English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 2 Birkenhead Drill Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers and Past Papers for Class 11th.
Birkenhead Drill Class 11 English Notes Sindh Board Chapter 2
Were the troops on board the Birkenhead experienced, and used to facing danger? How do we know that they behaved with gallantry and discipline up to the very last?
No, the troops on board the Birkenhead were inexperienced, and were not used to facing danger, for most of them had recently joined the army. However, we come to know about gallantry and discipline up to the very last through the report by one of the officers who was rescued. After the boats sailed away, the soldiers stood at attention in their uniforms, as if it were their daily practice. They drowned into the waters as the ship sank. In this way, they sacrificed their lives with patience and bravery, in order to give a chance of survival to the weaker ones.
Describe one heroic action that took place after the Birkenhead went down.
After the Birkenhead went down, the commander of the troops, who was hanging on to some wreckage saw two young sailors struggling for their lives in the water. Seeing them drown, he pushed the wreckage towards them, and all three of them held on to it. The commander realized at once that the wreckage was not strong enough to support all three of them, so he released the wreckage, and sank into the sea. In this way, he performed a heroic action by choosing to sacrifice his life for the sake of the two young sailors.
Were many of the men rescued who remained on the sinking ship? How did the survivors among those left on the ship manage to save themselves?
No, many of the men who remained on the sinking ship were not rescued. Four hundred and thirty men went down into the river. The survivors among those who left on the ship managed to save themselves by holding on to the pieces of the wreckage until a rescue team arrived on the scene and picked them up.
Describe the behavior of the soldiers while the women and children escaped in the boats.
While the women and children escaped in the boats, the soldiers stood on the deck, line upon line, and waited patiently for their turns in the order of their ranks. When only the women and children filled the boats, only a little room was left for others, which was occupied by a few men. After the boats sailed away, the soldiers stood at attention in their uniforms, as if it was their daily practice. In this way, the soldiers displayed their discipline and devotion towards their duty of the protection of their countrymen.
What would probably have happened had there been a panic?
Had there been a panic, men and women would have all been crushed under each other’s feet while struggling to get into the life-boats. In their wild efforts to make their way to the boats, they would have pushed one another into the sea. The boats would have been over-loaded and sunk under the pressure of their weight. As a result, the strongest would have survived while the weakest, such as women, children, and old people would have been left to their fate.
Was there enough room in the lifeboats for all the women and children onboard?
No, there was not enough room in the lifeboats for all women and children on the boat. After the collision of the ship took place, only three boats were left in a useful condition, each of which could accommodate only sixty passengers. In this way, only one hundred and eighty people could find a home in these boats, as opposed to the six hundred and thirty people, who needed to be saved.
Why was there lifeboat accommodation for only 180 people after the collision with the rock?
The lifeboat accommodation after the collision was only for 180 people because most of the lifeboats were either damaged or destroyed when the ship struck against the rock. Only three of these boats were in a useful condition.
How did the Birkenhead come to be wrecked? Was any member of her crew to blame?
The Birkenhead came to be wrecked as it struck a hidden rock forty miles off Cape Town in South Africa and was wrecked on it. No member of her crew was to be blamed because the hidden rock was not shown in any of the maps of the sea. It was unknown and undiscovered, so none of them was aware of the presence of this dangerous rock, hidden under the sea.
What kinds of people were being carried as passengers on the Birkenhead?
British soldiers and their families were being carried as passengers on the Birkenhead, which was a troopship. Most of them were young and inexperienced.
When and where did the Birkenhead sink?
The Birkenhead sank on 25th February 1851, sixty-four miles away from Cape Town in South Africa at two o’ clock in the early morning.
Write between 250 to 300 words on one of the following topics :
- The value of discipline.
- A true story of heroic behavior.
The Value of Discipline
Discipline is one of the most important virtues for leading a successful life. Discipline refers to the observance of the code of conduct recognized by society. It brings orderliness to our lives. Life without discipline is as directionless as a ship without a rudder. Therefore, discipline is absolutely essential for attaining success in our lives.
Nature exhibits discipline in its ideal form. The earth and the moon revolve around the sun in a disciplined way. As a result, night and day recur after twelve hours and we experience the cycle of seasons on the earth and the entire universe, including the earth, sun, moon, and other planets are governed by certain laws that maintain harmony in nature. Any deviation from these set rules may spell an utter disaster in nature.
