English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 10 The English Language Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.
English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 10 The English Language
What is the origin of the word yacht?
“Yacht” is a Dutch word, which accounts for its uncommon spelling. It has been derived from a Dutch word for hunting. Moreover, yachts were also named on account of their speed. It was first given by the Dutch to King Charles II as a wedding gift in 1662.
Why does English have such a large vocabulary?
English has such a large vocabulary because it has borrowed several words from different languages, such as German, French, Latin, and Greek. However, the majority of English vocabulary is of Latin origin. As a result, there are numerous synonyms of a single word in the English language.
What kind of words in modern English is derived from Anglo-Saxon?
Most of the common words in modern English are Anglo-Saxon in origin. These include the nouns, such as father, mother, food, drink, bed, hunger, most of the prepositions and conjunctions and almost all of the strong verbs.
Why does language tend to change more rapidly in a primitive society than in an advanced one?
Language tends to change more rapidly in a primitive society than in an advanced society, because the invention of printing and the spread of education fix the traditional usage of words and phrases, causing the change in language to occur at a slow pace. Whereas in a primitive society, that is not the case, therefore language changes rapidly.
Why is English not spoken as a first language in parts of Wales and Scotland?
English is not spoken as a first language in different parts of Wales and Scotland because after conquering England, the Anglo-Saxon could not penetrate into the remote parts of Britain. As a result, the English language was never implanted in those parts.
Which other languages are spoken in Britain today?
Besides English, Welsh is spoken in Wales, whereas Gaelic in Scotland, and Erse in Ireland. In addition, the Celtic dialect of English was spoken in the south-west corner of England, but it became extinct two hundred years ago.
Which countries form part of the British Isles?
The countries, which form a part of the British Isles, are England, Wales, and Scotland.
What happened to the language as a result of the Norman Conquest?
As a result of the Norman Conquest, particularly the second one, which was by the French-speaking Normans from Normandy in France, Old English was greatly modified and over the course of next three centuries, it was transformed into a compound language called ‘Middle English’.
Why is Anglo-Saxon not like modern English?
Anglo-Saxon is not like modern English because Anglo Saxon is the English which was imported by the foreign Germanic invaders, which were the two tribes living in Northern Germany. One of these tribes was called the Angles, and other, the Saxons, both of whom spoke different dialects of the same language. English was further transformed by the two more foreign invasions made on British by the Normans from Denmark, or Vikings, and Normans from Normandy in France. As a result of these changes, Modern English developed over the centuries, which is completely different from the Anglo-Saxon English.
When was Anglo-Saxon spoken in England?
Anglo-Saxon was spoken in England from A.D. 450 to A.D. 1150. For this reason, it is called as the ‘Old English’ by English historians.
Write not more than 350 words on one of the following topics:
- The difficulties of English for those who speak your mother tongue.
- ‘English has long ceased to be the possession of the English race. It is now a world language.’ Discuss.
- The importance of English to scientists, engineers, doctors and members of other professions.
- Modern developments in Urdu language and literature.
Modern developments in Sindhi language and literature.
The Difficulties of English for those who Speak your Mother Tongue
(Mistake in the book: Correction: The Difficulties of English for those who Speak their Mother Tongue)
Mother tongue refers to the language that a human learns from birth to the age of nine months. It is a scientifically proven fact that a child learns his mother tongue through his interaction with the external environment, without any conscious effort on his part. Acquiring any other language, other than one’s native language or mother tongue, however, requires a conscious effort on part of the language learner. Speakers of other languages face many difficulties due to which they are not able to communicate effectively in the English language.
One of the most common problems that speakers of other languages find in speaking English language is that of pronunciation and spellings. Speakers of other languages find it difficult to speak the English language according to the standard rules of pronunciation. This problem occurs because all the sounds present in English may not be part of their mother tongue. Another reason behind this difficulty in communicating through the English language is the existence of idiosyncratic spellings in English. Idiosyncratic spellings refer to the spellings, which cannot be guessed on the basis of how they sound, which impedes the learning process. In addition, numerous words in the English language have the same spellings but either different pronunciation, or spellings. This also creates confusion among the non-native speakers of English language.
