English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 9 By Car Across Europe

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 9 By Car Across Europe Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 9 By Car Across Europe

What was their route from Venice to Naples?

The route followed by Roger and his wife from Venice to Naples was via Florence and Rome. From Venice, they went to Naples through Florence and Rome.

Why is Venice unique?

Venice is the unique city in the world because it has canals in place of roads and streets.

How did they get from Basel to Venice?

From Basel, Roger and his wife, Sheila went eastwards to Innsbruck in Austria and then over the Brenner Pass to the city of Venice in Italy.

Why did Roger want to drive across Switzerland?

Roger wanted to drive across Switzerland because he wanted to enter Italy via Simplon Pass on the way to Melon.

Which route did they take through Germany?

The route that Roger and his wife took through Germany was as follows: they reached Koblenz via Trier, which is a famous village of Germany. From there, they turned the South along the River Rhine, all the way through the Black Forest to the town of Basle, located on the Swiss-German border. From there, they turned towards the South again, along with the River Rhine, all the way through the Black Forest to the town of Basle, on the Swiss-German frontier.

Where did they go after Brussels?

After Brussels, Roger and his wife, Sheila went to Luxembourg.

What did they do when they left Dunkirk?

When Roger and Sheila left Dunkirk, they drove off the ferry into France and were on their way to Belgium soon.

What happened on board the ship?

Roger and his wife had lunch and Roger bought some tax-free cigarettes while they were on board the ship. Later, they entered into conversation with other passengers about the route they intended to follow across Europe. Since they had not made any definite plans or booked any hotel, except in Capri, so they were interested in hearing the suggestions of other travellers.

How did they cross the English Channel?

Roger and Sheila crossed the English Channel by a car-ferry, which Roger drove all by himself.

What preparations did Roger make?

Before setting on their journey to Capri, Roger obtained a passport, traveller’s cheques and necessary documents for his car. Perhaps, these preparations were made by him in order to ensure that they do not have to face any legal problems, during their stay in Europe.

Why were Roger and Sheila going to Capri?

Roger and Sheila were going to Capri on a “sentimental pilgrimage”. In other words, they intended to relive their memories because five years ago, they had spent their honeymoon there, and now they wanted to visit the place again.

What are the advantages of taking a private car?

There are a lot of advantages of travelling by private cars. One can travel far and wide in search of enjoyment and new places and things. He can see more with less inconvenience. Moreover, he does not have to worry about catching buses and trains or finding porters to carry one’s luggage and taxis.

How do older people often travel abroad?

The older people often travel abroad by bus or train, since they do not have enough energy to travel by bicycle or on foot, or drive by themselves, and more money as compared to the youth, to be able to afford public means of transport. They usually stay at hostels.

How do students often travel abroad?

Students often travel abroad by bicycle or on foot, hitchhiking, whenever possible. They stay in Youth Hostels.

Why is it easy to reach the continent of Europe from England?

It is easy to reach the continent of Europe from England because English is a part of West Europe and it is not expensive to cross the English Channel either by sea or by air. Therefore, every year, a large number of English people spend their summer holidays on the continent of Europe.


Composition

Write one paragraph in answer to each of the following questions:

  1. Suggest a possible route for Roger’s and Sheila’s journey back from Capri to London.
  2. If you had to travel from your own home to London, by which route would you prefer to go?
  3. Describe any long journey you have undertaken by train or by car.

1. In my suggestion, a possible route for Roger’s and Sheila’s journey back from Capri to London would be: They may cross Naples and travel north-wards to reach Venice via Rome and Florence. From Venice, they will head towards Basel, crossing Innsbruck in Austria. Travelling towards Basel, along with the River Rhine, they will reach Luxembourg via Koblenz. Next, they would take a turn towards Brussels. And continue their journey turning towards the west to reach London via Dunkirk and Dover.

2. Since I live in Karachi, I would fly to London from Karachi Airport. Since I have heard from my father that the services offered by Qatar Airlines are the best of all, so I’d prefer that over others, because I cannot compromise on my comfort. I’d prefer a connecting flight via Doha because I like to explore new places while travelling.

3. During the last summer holidays, I got the opportunity to visit Bahawalpur with our family friends’ hometown in Bahawalpur. On my insistence, we opted to travel by car. My father and elder brother drove the car alternatively for twelve long hours. I was amazed to see that my uncle had his car’s tank filled with the maximum fuel twice, and the journey wouldn’t end. My legs were sore, and I also had a terrible headache. We stopped by at Sial Service station on Motorway for a cup of coffee, and later, at Multan. From there, we bought the mouthwatering famous sweet Sohan Halwa, which is the sociality of the city of saints. Two hours later, we reached Bahawalpur to find that there was a huge traffic jam because of the train passing by. After having waited for around forty-five minutes, we crossed the railway track and reached uncle’s place in Bhawalpur Cantonment within half an hour. This journey from Islamabad to Bahawalpur turned out to be the longest journey I had ever had until we moved to Karachi. Although it was a tiresome journey, but having a long journey by car with an extremely jovial company was a memorable experience in itself.


