Unit 10 Water Scarcity in Pakistan

Unit 10 Water Scarcity in Pakistan

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Unit 10 Water Scarcity in Pakistan Class 10 Egnlish Notes

Unit 10 Water Scarcity in Pakistan Class 10 English Notes
Unit 10 Water Scarcity in Pakistan

What are the main sources of water in Pakistan?

Ans: The main sources of water in Pakistan are Glaciers, Rainfall, Rivers and Underground water etc.

A. Answer the following questions.

Q1: What are the main sources of water in Pakistan?

Ans: The main sources of water in Pakistan are Glaciers, Rainfall, Rivers and Underground water etc. 

Q2: What are the river drainage systems of Pakistan? Describe briefly

Ans: There are three river drainage systems of Pakistan. 

  1. The Indus Basin River: It originates from Tibet and flow to the west and finally fall into the Arabian Sea. It covers an area of 365000 sq miles. We receive 141.67 million square feet of water from it.
  2. Closed Basin Kharan desert: Its main rivers are Pishin Lora, Badoo Rakhshan and Mash Khel. It covers an area of 120,100 Sq.Km. We get 4.5 million-acre feet of water from it.
  3.  Makran Coastal Basin: It consists of streams of Malir, Hub, Porali, Kud, Hingol, Nai, Dasht, Mashhad, Nihing and Kech.It covers an area of 122,400 Sq Km. We get 0.78 million water from it.

Q3: What are the main causes of water shortage in Pakistan? Discuss

Ans: The main causes of water shortage in Pakistan are as under:

  1. The rapid increase in population.
  2. Construction of dams by India over river Chenab and Jhelum.
  3. Wastage of water.
  4. Non-construction of more water reservoirs.
  5. Rapid depletion of groundwater.

Q4: What measures can we take to overcome water shortage in Pakistan? 

Ans: We can take the following measures to overcome water shortage in Pakistan.

  1.  Construction of water reservoirs.
  2.  Control over wastage of water.
  3.  Increased use of water-efficient crops
  4.  Adopting water-efficient methods of irrigation.
  5.  Implementation of national water policy 2018.

Q5: What can you do on own to contribute to the conservation of water in your home and surrounding?

Ans: We can do the following things to contribute to the conservation of water in our home and surrounding. We should check our house for leaks. We should take short showers. We should use less amount of water in domestic use etc. 

Q6: What is the importance of building national reservoirs?

Ans: Building of national reservoirs of water are important because they provide water for domestic, industry and irrigation purposes. They also provide hydroelectric power production and river navigation.

B. Choose the correct options.

1. (c) Personification 2. (b) Deprived of3. (a) Conserve water & reduce its wastage.      4. (d) Seventh5. (d) Save water to secure your future. 

Unit 10 Water Scarcity GRAMMAR

The Infinitive: An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with “to”.A. Locate the infinitives in each sentence. Identify each as an adverb, an adjective or a noun.

  1. To read
  2. To share, to care, to give, to receive
  3.  To vote
  4. To call
  5. To finish
  6. To go
  7. To case, to solve
  8. To fly.

The infinitive Phrase:  An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb.

  1. To win her friendship
  2. To sleep in
  3. To discuss the problem
  4. To bring cookies
  5. To win the lottery
  6. To visit on a cold day
  7. To obey at all times
  8. To think over the argument.

Gerunds:  A gerund is a “verb + ing” used as a noun.i.e Swimming etc.A. Use gerunds in the following.Ans

  1. Always check the oil, before starting the car.
  2. The house looked beautiful after decorating with lights.
  3. Praising all alike is praising none.
  4. I cannot go on doing nothing.
  5. Collecting wealth ruins health.
  6. Seeing is believing.
  7. Giving is better than receiving.
  8. Talking like this is foolish.
  9. She loves reading books.

Gerund phrase: A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and related words.B. Underline the gerund phrase in the sentences below.Ans

  1.  Brisk walking
  2. Playing bridge.
  3. Promising Sami
  4. Standing during a two- hour train
  5. Sailing on the lake
  6. Volunteering at the hospital
  7. Watching quiz shows on TV.
  8. Taking out the garbage.

Grade 10 Newly English Notes Updated 2021 for all Pakistani educational boards pdf

Comprehension

Q.1) What are the main sources of water in Pakistan?

Answer:
Water sources available in Pakistan are rainfall, surface water available in rivers and underground water.