Making an appropriate choice of words, that is, vocabulary is another problem that learners of English as a second language encounter. English has an unusually large and varied number of words. English has a vast number of words. The difference of vocabulary choices in American and British English also makes it difficult for the language learners in acquiring more than one word, conveying the same meaning, for example, the word “flat” is used for a residential building in American English, whereas “apartment” is used in British English.
Another problematic area of the speakers of other languages is that of the use of appropriate tenses according to the context, that is, situation and period. One of the causes of this problem is that they try to acquire the English language by translating it into their native language, or mother tongue. Every language has underlying grammatical rules for the construction of sentences, but they are different from one language to another.
Lack of exposure and the fear of acquiring a new language is another difficulty, which is faced by the learners of English having a different mother tongue. Hesitation on part of the language users and lack of exposure also impedes the process of communication in the English language. This leads to a lack of fluency in speaking the English language on part of the language learners.
Acquiring any language other than the native language or mother tongue of a person requires a conscious effort on the learner’s part. The second language learners can overcome difficulties with pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammatical structures by understanding the dynamics of the English language. In addition, mother tongue interference, that is, the influence of the rules and sounds of the mother tongue of the users of English as a Second Language also impedes the process of learning English language. All these factors lead to the lack of fluency and accuracy on part of the language learners. Understanding the rules of English language and avoiding the translation into native language or mother tongue can make the process of acquiring the English language easier.
2. ‘English has long ceased to be the possession of the English race. It is now a world language.’ Discuss.
In the closing years of the twentieth century, the English language has become a global resource. As such it does not owe its existence or the protection of its essence to any nation or group.”
Tom McArthur – British Linguist
Language is the primary means of communication among the peoples of the world. Today, it is the world’s second largest native language, the official language in 70 countries, and English-speaking countries are responsible for about 40% of world’s total GNP. It is now almost impossible for us to communicate with other nations due to the versatility of languages, without ‘knowing’ a common world language. Over the course of time, the English language has earned the status of a global language and lingua franca, that is, universal language.
The universality of the English language has led to its acceptance as a global language. English language first began to spread during the 16th century with the British Empire and was strongly reinforced in the 20th century by the expansion of the British Empire because of its world domination in economic, political and military aspects as well as the influence of media. We are living in the era of world mass communication whereby the concept of English as a universal language for communication has become more significant. Before this era, Greek, Latin, and French were considered as the most common languages of communication, but mainly in Europe.
A global language arises mainly due to the political and economic power of its native speakers. It was British imperial and industrial power which propagated the influence and usage of English around the globe between the 17th and 20th Century. The legacy of British imperialism has left many counties with the language thoroughly institutionalized in their courts, parliament, civil service, schools, and higher education establishments. However, the role of English language among other world languages, and its functions have vastly changed. It is not only seen as the language of the most dominating “superpowers” of the world and an instrument of promoting British culture and values only, but also the language of international scholarship. English can be easily understood by the scholars and educated people almost everywhere. The mastery of English, thus, provides access to scientific, technological, and academic resources, which would otherwise be denied to the developing countries.
In other counties, English provides a common means of communication between different ethnic groups. It is the most widely used and understood the language of the world media, and entertainment, as well as the internet. In addition, American dominance and influence worldwide have made English crucially important for developing international markets, especially in the areas of tourism and advertising.
Today, English is considered as the global language and rightly so. Its worldwide reach is much greater than that any other language, including Latin or French, and there has never been a language as widely spoken as English. It is considered as one of the simplest and easiest natural languages in the world. Moreover, English is the language of international media and scholarship across the world. As a result of the economic and cultural supremacy of the English speaking countries, English language has consolidated the position of the global language and continues to maintain it today.
3. The Importance of English to Scientists, Engineers, Doctors, and Members of other Professions
English has earned the status of a global language and lingua franca, that is, universal language. Its worldwide reach is much greater than that any other language, including Latin or French, and there has never been a language as widely spoken as English. It is considered as one of the simplest and easiest natural languages in the world. English is the most commonly used language by the international business community, media, and scholarship across the world; therefore, it is equally important for people of all other professions.