Change the following sentences in the same way:

1. Is she shy? She hasn’t anything to say.
2. There isn’t anywhere to go at week-ends.
3. They don’t ever have a holiday in July.
4. Hasn’t anybody seen my son? I can’t find him.
5. As far as I’m concerned, I haven’t ever had such a pleasant voyage.
6. As long as it’s raining, we can’t either go for a swim or play tennis.
7. There isn’t anyone who can help me now.
8. I don’t like either tea or coffee. The only thing I drink is milk.
9. I haven’t got anything to do this morning. Shall we go for a walk?
10. We usually haven’t any money towards the end of the month.
11. There aren’t any good films on at the cinema this week.
12. The servant doesn’t ever empty the ashtrays properly.
13. Don’t you ever do any work?
14. I can’t do anything until I hear from you.
15. Since he lost his job, he hasn’t done anything or been anywhere.
16. Didn’t anybody call in my absence?
17. The company won’t either increase wages or reduce working hours.
18. It isn’t any good complaining; that won’t get you anywhere.
19. Hasn’t anyone got any bright ideas?
20. It isn’t any use crying over spilt milk.

Answer:
1. Is she shy? She has nothing to say.
2. There is nowhere to go at weekends.
3. They have never had a holiday in July.
4. Has nobody seen my son? I can’t find him.
5. As far as I’m concerned, I have never had such a pleasant voyage.
6. As long as it’s raining, we can neither go for a swim nor play tennis.
7. There is no one who can help me now.
8. I neither like tea nor coffee. The only thing I drink is milk.
9. I have not got anything to do this morning. Shall we go for a walk?
10. We usually do not have any money towards the end of the month.
11. There are no good films on at the cinema this week.
12. The servant has never emptied the ashtrays properly.
13. Do you never do any work?
14. I can do nothing until I hear from you.
15. Since he lost his job, he has neither done anything nor been anywhere.
16. Did nobody call in my absence?
17. The company will neither increase wages nor reduce working hours.
18. It is no good complaining; that won’t get you anywhere.
19. Has no one got any bright ideas?
20. It is no use crying over spilt milk.


Make the following sentences negative in the same way:

1. There is somebody waiting for you in the office.
2. I need someone to type these letters.
3. We can go out somewhere after dinner.
4. The cashier will give you some money.
5. He says he’s going away somewhere for his holidays.
6. I’ve something very important to tell you.
7. She bought some new dresses yesterday.
8. They promised to bring some more.
9. I must tell somebody about this.
10. The police will manage to solve the problem in some way.
11. They’re spending the summer somewhere in Scotland.
12. The firm has sent somebody to be its sales representative in Ireland.
13. I should like to have someone else working for me.
14. After this he’s going to write something else.
15. I think the train stops somewhere else.
16. The garden needs some more water.
17. There is something else I want to tell you.
18. He gave his little daughter some money to spend.
19. She ought to have gone out somewhere.
20. I’m looking for someone to fill a post as secretary.

Answer:
1. There isn’t anybody waiting for you in the office.
2. I don’t need anyone to type these letters.
3. We can’t go out anywhere after dinner.
4. The cashier won’t give you any money.
5. He says he isn’t going away anywhere for his holidays.
6. I don’t have anything very important to tell you.
7. She did not buy any new dresses yesterday.
8. They didn’t promise to bring any more.
9. I mustn’t tell anybody about this.
10. The police won’t manage to solve the problem in any way.
11. They aren’t spending the summer anywhere in Scotland.
12. The firm hasn’t sent anybody to be its sales representative in Ireland.
13. I shouldn’t like to have someone else working for me.
14. After this, he isn’t going to write something else.
15. I think the train doesn’t stop anywhere else.
16. The garden doesn’t need any more water.
17. There isn’t anything else I want to tell you.
18. He didn’t give his little daughter any money to spend.
19. She oughtn’t to have gone out somewhere.
20. I ain’t looking for anyone to fill a post as secretary.