Q.2) What are the river drainage system of Pakistan? Describe them briefly.

Answer:
In surface water we have three river drainage basins:
1. the Indus Basin River
2. closed basin Kharan desert
3. Makran coastal basin

The Indus Basin River:
It originates near the Kailash range in Tibet. The river flows in the west and falls into the Arabian Sea. Its Eastern tributaries are the Ravi, the Beas, the Chenab, the Sutlej, and the Jhelum. The total area of the Indus basin is about 3,65,000 square miles.
Closed basin Kharan desert:
It consists of areas of mountain basins of Quetta and basins of tributaries draining into the Kharan desert. Its main rivers are Pishin Lora, Baddo Rakhshan, Mashkhel, and many other streams. It covers an area of 120,100 sq.km.
Makran coastal basin:
The Makran coastal basin consists of streams of Malir, Hub, Porali, Kud, Hingol, Nai, Mashhai, Dasht, Nihing and Kech. It covers an area of 122,400 sq.km and its main source of water is rainfall.

Q.3) What are the main causes of water shortage in Pakistan? Discuss in detail.

Answer:
The main cause of water shortage is the constructions of dams and barrages by India over the River Chenab and the River Jhelum created the problems of water shortage for Pakistan.  The other main reason is the increasing population. The population is increasing at a rate of 3.2%. Presently there are 200 million people and if the rate of increase in the population remains the same, then it will be almost double by the year 2025 leading to add pressure on the groundwater resources. Also, the rapid depletion of groundwater may worsen the water crisis in Pakistan`s major cities causing a drought-like situation.

Q.4) What measures can we take to overcome water shortage in Pakistan?

Answer:
To overcome this horrible water scarcity we should take these remedial measures immediately:
1. Strict implementation of National Water Policy 2018.
2. Formulation of National Action Plan for judicious use of available water.
3. Construction of water reservoirs.
4. Control on over-pumping of underground water and its wastage.
5. Increase the use of water-efficient crops. 
6. Switch over from conventional agriculture to conservative agriculture.
7. Adopting a water-efficient method of irrigation like Sprinkler and Drip irrigation. 

Q.5) What can you do on your own to contribute to conversation of water in you home and surrounding?

Answer:
For the conservation of the water, first of all, it is needed to have the self-responsibility. As an individual, we should not waste water in any way whether it is drinking water or normal water for usage. We are that nation which wastes a lot of water i.e if we need one bucket of water we will use 2-3 buckets. The need of the hour is that we should educate people about the scarcity of the water and should tell them not to waste the water and use it carefully in the proper way. We should not consume much water in the home we should not leave taps running while washing clothes, hands, or utensils. We should fill only that much water in a glass which we need it is not good to fill the whole glass and only have one or two sips and then throw the rest.  In our surroundings as well we should not let it waste anywhere by anyone.

Q.6) What is the importance of building national reservoirs?Can you point out a spot in your area where small reservoirs can be built to benefit the local population?

Answer:
National reservoirs are very important for the country. Domestic drinking water and industrial water supply for the development of the country are necessary and very important for that water reservoirs are necessary. For how long we can be dependent on the water provided by the other sources we should make plans for reserving water for ourself on the national level. National reservoirs are necessary to make because of the sea, rivers and rainfall can vary according to season and sometimes we have a deficiency of water for that time we should make water reservoirs so during those days we can easily use water in home, crops, and business.

In Mansehra, we can make small reservoirs of water for the local masses. If we plan to make reservoirs in Mansehra it can bring prosperity for the people. Manshera is Allah`s blessed place with a beautiful land and water resources. There are so many streams, ponds, cataracts, etc the need is to make the reservoirs of this water instead of letting it waste and flow. These reservoirs can give a lot of benefits. They can preserve the water by making a dam or any other water reservoirs of their ease. But this place can be best for water reserving which can bring prosperity as well as can fulfil the water shortage.

Vocabulary

A. The following words, taken from the text, belong to the same word class. Use the dictionary to find out its word class and meaning.

Abundant
Severe
Marvellous
Starved
Judicious
Excessive

Answer
The word class of these words is adjective. 