Ability to communicate in English language is essential to the field of education today. The jargon or specialized vocabulary related to every profession, such as medicine, is primarily found to be in the English language; therefore, it facilitates accessing scientific information related to all the different fields of education. For this reason, even in countries where it is not an official language, such as the Netherlands or Sweden, we will find many syllabi in science and engineering are written in English. Teachers, students, as well as professionals in any field of education, need to access information related to their subject or area of interest from time to time. In addition, most of the scientific studies and researches in any scientific field are also found to have been written in the English language. Therefore, English is considered to be the most commonly used language accessing scientific sources relevant to an individual’s area of interest.
English is the language of international scholarship and technology throughout the world. Individuals seeking higher education need to be adept in the use of English language for communication. Technology enables people from different professions to communicate with the international community. In these days, the most important thing for professionals, as well as university students and graduates belonging to any field of education, such as, medicine, engineering, etc., is to keep themselves up-to-date in the recent developments in their profession, and the scope of their respective areas of interest. This can be achieved most conveniently by the use of technology, while English is considered as the language of technology.
English is the most commonly used language by people belonging to different professions throughout the world; it has become a tool for employability of people belonging to different professions, such as engineers, teachers, doctors etc. Being able to communicate effectively in the English language increases a candidate’s chances for getting a quality job, on national as well as international level. For instance, English is the most commonly used language by the people belonging to different professions, such as engineers, and business professionals. In addition to this, high-quality jobs require the ability to understand and speak fluently in the English language.
In today’s global world, the importance of English language cannot be denied since English is the most commonly spoken language everywhere. It is not only the language of the international business community but also the language of international scholarship as well as the most commonly used language for communication across different countries. Therefore, the pressing need of scientists, engineers, doctors and members of other professions for the English language led to the development of English for Specific Purposes, such as medicine; nurses and doctors as well as paramedical staff, teachers etc. With the help of developing technology, English has been playing a major role in many sectors including medicine, engineering, and education. Consequently, English should be the medium of instruction finding a high-quality job, communicating with the international world, and accessing scientific sources relevant to an individual’s area of interest.
4. Modern Developments in Urdu Language and Literature
Evolution and development of any language are dependent on the evolution and development of a society where it is spoken. Various invasions and conquests on a place affect the development of its language. Pakistan is a land that attracted to many foreign races and empires during the course of its long history. Urdu is the product of the centuries of cultural interaction between the Hindu and the Muslim communities of India. Urdu language developed in the northern Indian subcontinent, an area that underwent centuries of invasion. This allowed Urdu to acquire a rich variety of linguistic influences.
Development of the Urdu language is closely intertwined with the history of Islamic expansion on the Indian subcontinent. It offers an intriguing look at the significant role that religion can play in the development of a language. Urdu language has drawn inspiration from Persian literature and has now an enormous stock of words. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Churro. Churro can be regarded as the father of Urdu language.
While the Urdu literature tends to be heavily dominated by poetry, the most well-developed vessel of Urdu literature has turned out to be the ‘ghazel’. The range of expression achieved in the ‘ghazel’ and ‘name’ has led to its continued development and expansion into other styles of writing, including that of the short story, or ‘asana’ and ‘distain’, which are long-epic stories dealing with magical creatures and events based on a complicated plot. Abdul Halim Sharer wrote historical romances of Muslim heroes and realistic novels of contemporary social life. Mauve Nasir Ahmed wrote a number of domestic tales of ordinary men and women with a strong moral message Sadat Hassan Manta, a prominent writer of short stories of South Asia, produced great literature out of the events relating to the India-Pakistan independence.
Before 1970, Urdu prose generally followed the ornate and florid style of Persian writings. The Calcutta school developed a simple prose style, which served as a model for the writers of Delhi and Lahore. Notable names among these are of Sher Ali Afros and Masher Ali Khan Vila to name a few and the collection of the letters of the renowned poet, Hali, based on satire. Shah Rafi Uddin and Shah Abdul Nadir translated Quran in simple Urdu. Near the end of the 19th century, the school of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote prolifically on social, political, scientific and educational themes. Mauling Shelbi Momani led a parallel school of religious learning.