Restate the following sentences, omitting the prepositions ‘to’ and

1. They gave a watch to their son on his birthday.
2. Can you get a copy of today’s Times for me, please?
3. The host offered a drink to everybody.
4. She always tells the latest gossip to her friends.
5. Our father promised the money to me, not to you.
6. Please send the books to me quickly. I have nothing to.
7. Have you shown these old photographs to your parents?
8. Please bring the newspaper to me.
9.  I’ve lent the garden hose to our neighbour.
10. I’m sorry I’m late. Have you left any cake for me?
11. Yes, we saved a little piece for you.
12.  As a matter of fact, I was choosing a present for Margaret.
13. Were you? Did you buy a bracelet for her? I know she wants one.
14. Yes, that’s right. I’ve ordered a special one for her.
15. Good. When will you give the bracelet to her?
16. The Commanding Officer refused all leave for his men.
17. If you can’t tell the truth to everybody, at least tell the truth to me.
18. A distinguished Old Boy has given a lot of books to the school library.
19. The waiter brought the tea to us in the dining-room.
20. If we offer this job to the secretary, will she accept it?

Answer:
1. They gave their son a watch.
2. Can you get me a copy of today’s Times, please?
3. The host offered everybody a drink.
4. She always tells her friends the latest gossip.
5. Our father promised me the money, not you.
6. Please send me the books quickly. I haven’t got anything.
7. Have you shown your parents these old photographs?
8. Please bring me the newspaper.
9.  I’ve lent our neighbour the garden hose.
10. I’m sorry I’m late. Have you left me any cake?
11. Yes, we saved you a little piece.
12.  As a matter of fact, I was choosing Margaret a present.
13. Were you? Did you buy her a bracelet? I know she wants one.
14. Yes, that’s right. I’ve ordered her a special one.
15. Good. When will you give her the bracelet?
16. The Commanding Officer refused his men all leave.
17. If you can’t tell everybody the truth, at least tell me the truth.
18. A distinguished Old Boy has given the school library a lot of books.
19. The waiter brought us the tea in the dining-room.
20. If we offer the secretary this job, will she accept it?


Add a suitable adverb of frequency to the following sentences:
Choose the adverbs from this list;

always, ever, frequently, generally, hardly ever, never, occasionally, often, rarely, regularly, scarcely ever, seldom, sometimes, usually.

1. He goes fishing on his summer holidays.
2. I go to the cinema in summer.
3. We play tennis on Saturdays.
4. Do you go for a walk in the afternoon?
5. No, I stay at home.
6. They had been to the French Rivers before the war.
7. Did you write home when you were away?
8. They can find time to do their homework.
9. Will he learn anything useful, I wonder?
10. They are making fun of me, and I can’t stand it.

Answer:
1. He always goes fishing on his summer holidays.
2.  I often go to the cinema in summer.
3. We usually play tennis on Saturdays.
4. Do you always go for a walk in the afternoon?
5. No, I often stay at home.
6. They had never been to the French Rivers before the war.
7. Did you ever write home when you were away?
8. They can hardly ever find time to do their homework.
9. Will, he ever learn anything useful, I wonder?
10. They are always making fun of me, and I can’t stand it.


Put the adverbs and adverbial phrases in the right positions, not omitting any:

1. She speaks Spanish (fluently).
2. She speaks Spanish (rarely).
3. This train arrives (very late, often).
4. We go to the cinema (in summer, seldom).
5. He leaves work (on Saturdays, in the morning, at ten o’clock).
6. I smoke (after dinner, generally, only).
7. My brother acted ‘Hamlet’ (last week, very well, at school).
8. We are going (tomorrow, to Scotland, by train).
9. A baby cries (bitterly, sometimes).
10. He played (in the tournament, last month, splendidly).
11. A teacher has to work (all day, quite hard, in school).
12. This bus is (on Sundays, late, always).
13. The River Thames overflows (in winter, occasionally).
14. One author I know writes (indoors, never).
15. She plays tennis (usually, on hard courts, better).
16. She sings (on the radio, sometimes).
17. The company intends to build a factory and a block of offices (shortly, in the suburbs, also).
18. He was hit (in the struggle, repeatedly, on the head).
19. He died (on Tuesday. 12th May. suddenly, at home).
20. He was admired as an author (in his lifetime, much, never).

Answer:
1. She speaks Spanish fluently.
2. She rarely speaks Spanish.
3. This train often arrives very late.
4. We seldom go to the cinema in summer.
5. He leaves work at ten o’clock in the morning on Saturdays.
6. I generally smoke after dinner only.
7. My brother acted ‘Hamlet’ very well at school last week.
8. We are going to Scotland by train tomorrow.
9. Sometimes a baby cries bitterly.
10. He played splendidly in the tournament last month.
11. A teacher has to work quite hard in school all day.
12. This bus is always late on Sundays.
13. The River Thames overflows occasionally in winter.
14. One author I know never writes indoors.
15. She usually plays tennis better on hard courts.
16. Sometimes, she sings on the radio.
17. The company intends to build a factory in the suburbs and a block of offices also shortly.
18. In the struggle, he was hit on the head repeatedly.
19. On Tuesday, 12th May, he died at home, suddenly.
20. He was never admired much as an author in his lifetime.