Abundant: Plentiful
Severe:  Intense
Marvellous: 
Awesome
Starved: 
Unfed
Judicious: 
Well judged
Excessive:  
Extravagant

B. Change the above words into an adverb and use them in your own sentences to make it’s meaning clear. 

Abundant
Severe
Marvellous
Starved
Judicious
Excessive

Answer:  
Abundantly:     The plant grows abundantly in woodland.
Severely:           
She became severely depressed after her mother’s death.
Marvellously:  
He always painted marvellously.
Starved:            
The poor dog looked like it had been starved.
Judicially:         
Not all judicially created laws are based on statutory or constitutional interpretation.
Excessively:     
The doctor advised him not to drink excessively.

Writing

Q.1) Organize the main points of the lesson graphically with the help of mind-map and write a summary of the lesson, ‘Water Scarcity in Pakistan’.

Answer:
Almighty Allah has blessed Pakistan with lavish water resources. Himalaya and Karakoram break into the canal system and irrigates over 16 million hectors of land. There are other sources of water as well like rainfall, surface water, and underground water. Three main rivers are the source of water which are: The Indus Basin River, Closed basin Kharan desert, Makran coastal basin.

The Indus Basin River originates near the Kailash range in Tibet. The river flows in the west and falls into the Arabian Sea. Its Eastern tributaries are the Ravi, the Beas, the Chenab, the Sutlej, and the Jhelum. The total area of the Indus basin is about 3,65,000 square miles. Closed basin Kharan desert consists of areas of mountain basins of Quetta and basins of tributaries draining into the Kharan desert. Its main rivers are Pishin Lora, Baddo Rakhshan, Mashkhel, and many other streams.

It covers an area of 120,100 sq. km. Makran coastal basin the Makran coastal basin consists of streams of Malir, Hub, Porali, Kud, Hingol, Nai, Mashhad, Dasht, Nihing and Kech. It covers an area of 122,400 sq. km and its main source of water is rainfall. Water resources are shortened and the main cause of water shortage is the constructions of dams and barrages by India over the River Chenab and the River Jhelum created the problems of water shortage for Pakistan.

UNO ranked Pakistan in 7th position in the list of countries facing the water crisis. The other main reason is the increasing population. The population is increasing at a rate of 3.2%. Presently there are 200 million people and if the rate of increase in the population remains the same, then it will be almost double by the year 2025 leading to add pressure on the groundwater resources.

Also, the rapid depletion of groundwater may worsen the water crisis in Pakistan`s major cities causing a drought-like situation. Excessing pumping of underground water affecting the water, it is contaminating it rapidly with metals like Copper, Nickle, and Cobalt, etc. These can cause serious health hazards.

To overcome this horrible water scarcity we should take some measures immediately i.e we should make water reservoirs, we should control the population and over-pumping of water and should not wastewater in any case. Water-efficient crops should be increased and should adopt an effective way of irrigation.

Q.2) Write a unified paragraph on the topic, ‘Save a Drop Today and Reap an ocean Tomorrow’, using:

a) Examples, Definition, Evidence, Comparison, Contrast, cause and effect, Clarification, Explanation to develop the main idea.
b) Use appropriate pronoun-antecedent relationship devices within a paragraph.
c) Arrange paragraphs in the correct order.


Answer:

                         Save a Drop Today and Reap an ocean Tomorrow

Water is a wonder liquid and a blessing of Allah Almighty for humans. About 70% of the earth is covered with the water. We need water for drinking, washing, cooking, bathing, and for doing so many other things. Likewise, animals and plants both need water for their usage. The source of water is rivers, seas, oceans, lakes, rainfall, and reservoirs. We have much water on Earth but Sea and Ocean water cannot be used because that is saltish.


People of current time are not using this blessing as a blessing. They are wasting a lot of water. People are contaminating the water with garbages and other waste materials. They are unaware of the complexities which will be caused by this. Our population is also increasing a lot and climate is changing as well due to which insufficiency of water is caused.
This natural blessing of Almighty is decreasing day by day because of our own carelessness. If we have a view over the present time than we will come to know that water resources and water quantity are decreased with time. These water crises are getting worse. People are lacking access to drinking water. According to the survey, 2 million people are dying because of the lack of drinking water and diseases spreading due to the use of contaminated water.


In past people use to take water as a very precious blessing they do not waste water and use it carefully. Past people were cooperative as well if anyone faces water insufficiency they use to share it like many countries have a treaty of sharing the water.


In the present time, people use it without any care and not just use they waste it as well. They do have any importance of water. Also, the countries now starting ruling over the water and stop the water of other countries. The present generation is not interested in saving water they are unaware of the water scarcity.


