lot to bear the treacherous ways of other seasons though all the seasons Eire great in themselves for being gifts of nature, but winter is the greatest of all of them for its lively characters.

Winter days are full of activities. There is hustle and bustle everywhere. Children play various games in the pleasant sun. But the evenings are dull and boring. People get into their rooms closing all the doors and windows.
No noise from outside world is heard, traffics are hardly seen on the roads. It seems for sometime that life has become stagnant. But at the same time, sitting around the fire with all the family members and gossiping have its own charm while munching the best item of winters i.e. dry fruits. It is really a happy time.

Winter season brings pleasure for the rich people because they have sufficient warm clothes to put on. Even when chilly winds blow, they feel no problem. For that time they have room-heaters and blowers, etc. to keep their room warm and cozy. But for the poor people, winter is a curse. As they belong to a class of have-nots, therefore they don’t afford to buy woolen clothes in order to fight with the cold.

Sometimes when it is very cold, the very survival becomes difficult for them. They can’t cope up with the biting cold in rags and as a result, they die. Thus winter brings bitter and painful days for them. Hence, our poor class never welcomes this season. They like the only summer, even though it is very hot.
In a nutshell, we can say that winter is a pleasant time for the rich but a hard one for the poor. Hence, it is both good and bad.

Q.6) Write a story about a boy who has come from another country and the class is unfriendly with him.

In Japan, there lives a boy named Ku Chinn. He is a thin, fair complexion boy with dark, silky hair. His eyes have a spark in them which can attract anyone towards him. He is a sensitive and patriotic sort of a boy. Although he is just 10 years old but he has an appearance of a 12 year boy. He lives with his parents and younger sister in one of the busy and populous city of Japan. His father is a diplomat so Ku Chinn has all the facilities and luxuries of life. He studies in grade 5 at one of the reputable educational institute. His father serves as an ambassador in different countries of the world. After Ku Chinn’s birth, his father is not sent to any country due to his minor health issues.

One pleasant day, when Ku Chinn comes back from his school, he smells an air of tension at his home. On asking, his mother says that they have to go to Australia as his father get orders from the ministry to serve as an ambassador over there. Ku Chinn also gets depressed as he doesn’t want to leave his home, friends, school and country. But he knows he has to.
After a week, the time arrives when he has to say good bye to his friends and board into the plane to fly to Australia. The very next day, his parents go to an international school for Ku Chinn and his sister’s admission. Ku Chinn is quite upset as he knows it very well that it isn’t possible for him to get adjusted in a new environment soon.

The following morning, with a heavy heart he takes his bag and goes to his school. When he enters his class, most of his classmates seemed unfriendly to him. He is not well acquainted with the English language so with great difficulty he just says hello to the class. But no one replies as they have biased feelings for the newcomer. When he is about to sit on his chair, one of his class fellows drags the chair showing ill-mannerism and very soon he is sitting on the wooden floor with his bag.

A roar of laughter strikes his ears. Feeling ashamed, he quickly gets up and sits on the chair. At lunchtime, he goes to the cafeteria to have something to drink. He doesn’t know how to pronounce water, he manages somehow to utter like water. One of his classmates is standing next to him in the queue; he quickly says to the man behind the counter that Ku Chinn wants a glass of wine. The man looks at Ku Chinn with an expression of anger and takes him to the headmaster. When the headmaster listens to the story of Ku Chinn, he goes to his class and gives strict instructions to his fellows to show respect towards Ku Chinn and amalgamate him into the school system as he is from another country and had no idea about their culture, language and values.  
This is the most miserable day for Ku Chinn at school.

Q.7) Cause and Effect

Always remember that an effect has a cause. Identify the cause and effect in the following sentences. The first sentence is done for you.
Example: Young people end up unemployed because they fail to study hard enough at school.
Not studying hard enough at school is the cause and unemployment is the effect.
i) Fast cars are what cause road accidents.
ii) A balanced diet produces a healthy body.
iii) Heart attacks are caused by too great a build-up of cholesterol.
iv) Urban violence is the result of poverty.
v) Good soil produces healthy plants.
i) Fast cars (cause) are what cause road accidents (effect).
ii) A balanced diet (cause) produces a healthy body. (effect)
iii) Heart attacks (effects) are caused by too great a build-up of cholesterol. (cause)
iv) Urban violence (cause) is the result of poverty. (effect)
v) Good soil (cause) produces healthy plants. (effect)

Q.8) William Wordsworth’s famous comparison. “I wandered lonely as a cloud”, is a simile because it uses as. If Wordsworth had written, “I was a lonely wandering cloud”, he would have been using a metaphor.

Give an example each of a simile and metaphor from any other poem that you have read.
The example of a simile poem written by Denise Rogers is as under:
Your teeth are like stars;
They come out at night.
They come back at dawn
When they’re ready to bite.
An example of a metaphor poem written by G. Orr. Clark is as under:
The night is a big black cat
The moon is her topaz eye.

The stars are the mice she hunts at night,
in the field of sultry sky.

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PARAPHRASES OF The POEM Class 10 English Notes


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Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms, Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms, Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms, Unit 11 Genetically Modified Organisms.