English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 6 Air Travel Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.
Question Answers English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 6 Air Travel
Q 1. When, where, and by whom was the first aerial journey made?
The first aerial journey was made on October 15, 1783, over Paris by a French man, Pilatre de Rozier. He went up in a hot-air balloon. On his first flight, the balloon was tied to the ground by a long rope, but on the 21st of November, de Rozier dared to make a free flight. He was accompanied by Marqus d’Arlandes whose job was to feed dry straw to the fire which filled the hot air balloon.
Q 2. What is the essential difference between an airship and an aeroplane?
The essential difference between an airship and an aeroplane is that an airship is lighter than air, whereas an aeroplane is a heavier-than-air machine. Therefore, as compared to an airship, an aeroplane is capable of moving faster in the air.
Q 3. Who invented the internal-combustion engine? Why was this type of engine so important to the development of flight?
The internal combustion engine was invented by a German named, Otto in 1876. This type of engine was used for driving cars. This type of engine was important to the development of flight because it proved to be a compact and powerful engine which transformed the world by making the development of the motor car and the aeroplane possible.
Q 4. Who was the first man to fly in an aeroplane? What was the date of his first flight and how long did it last?
The first man to fly in an aeroplane was an American, Orville Wright. The date of his first flight was 17th December 1903 and it lasted for twelve seconds only. The aeroplane took off at the speed of 48 kilometres per hour.
Q 5. What, in brief, are the respective functions of the reconnaissance aeroplane and the fighter?
The function of the reconnaissance plane is to find out what is happening in the territory of the enemy, whereas the function of a fighter plane is to shoot down enemy bombers on its territory.
Q 6. How were the first bombing attacks on London made?
The first bombing attacks on London were made during World War I by a type of German airships, called Zeppelins. These aeroplanes were capable of flying to bomb London and back.
Q 7. How did civil aviation benefit from the rapid development of the bombing attacks during the First World War?
Since anti-aircraft guns had not proved very effective, bombing attacks by airships changed the attitudes of the governments and the peoples to the development of fighter aircraft in order to shoot the aircraft of the enemies. This necessitated the research into high speed and high altitude flights and led to the rapid development of aircraft manufacture. Moreover, the civil aviation benefited from the development of the bomber by using it as a means of transport for carrying passengers, mails, and goods.
Q 8. Why was it more difficult to fly from Europe to North America than from North America to Europe?
Flying across the Atlantic was more difficult from Europe to North America than from North America to Europe because on the westbound flight, the aircraft had to struggle against the winds flowing in the opposite direction, and stood in the danger of running out of fuel. Whereas, on return to Europe, aircraft did not have to face any such difficulty.
Q 9. Why was the use of airships for passenger transport abandoned?
The use of airships for passenger transport was abandoned in favour of the aircraft because they had proved to be very unsafe. Many airships were wrecked previously.
Q 10. What new means of propulsion has greatly increased the speed of airliners in recent years? What kind of radio device contributes to their safety?
Jet propulsion has greatly increased the speed of airliners in recent years. As a result, airlines can now fly at the speed of 2000 miles per hour. Radar is a wonderful radio device that contributes to the safety of aircraft. It has made the flight of airplanes possible even in bad weather.
Write an essay of not more than 350 words on one of the following topics:
- The achievements of Pakistan in civil aviation.
- The development of transport during the last hundred years.
- The value to society of the scientist and the engineer.
- The practical benefits that modern advances in science and engineering can bring to Pakistan.
The Development of Transport during the Last Hundred Years
By the end of the 19th Century Railways and sea, transportation was considered as the most commonly used means of transportation. During the 20th century, remarkable advances were witnessed in the means of transportation throughout the world. Although the first cars appeared at the end of the 19th century, they became cheaper and more common after the World Wars. They only became a common means of transport among people in the 1960s. By the 1970s, the majority of families owned one. Over the last hundred years, cars became safer and roads were transformed from dirt to concrete and more effective means of transport were discovered.
During the last hundred years, vessels on the oceans have got bigger and faster for the swift transportation of goods from one place to another. Engines ran on steam and coal and switched to diesel power over time. Instead of wood, hulls were made of steel, which led to an increase in ship size. In 1914, the Panama Canal was built, which in turn decreased the travel time of the ships between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
When safety improved in the 1960s, commercial airlines expanded rapidly and jet engines became the norm. Millions of new passengers were added during this expansion of air travel. Until airplanes took over intercontinental travel in the 1950s, vessels dominated as the means of travel across different countries. The hovercraft was invented in 1956, whereas the first hovercraft passenger service began in 1962.