If we save water though of a little amount it can make a difference. If we will not allow our tape water to flow while washing face, crockery or cleaning our teeth that water can be saved. If one by one we all will start doing this then we can save a large amount of water which we can use in the future.


There are many countries who are adopting many strategies to conserve water because they have water deficiency e.g Israel, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, etc. They use the proper system to conserve and filter the greywater to use it again. Although Allah Almighty has blessed us with much water we are wasting it because of our stupidity the need is we should apply the policies likee developed countries so we can save it for our future n future generation. We should keep this thing in our mind that it is a blessing so we should use it with careful way.

Grammar

A. Locate the infinitive in each sentence. Identify each as an adverb an adjective, or a noun.

i) More than anything else, I wanted some time alone to read.
ii) My grandmother told me that we have been put on earth to share, to care, to give, and to receive.
iii) The right to vote is very valuable.
iv) I tried to call but the line was busy.
v) To finish will be a relief.
vi) Do you agree with the decision to go?    
vii) To case will not be easy to solve.
viii) To fly, the wings must create more life.


Answer:
i) More than anything else, I wanted some time alone to read.      (Noun)
ii) 
My grandmother told me that we have been put on earth to share, to care, to give, and to receive.                                                                                          (Adverb)
iii) 
The right to vote is very valuable.                                             (Adverb)
iv) 
I tried to call but the line was busy.                                            (Noun)
v) 
To finish will be a relief.                                                               (Noun)
vi) 
Do you agree with the decision to go?                                          (Adjective)
vii) 
To case will not be easy to solve.                                               (Noun)
viii) 
To fly, the wings must create more life.                                 (Adjective)

B. Underline the infinitive phrases in the following sentences and tell whether these infinitive phrases have been used as noun-adjective or adverb.

i) Sending her roses is a way to win her friendship.
ii) The day to sleep in is Saturday.
iii) Javed is coming to discuss the problem with the boss.
iv) It is also possible to bring cookies rather than a cake.
v) Please write the numbers to win the lottery on his form.
vi) The museum is fun to visit on a cold day.
vii) The captain of the ship is the authority to obey at all times.
viii) Saima offered to think over the argument.


Answer:
i) Sending her roses is a way to win her friendship.                   (Adjective)
ii) The day to sleep in is Saturday.                                                  (Noun)
iii) Javed is coming to discuss the problem with the boss.            (Adverb)
iv) It is also possible to bring cookies rather than a cake.              (Adverb)
v) Please write the numbers to win the lottery on his form.        (Adjective)
vi) The museum is fun to visit on a cold day.                                    (Noun)
vii) The captain of the ship is the authority to obey at all times.    (Adverb)
viii) Saima offered to think over the argument.                               (Adverb)

Grammar(Gerunds and Gerund Phrases)

A. Use gerunds in the following sentences. The first one has been done.
i) Always check the oil, before you start the car.
ii) The house was decorated with lights. It looked beautiful.
iii) To praise all alike is to praise none.
iv) I cannot go on to do anything. 
v) To collect wealth ruins health.
vi) To see is to believe.
vii) To give is better than to receive.
viii) To talk like this is foolish.
ix) She loves to read books.

Answer:
i) Always check the oil, before starting the car.
ii) The house was decorated with light, it is looking beautiful.
iii) Praising all alike is to praising none. 
iv) I cannot go on doing anything. 
v) Collecting wealth is ruining health.
vi) Seeing is believing.
vii) Giving is better than receiving.
viii) Talking like this is foolish.
ix) She loves reading books.

B. Underline the gerund phrases in the sentences below. 
i) Brisk walking is Danial’s favourite exercise.
ii) Mrs Noman enjoys playing bridge.
iii) I remember promising Sami my old bike.
iv) Standing during a two-hour train trip is not my idea of fun.
v) Do you like sailing on the lake?
vi) Volunteering at the hospital is just one of Haleema’s activities.
vii) Mrs Basheer enjoys watching quiz shows on television.
viii) Taking out the garbage is not my favourite job around the house.

Answer:
i) Brisk walking is Danial’s favourite exercise.
ii) Mrs Norman enjoys playing bridge.
iii) I remember promising Sami my old bike.
iv) Standing during a two-hour train trip is not my idea of fun.
v) Do you like sailing on the lake?
vi) Volunteering at the hospital is just one of Haleema’s activities.
vii) Mrs Basheer enjoys watching quiz shows on television.
viii) Taking out the garbage is not my favourite job around the house.

Class 10 English Handwriting Notes 

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