Discipline is essential for us at all the stages of life and needs to be used on others where necessary. A family having no discipline becomes a den of quarrels and is ultimately divided. Therefore, parents must bring up their children in a disciplined way so that they would develop balanced personalities and emerge as responsible citizens of the country. Similarly, an educational institution having no discipline cannot impart value based education. Without discipline in the classroom, there would be a great deal of disruption and the teaching and learning process would be badly affected. Therefore, discipline is a valuable asset at all levels of society.
Another form of discipline is self-discipline, which lies in controlling our unruly desires. It can mean very different things to different people. For students, self-discipline is often about motivating themselves, concentrating on their studies and completing their assignments on time, whereas for working people, it can be being punctual and meeting deadlines of the tasks assigned to them. Without self-discipline, people can neither enjoy academic success nor enjoy a successful career.
The strength of a nation lies in discipline. No nation can progress unless its citizens are disciplined. Citizens of a disciplined nation work in a spirit of co-operation and unity. If a country is suffering from internal discord: lack of unity and moral values among the citizens, its integrity is threatened.
Discipline provides mental strength to a person which enables him to discriminate good from the bad and defend the right against wrong. It is the backbone of a successful nation. Lack of discipline in society would lead to a lack of harmony, and consequently our lives would be dominated by indiscipline and chaos. As a result, individuals and society both will be in jeopardy.
A Story of Heroic Behavior
It is rare that a person accomplishes so much in a single lifetime that it impacts the entire nation. Only the rare people who are endowed with special abilities by God Almighty exhibit such heroic traits which enable them to devote their lives for the welfare of mankind. What sets them apart from the rest of the people is that their personalities are dominated by the traits of being courageous, virtuous, dedication, sacrifice, determination and loyalty among many others. Acts of the heroism of many such heroes of the 1965 war have been recorded in the history of Pakistan. One such name is that of Major Raja Abdul Aziz Bhatti Shaheed, who fought tirelessly in the defense of the country till he shed the last drop of his blood.
When the war of 1965 war broke out, Major Bhatti was a staff officer in Pakistan army. He had been commissioned into the Pakistan army in 1950 to the Punjab Regiment. Being posted in the Burki area of Lahore, Major Aziz Bhatti had a huge responsibility of securing Lahore, which was the most important border city of the country on his shoulders.
Indian tanks and artillery continued to fire but this brave man was unstoppable. In spite of continuous shelling from the Indian front, Major Aziz Bhatti decided to move his troops forward. Major Bhatti resisted the Indian army continuously for five days and five nights without sleeping for a moment. He was stationed at one of the most strategic outposts of Lahore, defending the Bambawali-Ravi-Bedian canal, situated along the east side of the city of Lahore.
Despite the threat, Major Raja Aziz Bhatti remained on the front while leading his troops and them informed them about the moves of the enemy. For this purpose, he had to place himself on a higher position as the enemy tanks and artillery continued firing. Unfortunately, he was exposed to the firing of the enemy and although he tried his best to counter Indian moves, he was hit by an enemy shell in the chest and embraced martyrdom.
Before getting martyred, Major Aziz Bhatti Shaheed was given a message that he needed to get some rest and that, his replacement was going to arrive soon but he responded, “Do not recall me. I don’t want to go back. I will shed the last drop of my blood in the defense of my dear homeland”.
The heroic deeds of such people endowed with exceptional intellectual abilities and the sacrifices made by them can never be overlooked. To honor his services in the 1965 war, Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed was awarded the highest military award of Pakistan i.e. Nishan-e-Haider. He is buried at his local village Ladian in Punjab.