Twentieth-century also marked the discovery of the airplanes. In 1919, initially, the airplanes first began carrying the passengers between London and Paris. The first airplane flight in Britain was made in 1908. The first passenger jet service began in 1952. However, in the early 20th century, the flight was a luxury few people could afford, and only a small minority could afford foreign travel. Therefore, foreign holidays only became common in the 1960s. The Boeing 747, the first ‘Jumbo jet’ was introduced in 1970.
During the past hundred years, tremendous developments were seen in the transport throughout the world with the discovery of comfortable, fast-paced, and time-saving means of transportation. With the invention of the airplane, air flights became a more common mode of transport as compared to ships. The next step in transport will probably be the commercial space flight. If it happens, it will certainly be very expensive at first, however, it will eventually become cheap enough for ordinary people to afford.
The Achievements of Pakistan in Civil Aviation
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is a public sector independent body, working under the Federal Government of Pakistan through Aviation Division Cabinet Secretariat since June 2013. It was established on 7th December 1982. Before the creation of CAA, Civil Aviation related activities were managed by a Civil Aviation Department (CAD) under the Ministry of Defence. The ministry of Defence continued to be the controlling ministry, even after the creation of CAA on 7th December 1982. The purpose of establishing CAA is to provide for the promotion and regulations of Civil Aviation activities and to develop an organization for safe, efficient, adequate, economical and properly coordinated Civil Air Transport Service in Pakistan. With a sharp vision for the future, the Civil Aviation Authority has made tremendous achievements due to which, it has earned a great reputation across the world.
Since its commencement in 1982, the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan witnessed a dynamic pattern of growth. A quick survey shows CAA is providing civil airports and airfields in the country to promote air transportation as well as navigational services. Today, it is managing operation, organization, and maintenance of forty airports and associated facilities on a countrywide network. The CAA of Pakistan specializes in planning, installation, maintenance, operation and calibration services to aircraft, within the nation’s airspace.
Jinnah Terminal Karachi, which has been designed to meet the traffic requirements of the future, has been established in order to cope with the growing air transport requirements of the approaching century effectively. It includes the main terminal with the building area of approximately 79,000 square metres of functional, office and service space. The cost of the entire project is above five billion rupees.
CAA not only plays the role of the aviation regulator of the country but it performs the service provider functions of Air Navigation Services and Airport Services at the same time. The core functions of CAA are, therefore, ‘Regulatory’, ‘Air Navigation Services’ and ‘Airport Services’. These core functions are fully supported by various corporate functions of the organization.
The restructuring process undertaken in CAA between 2006 and 2010 has enabled the organization to meet the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). During the Universal Safety Oversight Audit Program (USOAP) ICAO audited Pakistan in June 2011 and rated the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan as about 83% compliant against the world average of 65%.
Over the years, Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority has played a great role in the provision of air navigation and airport services. It has not only continued to achieve but also complies and exceed the aviation standards set by ICAO and International Management System Standards.
The Value to Society of the Scientist and the Engineer
The contributions of scientists and engineers are vital to the development of society. We are living in the age of technology and communication. The luxuries that we enjoy today are the outcomes of the efforts made by scientists and engineers in all the different fields of science and technology. Scientific inventions made by the scientists and engineers have not only improved the way of life of the societies but also drawn them closer.
Science and technology have made tremendous contributions to everyday modern life. For instance, the invention of the automobile has proven to be a practical solution to the problem of getting from place to place by a convenient and flexible means of transportation. It has enabled people to travel away from major cities towards previously hard to reach and underpopulated rural areas, whereas sea and air travel have taken the transportation of goods and people a step further, making it easier and more convenient to travel across countries. Similarly, inventions made by the electrical, mechanical, civil and electronic engineers etc. have uplifted the lifestyle of mankind, whereas scientists have invented weapons for the defense of the nations.
Scientists and engineers working in the field of telecommunication have brought the societies closer by making the communication between masses easier. The contribution of the internet to the society is believed to be so profound that if it were its own sector, its contribution to the total global gross domestic product is believed to be greater than that of the mining, energy and agriculture industries. Not only it has made communication easier, but it has also provided a platform for entrepreneurs to reach out to the masses and carry small businesses successfully from their homes. Software introduced by the engineers, such as those for creating virtual classrooms provide the facility of gaining knowledge with the ease of sitting at home.
The advances made in science and technology have brought new opportunities for entertainment and information from all over the world. Since the invention of moving pictures such as movies and films in the 1800s, immeasurable amusement has been brought out to countless lives across the world. Global trends and news updates can easily be carried out from one part of the world to another. They also attract the attention of the tourists towards a country’s culture and traditions. In this way, the innovation of global media and entertainment has a tendency to boost the economy of a country.
Scientists and engineers work for the betterment and growth of the society in general. Advances in science and technology have not only filled the communication gap across borders but also equipped the people with different sources of entertainment and recreation. Moreover, with the growth of modern technology, the sharing of information and knowledge from one corner of the world to another has become as easy as the click of a button. Therefore, the impact of technological inventions on the individual lives of people, communities, and societies at large cannot be overlooked.