Urdu poets have contributed immensely towards the evolution of Urdu language and literature through their literary works. Literary trends are now marked by more openness, eclecticism, and a willingness to experiment. Nostalgia for the past and discomfort at the uprooted present that marks the work of many of these writers also seems to indicate a suppressed regret of a loss of manhood. In this sense, the new poets have not yet come to terms with the issues raised by women’s writing. Urdu literature, as always, seems eager to take on all these debates, which have contributed to its remarkable energy since the nineteenth century.
Languages do not originate overnight, they take centuries to evolve and develop, similarly, Urdu language developed over a long period of time. Evolution and development of any language play a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is known as the symbol of the Muslim nationhood in the world. The Government of Pakistan should take effective measures to promote the Urdu language. Today, Urdu language is spoken by approximately 104 million people around the world, most of whom are located in Pakistan and India. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan and is officially recognized by the constitution of India to serve as a state language in some states.
5. Modern Developments in Sindhi Language and Literature
The Sindhi language witnessed different stages of modern development after the British conquest of Sindh in 1843. The first such development was the invention of the Sindhi type-writer, which took place in 1973 that a modern Sindhi type-writer named as ‘Al-Mustafa Hermes Typewriter’ was made as a result of the serious efforts of Sindh University’s Vice Chancellor Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah and a renowned intellectual, Mr. Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo. This modern machine was improved further through a new model restructured in 1994, a scientific development paved a way to make Sindhi a Computer language in the nineties. After the advent of the British rule, Sindhi language and literature flourished greatly.
Tremendous developments took place in the Sindhi language during the British rule. The British saw that the installation of an appropriate common language of communication was essential in order to make their rule successful. Furthermore, English words were also included in Sindhi, which led to the expansion of Sindhi vocabulary. Sindhi journalism also flourished during this age. Several newspapers are being published in Sindhi language today. These include Kiwis, I brat, New-e-Sindhi, and Kadima-e-Witan besides a number of weeklies.
Today, the Sindhi language is also recognized in the world of cyberspace. Majid Bhangra, assisted by Sager Latif Shaikh succeeded in restructuring Sindhi fonts in accordance with the Unicode in the early nineties. However, problems surfaced in their application. By February 2000, Mr. Pal Nelson, head of Multilingual Wing of the Microsoft, prepared a Sindhi keyboard for use in the Windows, which made the Sindhi Database Management and Sorting System was possible. Now, we can send e-mail in Sindhi and can chat in Sindhi on Internet. Thus, the Sindhi language has also developed as one of the languages of Computer and Internet.
Sindhi literature is one of the richest and the oldest pieces of literature in the world. Sindhi became a literary language in the 19th century. After Pakistan came into being, much work has been done in the modern prose and drama. Modern writers of Sindhi language have harmonized the modern trends in literature with the classical ones. They have revived all forms of prose. Among the modem Sindhi writers Sheikh Ayes, Prof. Karim Bakhsh Nezam, and Asad-Ullah Bhutto are the most remarkable. In addition, Muhammad Bin Qasim Literary Society has rendered great services to Sindhi language and literature by publishing valuable books on social sciences and literary themes as well Sindhi translations and interpretations of the renowned pieces of literature of other languages. Developments in research and criticism in the Sindhi language have also been made.
The trends of Sindhi literature also changed under the influence of British rule. The novel and short story have become the main form for prose. Mirza Qalich Beg is considered as the leading figure among those writers who contributed to the development of Sindhi into a modern language. He wrote the first Sindhi novel on female education Zinat, and also composed a book containing models of Sindhi poetry in all the Persian metres. Whereas, Hakim Fateh Mohammad Sewhani, Kauromal Khilnani, Dayaram Gidumal, Shamsuddin ‘Bulbul’ and Maulana Din Muhammad Wafai are some of the pioneers of modern literature in the Sindhi language.