Put the verb in brackets into the correct form of the Present Tense (Simple or Progressive):
1. She always (take) her pet dog for a walk before breakfast.
2. A single scene in a film often (cost) thousands of pounds.
3. I rarely (wear) a tie in summer, but I (wear) one now.
4. Don’t talk to me now; can’t you see that I (work)?
5. We (do) this exercise now. We (do) two exercises every lesson.
6. George (smoke) a cigarette. He (smoke) twenty cigarettes a day.
7. I usually (take) the bus to the office, but today I (go) by train.
8. Look! That man (wave) a red flag.
9. Come in! I (have) a cup of tea. I usually (have) one about this time.
10. That car (go) much too fast. There will be an accident in a minute.
11. Don’t interrupt your father. He (read).
12. The earth (go) round the sun and the moon (go) round the earth.
13. What you (do) in the evenings? I generally (knit) or (sew), but tonight I (look) at the television.
14. She (speak) French better than English.
15. Don’t go away! I (speak) to you.
16. He must be ill. He (grow) thinner and thinner all the time.
17. What you (do)? I (stick) the two halves of this plate together.
18. What you (do) for a living? I (work) in a factory.
19. The postman (walk) up the garden path. He (come) twice a day.
20. Who (make) that terrible noise?
1. She always takes her pet dog for a walk before breakfast.
2. A single scene in a film often costs thousands of pounds.
3. I rarely wear a tie in summer, but I am wearing one now.
4. Don’t talk to me now; can’t you see that I am working?
5. We are doing this exercise now. We do two exercises every lesson.
6. George is smoking a cigarette. He smokes twenty cigarettes a day.
7. I usually take the bus to the office, but today I am going by train.
8. Look! That man is waving a red flag.
9. Come in! I am having a cup of tea. I usually have one about this time.
10. That car is going much too fast. There will be an accident in a minute.
11. Don’t interrupt your father. He is reading.
12. The earth goes around the sun and the moon goes around the earth.
13. What have you been doing in the evenings? I generally knit or sew, but tonight I am looking at the television. (Note: Mistake in the book – Correct statement: What you (do) in the evenings? I generally (knit) or (sew), but tonight I (watch) the television. In this case, the answer would be: What have you been doing in the evenings? I generally knit or sew, but tonight I am watching the television.)
14. She speaks French better than English.
15. Don’t go away! I am speaking to you.
16. He must be ill. He is growing thinner and thinner all the time.
17. What are you doing? I am sticking the two halves of this plate together.
18. What have you been doing for a living? I have been working in a factory.
19. The postman is walking up the garden path. He comes twice a day.
20. Who is making that terrible noise?
Restate the following sentences in the Present Perfect Tense. Omit the words in italics and insert the words in brackets:
I visited Calcutta six times between 1990 and 1995. (often)
I have often visited Calcutta.
1. Mary visited Egypt on her honeymoon. (twice)
2. I didn’t see a crocodile when I was in Africa. (never)
3. We didn’t learn Russian at school. (never)
4. They ran over a dog on the way here. (just).
5. She had hysterics last night. (several times recently)
6. What did you do to the baby an hour ago? (just)
7. He had many different jobs before the war. (since the war)
8. Did you enjoy your holiday last year? (this year)
9. He spent his whole life, until the age of eighty, collecting butterflies. (until now)
10. He smoked fifty cigarettes yesterday. (since breakfast)
11. The guests broke a dozen glasses at the party. (since they came)
12. My chauffeur had a serious accident a fortnight ago. (only once)
13. Three weeks ago he went home on leave. (just)
14. Did she have many presents for her birthday on April 1st? (today)
15. They got married last Sunday. (just)
16. Our son won two prizes at school last term. (this term)
17. That novel sold fifty thousand copies last year. (this year)
18. He lived in Morocco from 1969 to 1997. (for the last ten years)
19. Two aeroplanes crashed in the fog yesterday. (since this morning)
20. Millions of men served in the army during the war. (at some time in their lives)
1. Mary has visited Egypt twice.
2. I have never seen a crocodile when I was in Africa.
3. We have never learnt Russian at school.
4. They have run over a dog just here. (Note: Mistake in the book – Only here should be
in italics. Correct sentence: They ran over a dog on the way here.)
5. She has had hysterics several times recently.
6. What have you just done to the baby?
7. He has had many different jobs since the war.
8. Have you enjoyed your holiday this year?
9. He has spent his whole life, until now, collecting butterflies.
10. He has smoked fifty cigarettes since breakfast.
11. The guests have broken a dozen glasses since they came.
12. My chauffeur has had a serious accident only once.
13. He has just gone home on leave.
14. Has she had many presents for her birthday today?
15. They have just got married.
16. Our son has won two prizes at school this term.
17. That novel has sold fifty thousand copies this year.
18. He has lived in Morocco for the last ten years.
19. Two airplanes have crashed in the fog since this morning. (Note: Mistake in the book – Two aeroplanes crashed in the fog yesterday.