The Practical Benefits that Modern Advances in Science and Engineering can bring to Pakistan.
Today, the world is said to have been transformed into a global village. The contributions of scientists and engineers are vital to the development of society. We are living in the age of technology and communication. The luxuries that we enjoy today are the outcomes of the efforts made by scientists and engineers in the different fields of Science and Technology. Scientific inventions made by the scientists and engineers have the tendency to improve the way of life of the nation at large. Therefore, modern advances in the field of science and engineering have become necessary for the peace and prosperity of Pakistan.
Modern advances in science and technology can make tremendous contributions to the everyday life of the nation. Expansion of the public means of road and air travel, such as public transport, railways, and the network of civil aviation and provision of adequate facilities will make travelling across the country easier for the people. The railway is an affordable means of public transport. Therefore, the state of railway networks needs to be uplifted. Similarly, inventions made by the electrical, mechanical, civil and electronic engineers etc. can also lead to the improvement in the lifestyle of mankind
Scientists and engineers working in the field of telecommunication can bring the societies closer by making the communication between masses more affordable and convenient. Internet should be available at the nook and corner of the country, including the rural and underprivileged areas. This will not only make the process of communication flexible but also broaden the outlook of the people of these areas, by providing a wide range of possibilities. They will also gain awareness about entrepreneurship and be able to reach out to the masses and carry small businesses successfully from their homes. Software introduced by the engineers, such as those for creating virtual classrooms may also provide the facility of gaining knowledge with the ease of sitting at home. This may result in the availability of more educational opportunities to Pakistani students at an international level. Therefore, the advances made in science and technology can uplift the status of Pakistan as a developed country.
The invention of modern weapons by scientists can establish Pakistan as a strong nuclear power. This, in turn, has the tendency to protect the country from the domination of the superpowers. In this way, scientific innovations can aid to the defense of the nation.
Scientists and engineers work for the growth and prosperity of the nation in general. Advances in science and technology and engineering can play a vital part in the growth and prosperity of the Pakistani nation. Moreover, with the growth of modern technology, the sharing of information and knowledge from one corner of the country to the underprivileged areas can become as easy as the click of a button. Moreover, it can uplift the status of Pakistan in the international market, and provide more educational opportunities to Pakistani students at an international level. Therefore, the impact of modern advances in science and engineering on the individual lives of the people and the Pakistani nation at large, cannot be overlooked.
Rewrite these sentences in the Passive Voice. The subject of the Active Voice need not be used in your answers.
1. They discovered the crime early in the morning.
2. Many people often ask policemen the time.
3. Somebody has broken the lock.
4. The doctor is going to vaccinate me tomorrow.
5. Mother was pouring out the tea when I entered the room.
6. No one has signed this cheque.
7. They will finish the tournament tomorrow.
8. We manufacture many kinds of motor cars in England.
9. Someone ought to give him a warning.
10. They postponed the match because of rain.
11. The secretary must type these letters before lunch.
12. Women are wearing long dresses this season.
13. The chauffeur was driving the car too fast when the accident occurred.
14. They will publish the book in the autumn.
15. We haven’t posted the letters yet.
16. The doctor has just operated on him at the hospital.
17. The tug towed the liner into harbor.
18. They built the bridge in 1888.
19. No one has told me what to do.
20. Someone stole my car last night.
1. The crime was discovered early in the morning.
2. Policemen are often asked the time.
3. The lock has been broken.
4. I am going to be vaccinated tomorrow.
5. The tea was being poured out when I entered the room.
6. This cheque has not been signed.
7. The tournament will be finished tomorrow.
8. Many kinds of motor cars are manufactured in England.
9. A warning ought to be given to him.
10. The match was postponed because of rain.
11. These letters must be typed before lunch.
12. Long dresses are being worn this season.
13. The car was being driven too fast when the accident occurred.
14. The book will be published in the autumn.
15. The letters haven’t been posted yet.
16. He has just been operated at the hospital.
17. The liner was towed into the harbor. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct Statement: The tug towed the liner into the harbor.)
18. The bridge was built in 1888.
19. I have not been told what to do by anyone.
20. My car was stolen last night.
Rewrite the sentences below in the Passive Voice. Retain the subject of the Active Voice by using by.