Today, Sindhi is spoken by an estimated population of 25 million people around the world, most of whom found in the countries of Pakistan and India. It has developed to become one of the most important literary languages from the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent and is especially noted for its extremely rich body of folk literature. Sindhi poets have enriched the language with mystic, romantic, and epic poetry. The works of Sindhi language poets have also been translated into other languages and are read around the world.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Use an infinitive (with or without to), a gerund/ or a present participle. After a preposition only a gerund is possible.
1. Did you hear her (run) upstairs?
2. Try (decide) which one you want (buy).
3. You must practice (speak) and (write) English as often as possible.
4. Let me (know) if you want me (help) you (repair) your wireless.
5. Do you prefer (travel) by land, by sea or by air? I like (fly) best.
6. I admit (lose) the key, but don’t continue (remind) me of it.
7. The doctor found him (groan) with pain.
8. The policeman noticed him (hesitate) and helped him (cross) the road.
9. I am obliged (ask) you (help) me.
10. Help me (carry) this parcel I’ve tried (lift) it alone, but it’s too heavy.
11. We are invited (watch) a doctor (perform) an operation.
12. Stop (make) such a noise. I hate (be) interrupted. Don’t you enjoy (hear) me (sing) in my bath?
13. I remember (see) you (walk) in the park last night.
14. He has decided not (join) the party. He prefers (go) alone.
15. The manager has promised (consider) (engage) anew secretary.
16. You must avoid (offend) him. Any interruption makes him (lose) his temper.
17. Would you agree (help) me (collect) money for charity?
18. My father begged me (think) twice before (decide) (change) my job.
19. Something always prevents me from (do) what I want (do) at week-ends.
20. He hesitates (tell) the truth. He seems (be) afraid of (say) what he thinks.
21. I’ve never known anyone (make) a better speech on the danger of (drive) carelessly.
22. After (see) a film on Spam we decided (go) there for our holidays.
23. I advise you (consult) a doctor before (decide) (learn) (fly).
24. He expects (succeed) in (win) a scholarship by (study) hard.
25. I can’t imagine him (spend) so much money on (buy) a football.
26. He complained of (feel) sick, so I told him (stay) at home and (rest).
27. I can’t understand his (refuse) (increase) my wages without (give) any reasons.
28. The teacher made me (stand) up and (apologize) for (be) rude to him.
29. He advised me not (rely) on other people (help) me, but (try) (be) independent.
30. Although I swore (stop) (smoke) years ago, I haven’t succeeded in (do) so.
1. Did you hear her running upstairs?
2. Try to decide which one you want to buy.
3. You must practice speaking and writing English as often as possible.
4. Let me know if you want me to help you repair your wireless.
5. Do you prefer travelling by land, by sea or by air? I like flying best.
6. I admit losing the key, but don’t continue reminding me of it.
7. The doctor found him groaning with pain.
8. The policeman noticed him hesitate and helped him cross the road.
9. I am obliged to ask you to help me.
10. Help me carry this parcel. I’ve tried lifting it alone, but it’s too heavy.
11. We are invited to watch a doctor performing an operation.
12. Stop making such a noise. I hate being interrupted. Don’t you enjoy hearing me sing in my bath?
13. I remember seeing you walk in the park last night.
14. He has decided not to join the party. He prefers going alone.
15. The manager has promised considered engaging a new secretary.
16. You must avoid offending him. Any interruption makes him lose his temper.
17. Would you agree to help me collect money for charity?
18. My father begged me to think twice before deciding to change my job.
19. Something always prevents me from doing what I want to do at weekends. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct word: weekends)
20. He hesitates to tell the truth. He seems to be afraid of saying what he thinks.
21. I’ve never known anyone making a better speech on the danger of driving carelessly.
22. After seeing a film on spam, we decided going there for our holidays. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correction: spam.)
23. I advise you to consult a doctor before deciding to learn flying.
24. He expects to succeed in winning a scholarship by studying hard.
25. I can’t imagine him spending so much money on buying a football.
26. He complained of feeling sick, so I told him to stay at home and rest.
27. I can’t understand his refusing to increase my wages without giving any reasons.
28. The teacher made me stand up and apologize for being rude to him.
29. He advised me not to rely on other people to help me, but try to be independent.
30. Although I swore to stop smoking years ago, I haven’t succeeded in doing so.