Change the following sentences in the same way :

1. The ship had hardly left port when it ran into a storm.
2. I would never have believed it.
3. Honest people rarely tell lies.
4. The government will not break its solemn promise on any account.
5. We had hardly reached the front gate when a taxi appeared.
6. The engine cannot be repaired in any other way.
7. The lake hardly ever rises above the level of the dam.
8.  He little realized that it was such a serious matter.
9. The South Pole had seldom been reached, even by aeroplane, until 1958.
10. The government not only increased income-tax, but it also imposed a new tax on luxury articles.
11. There isn’t a good bookshop anywhere in this town.
12. The play had no sooner started than the lights failed.
13. The class will not begin until everyone is silent.
14. The minister won’t sign this document on any account.
15. I don’t like apricots, and she doesn’t either.
16. I swear that there has never been such a wonderful game of cricket before.
17. She no sooner entered the room than everyone stopped talking.
18. The committee will not agree to that under any circumstances.
19. We hardly ever see horses in the centre of London nowadays.
20. I haven’t any money and he hasn’t either.

Answer:
1. Hardly had the ship left the port when it ran into a storm.
2. Never would I ever have believed it.
3. Honest people hardly ever tell lies.
4. On no account will the government break its solemn promise.
5. Hardly had we reached the front gate when a taxi appeared.
6. In no way can the engine be repaired.
7. Hardly does the lake ever rise above the level of the dam.
8.  Little had he realized that it was such a serious matter.
9. Until 1958, seldom had the South Pole been reached, even by aeroplane.
10. Not only has the government increased income-tax, but also imposed a new tax on luxury articles.
11. No good bookshop is there in this town.
12. No sooner than the lights failed had the play started.
13. Until everyone is silent, the class will not begin.
14. The minister won’t sign this document on any account.
15. Neither does she like apricots nor I.
16. Never has been such a wonderful game of cricket I swear.
17. Everyone stopped talking no sooner than she entered the room.
18. Under no circumstances will the committee not agree to that.
19. Hardly do we ever see horses in the centre of London nowadays.
20. Neither has he ever had any money nor I. 


Join the following pairs of sentences together in the same way:

1. He had spent a lot of time on the report. He refused to change it.
2. The valley was flooded. All the roads across it were impassable.
3. He found the office closed. He went away.
4. The car had broken down. They had to finish the journey on foot.
5. They left London by the Dover Road. In two hours they arrived at the coast.
6. The door was half open. He could hear everything they said.
7. We had no news of her for a week, so we went to see whether she was ill.
8. The chair had a broken leg. It collapsed as soon as he sat down.
9. The weather was fine on Sunday. They went for a picnic.
10. He had written ten novels in five years. He decided to give up writing.
11. The piano was out of tune. He refused to give the concert.
12. He had already paid the bill. He was most annoyed to receive another demand.
13. He is a rich man. He can afford to give money in charity.
14. He had planned his holiday in advance. He was very disappointed when he couldn’t go.
15. The clock struck twelve. Cinderella was obliged to leave the ball.
16. The champion disagreed with the umpire over the last game. He refused to take any further part in the tournament.
17. The examination finished on 30th June. The boys began their holidays.
18. He had passed the examination. He took no more interest in the subject.
19. He heard a knock at the door and went to see who was there.
20. When the Treaty of Vienna had been signed, the Allied armies dispersed.

Answer:
1. Having spent a lot of time on the report, he refused to change it.
2. The valley being flooded, all the roads across it were impassable.
3. Finding the office closed, he went away.
4. Having the car broken down, they had to finish the journey on foot.
5. Having arrived at the coast in two hours, they left London by the Dover Road.
6. The door being half-open, he could hear everything they said.
7. Having no news of her for a week, we went to see whether she was ill.
8. Having a broken leg, the chair collapsed as soon as he sat down.
9. The weather being fine on Sunday, they went for a picnic.
10. Having written ten novels in five years, he decided to give up writing.
11. The piano being out of tune, he refused to give the concert.
12. Having the bill paid already, he was most annoyed to receive another demand.
13. Being a rich man, he can afford to give money in charity.
14. Having planned his holiday in advance, he was very disappointed when he couldn’t go.
15. Having the clock struck twelve; Cinderella was obliged to leave the ball.
16. Having the champion disagree with the umpire over the last game, he refused to take any further part in the tournament.
17. Having the examination on 30th June, the boys began their holidays.
18. Having passed the examination, he took no more interest in the subject.
19. Having heard a knock at the door, he went to see who was there.
20. Having the Treaty of Vienna signed, the Allied armies dispersed.