20. Millions of men have served in the army at some time in their lives.
Change the following sentences, which now refer to the future, so that they refer to the immediate past. Use ‘just’ and ‘only just’ with the Present Perfect Make the necessary omissions.
I’m going to have a driving lesson tomorrow.
I’ve just had a driving lesson.
1. I’m going to take my driving test next month.
2. We shall have a storm soon.
3. The fireworks will start at midnight.
4. They will arrive before lunch.
5. The children are going to visit the museum this afternoon.
6. She’s going to ring me up at ten thirty.
7. The examination will finish in ten minutes time.
8. The police are going to investigate the crime.
9. I shall have tea at my mother-in-law’s.
10. We shall arrive not later than seven o’ clock.
11. You can’t leave now. The lions and tigers will appear in a minute.
12. A variety programme is just about to start on the wireless.
13. She’s going to iron her new dress.
14. The baby is about to fall out of its cradle.
15. They are getting married this afternoon.
16. Where will you spend your holidays?
17. My old dog is going to die very soon.
18. I shall celebrate my thirtieth birthday on April 1st.
19. Who will help you do your homework?
20. Someone will slip and break his ankle on this floor.
21. We shall hang the curtains next week.
22. Mrs. Brown is coming to tea and will tell me all the latest news.
23. I shall buy a typewriter before the end of the month.
24. The last bus leaves in five minutes, and the trams stop running too.
25. His secretary is on the point of becoming ill through overwork.
1. I have just gone to take my driving test.
2. We have just had a storm.
3. The fireworks have just only started.
4. They have just arrived.
5. The children have just gone to visit the museum.
6. She’s just gone to ring me up.
7. The examination has just finished.
8. The police has just gone to investigate the crime.
9. I have just had tea at my mother-in-law’s.
10. We have just arrived.
11. You have just left. The lions and tigers have just appeared.
12. A variety programme has been just started on the wireless. (Note: Mistake in the
book. Correct Statement – A new variety of programmes is just about to start on the wireless. In this case, the answer would be: A new variety of programmes has been just started on the wireless).
13. She’s has just ironed her new dress.
14. The baby has just fell out of its cradle.
15. They have just got married.
16. Where have you just spent your holidays?
17. My old dog has just died.
18. I have just celebrated my thirtieth birthday.
19. Who has just helped you do your homework?
20. Someone has just slipped and broke his ankle on this floor.
21. We have just hanged the curtains.
22. Mrs. Brown has just come to tea and has told all the latest news.
23. I have just bought a typewriter.
24. The last bus has just only left, and the trams have stopped running too.
25. His secretary has just become ill through overwork.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Present Perfect (Simple or Progressive):
1. We (drive) for two hours and (not pass) a single petrol station.
2. I (study) Russian for four years, but I can’t speak it yet.
3. She (not call) to collect her wages for three weeks.
4. I (wait) here for an hour, but my friend (not come) yet.
5. What on earth are you doing ? I (never see) such a mess in my life!
6. We (stand) on the platform since lunch-time and the train (not arrive).
7. That child is going to be ill. He (eat) ever since he sat down.
8. The doctor (advise) me for months to give up smoking, but I can’t stop.
9. Although he (travel) all his life, he (never be) to this part of Asia.
10. My boss (work) so hard all this week that he (not have) time to see me.
11. That telephone (ring) for ages. Why don’t you answer it ?
12. ‘What you (do) all the morning ?’ ‘I (sleep)’.
13. I’m afraid I (spend) all my money.’ ‘Why, what you (do) ? ‘I (buy) presents to take home, and I (not finish) yet’.
14. Someone (disturb) the papers on my desk. I (look) for a particular letter for the last five minutes, and I can’t find it anywhere.
15. She (try) to find her missing pen for many days, but (not have) any success yet.
16. I (often buy) tickets in a lottery, but I (never win) a prize in my life.
17. ‘She (be) in hospital since June. Is she very ill?’ ‘I doubt it. She says she (enjoy) herself.’