Combine the following pairs of sentences in the same way:

1. He wore a dirty sweater. It was covered with mud.
2. She stared at the child. His appearance fascinated her.
3. This is a silly mistake. Good pupils always avoid it.
4. The hotel stands by the side of a lake. It is built of stone.
5. This is a very old ring. It was given to my grandmother on her twenty-first birthday.
6. The new pictures in the gallery are too modem for my taste. They were presented by an American millionaire.
7. His sons have had very successful careers. They were educated at Eton and Oxford.
8. The liner Queen Mary sailed from Southampton this morning. It is bound for New York.
9. St. Paul’s Cathedral stands in the heart of London. It was designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
10. My favourite book as a child was Robinson Crusoe. It was written by Daniel Defoe.
11. The wedding-cake looks absolutely lovely. It is decorated with silver horse-shoes.
12. The palace has a large garden, with an ornamental lake. The garden is surrounded by a high wall.
13. The sergeant has on his tunic, two rows of decorations. They were awarded for bravery and for service in several different campaigns.
14. The wreckage of the aeroplane could be seen from the top of the hill. It was scattered over a wide area.
15. I have an edition of The Canterbury Tales which is rather rare. It is illustrated by an eighteenth-century artist.

Answer:
1. He wore a dirty sweater covered with mud.
2. Fascinated by his appearance, she stared at the child.
3. Good pupils always avoid this silly mistake.
4. The hotel, built of stone, stands by the side of a lake.
5. This old ring was given to my grandmother on her twenty-first birthday.
6. The new pictures in the gallery, presented by an American millionaire, are too modem for my taste.
7. Educated at Eton and Oxford, his sons have had very successful careers.
8. The liner Queen Mary, bound for New York, sailed from Southampton this morning.
9. St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, stands in the heart of London.
10. Robinson Crusoe, written by Daniel Defoe, was my favourite book as a child was.
11. The wedding- cake, decorated with silver horse – shoes, looks absolutely lovely.
12. The palace has a large garden surrounded by a high wall, with an ornamental lake.
13. The sergeant has two rows of decorations on his tunic, awarded for bravery and
service in several different campaigns.
14. The wreckage of the aeroplane, scattered over a wide area, could be seen from the top of the hill.
15. I have a rare edition of The Canterbury Tales, illustrated by an eighteenth-century artist.

Read more:


Combine each of the following groups of sentences into one long sentence. You may add suitable words and make any other changes necessary.

1. We have just bought a new house. It is in the suburbs. I am delighted with it.
2. Telephone Mr. Smith. Make an appointment for me. I want to see him next week.
3. The doctor told him to stop smoking. He ignored the advice. His heart attacks grew worse.
4. The road was slippery. The car overturned. It had five passengers in it. Two of them were hurt.
5. Dick fell off his bicycle. The pedal broke. He was just getting on.
6. I went to the public library. I couldn’t find the book I wanted. I wanted an English dictionary.
7. The house caught fire. A passer-by called the fire-brigade. It put the fire out quickly. Little damage was done.
8. He has never seen snow. He is fifteen years old. He was born and brought up in Karachi. It never snows there.
9. He retired at the age of fifty. He started to travel around the world. He got tired of traveling. He returned after six months. He settled down in London.
10. The boat with the blue sails overturned. Both members of the crew were thrown into the water. One was a woman.

Answer:
1. I am delighted with the new house that we have bought in the suburbs.
2. Telephone Mr. Smith to make an appointment, as I want to see him next week.
3. He ignored the advice of the doctor, who had told him to stop smoking and his heart attacks grew worse.
4. Due to the slippery road, the car having five passengers overturned, two of whom were hurt.
5. Dick fell off his bicycle as the pedal broke while he was just getting on.
6. Since I couldn’t find the English dictionary that I wanted, I went to the public library.
7. When the house caught fire, a passer-by called the fire-brigade, which put the fire out quickly that only a little damage was done.
8. He is fifteen years old, yet he has never seen snow because he was born and brought up in Karachi and it never snows there.
9. He retired at the age of fifty, and started to travel around the world, however, he returned after six months and settled down in London once he got tired of traveling.
10. As the boat with the blue sails overturned, both members of the crew, one of whom was a woman, were thrown into the water.