18. The stove (go) wrong. I (ask) you to mend it for months.
19. Two men (wait) to see you for the last hour. They are still here.
20. I (sit) down for so long that I have cramp in my legs.
1. We have been driving for two hours and have not passed a single petrol station.
2. I have been studying Russian for four years, but I can’t speak it yet.
3. She is not being called to collect her wages for three weeks.
4. I have been waiting here for an hour, but my friend has not come yet.
5. What on earth are you doing? I have never seen such a mess in my life!
6. We have been standing on the platform since lunch-time and the train has not arrived.
7. That child is going to be ill. He has been eating ever since he sat down.
8. The doctor has been advising me for months to give up smoking, but I can’t stop.
9. Although he has been traveling all his life, he has never been to this part of Asia.
10. My boss has been working so hard all this week that he has not had time to see me.
11. That telephone has been ringing for ages. Why don’t you answer it?
12. ‘What have you been doing all the morning?’ ‘I have been sleeping‘.
13. ‘I’m afraid I have spent all my money.’ ‘Why, what have you done? ‘I have been buying presents to take home, and I am not finished yet’.
14. Someone has been disturbing the papers on my desk. I have been looking for particular letter for the last five minutes, and I can’t find it anywhere.
15. She has been trying to find her missing pen for many days, but has not had any success yet.
16. I have often bought tickets in a lottery, but I have never won a prize in my life.
17. ‘She has been in hospital since June. Is she very ill?’ ‘I doubt it. She says she has been enjoying herself.’
18. The stove has gone wrong. I have been asking you to mend it for months.
19. Two men have been waiting to see you for the last hour. They are still here.
20. I have been sitting down for so long that I have cramp in my legs now.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (Present Perfect or Simple Past):
1. He (have) five different jobs since he (leave) school.
2. Since his father’s death he (become) head of the firm.
3. I (go) to Switzerland two years ago, but I (not be) there since.
4. These six employees (be) absent from work since Christmas.
5. My sister (have) an accident two years ago and she (not drive) since.
6. Who (break) this window? It (be) all right an hour ago.
7. Since the earthquake more than a dozen houses (fall) down.
8. He (inherit) a fortune last year, since then he (not do) a stroke of work.
9. I (read) half a dozen books since Sunday.
10. Since he (be) in Africa, he (not have) good health.
11. Since last week’s rain the grass (become) wonderfully green.
12. Since I (buy) it I (have) more trouble with this car than it’s worth.
13. Several months ago he (win) a big prize in a lottery and he (not be) the same person since.
14. She (not have) a serious illness since she (be born).
15. Her employer (dismiss) her a year ago and she (do) nothing but complain ever since.
16. The tide (go out) half a kilometre since we (arrive).
17. Since we (finish) tea, the women (spend) all the time gossiping.
18. Since you (telephone), the party (end) and all the guests (go) home.
19. They (go) away by car three quarters of an hour ago.
20. I (see) this film twice since I (see) it with you last month.
1. He has had five different jobs since he left school.
2. Since his father’s death he has become head of the firm.
3. I have gone to Switzerland two years ago, but I have not been there since.
4. These six employees have been absent from work since Christmas.
5. My sister has just had an accident two years ago and she has not driven since.
6. Who has broken this window? It has been alright an hour ago. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct statement: Who (break) this window? It (be) alright an hour ago.)
7. Since the earthquake more than a dozen houses have just fallen down.
8. He inherited a fortune last year since then he has not done a stroke of work.
9. I have read half a dozen books since Sunday.
10. Since he has been in Africa, he has not had good health.
11. Since last week’s rain, the grass has become wonderfully green.
12. Since I bought it I have had more trouble with this car than it’s worth.
13. Several months ago he won a big prize in a lottery and he has not been the same person since.
14. She has had a serious illness since she was born.
15. Her employer dismissed her a year ago and she has done nothing but complain ever since.
16. The tide has gone out half a kilometre since we arrived.
17. Since we finished tea, the women have spent all the time gossiping.
18. Since you telephoned, the party has ended and all the guests have gone home.
19. They have gone away by car three quarters of an hour ago.
20. I have seen this film twice since I saw it with you last month.