1. Conan Doyle wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories.
2. Everyone admires our headmaster.
3. My personal secretary is typing your letter.
4. An earthquake destroyed Lisbon in 1755.
5. Mary, not Patricia, won the first prize.
6. Rheumatism affects him badly.
7. Scotland beat England 3-0 at Wembley Stadium.
8. A proper carpenter certainly never made these shelves.
9. Hogarth painted this picture, didn’t he?
10. A board of governors runs the school.
11. A firm with a good reputation was doing the repairs.
12. The history master, of all people, set the French papers.
13. An artist must have decorated this lovely flat.
14. The ringing of the fire-alarm woke up the hotel porter.
15. A qualified architect ought to do this job, not a mere apprentice.
16. The manager will sign the contract tomorrow.
17. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.
18. A police constable arrested the burglar just before dawn.
19. The sixth form will need these books again.
20. The Normans invaded England in the eleventh century.
1. Sherlock Holmes stories were written by Conan Doyle.
2. Our headmaster is admired by everyone.
3. Your letter is being typed by my personal secretary.
4. Lisbon was destroyed by an earthquake in 1755.
5. The first prize was won by Mary, not Patricia.
6. He is badly affected by rheumatism.
7. England was beaten by Scotland by 3-0 at Wembley Stadium. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct Statement: Scotland beat England by 3-0 at Wembley Stadium.)
8. These shelves were certainly never made by a proper.
9. This picture was painted by Hogarth, isn’t it?
10. The school is run by a board of governors.
11. The repairs were being done by a firm with a good reputation.
12. Of all people, the French papers were set by the history master.
13. This lovely flat must have been decorated by an artist.
14. The hotel porter was woken up by the ringing of the fire-alarm.
15. This job ought to be done by a qualified architect, not a mere apprentice.
16. The manager will sign the contract tomorrow.
17. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
18. Just before dawn, the burglar was arrested by a police constable.
19. These books will be needed by the sixth form again.
20. England was invaded by the Normans in the eleventh century.
Rewrite these sentences in the Passive Voice. Retain the subject of the Active Voice only where you consider it strictly necessary.
1. The shoemaker mended my shoes in two days.
2. The fire-brigade put the fire out before it became serious.
3. The authorities know that your taxes are in arrears.
4. One should make an application before January 13.
5. A horse with a white forehead won the race for the Wessex Cup.
6. They forbid the sale of alcohol in this state.
7. We shall have to make another enquiry.
8. Is Mr. Jones or Mr. Davies going to give the lecture on The World of the Future?
9. No one ever does anything in this office.
10. The soldiers ambushed the rebels in a valley and killed five of them.
11. The gardener ought to water the garden more often.
12. They make the famous Mura no glass in Venice.
13. Has anyone repaired the telephone yet?
14. They forbid you to walk on the grass in this park.
15. Two well-known doctors have written a report on the medical uses of hypnotism.
16. People say that the new film at the Metro cinema is excellent.
17. They had completed the work before I arrived.
18. The municipality prohibits parking on the main roads.
19. People eat more rice than flour in Burma.
20. We must look after this child.
1. My shoes were mended in two days.
2. The fire was put out before it became serious.
3. Your taxes are known to be in arrears by the authorities.
4. An application should be made before January 13.
5. The race for the Wessex Cup was won by a horse with a white forehead.
6. The sale of alcohol is forbidden in this state.
7. Another enquiry shall have to be made by us.
8. Is the lecture on The World of the Future going to be given by Mr. Jones or Mr. Davies?
9. Nothing has been done in this office.
10. The rebels were ambushed by the soldiers in a valley were and five of them were killed.
11. The garden ought to be watered more often.
12. The famous Murano glass is made in Venice.
13. Has the telephone been repaired yet?
14. You are forbidden to walk on the grass in this park.
15. A report on the medical uses of hypnotism has been written by two well-known doctors.
16. The new film at the Metro cinema is said to be excellent.
17. The work had been completed before I arrived.
18. Parking on the main roads is prohibited by the municipality.
19. Rice is eaten more than flour in Burma.
20. This child must be looked after by us.
Put the verbs in the following passage into the correct tense of the passive:
For several years at the beginning of the nineteenth century Europe (dominate) by one man, the Emperor Napoleon. Nearly every European nation except England (invade and conquer) by his armies, and (force) to sign treaties of peace. Vigorous resistance (offer) by Spain, where a struggle for liberation (begin) in 1807. A small English army (sent) to help the Spanish nationalists. It (base) on Lisbon and (supply) by sea. After the first year this army (command) by the Duke of Wellington, of whom it (say) that he never lost a battle. In a series of short but brilliant campaigns, the French (drive) bade to the Pyrenees. These mountains (cross) at the same time as Napoleon himself (defeat) in Russia. French domination (end) at last by a combined revolt of all the nations. Napoleon (oblige) to abdicate and (send) into exile on the small island of Elba.
For several years at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Europe was dominated by one man, the Emperor Napoleon. Nearly every European nation except England was invaded and conquered by his armies, and forced to sign treaties of peace. Vigorous resistance was offered by Spain, where a struggle for liberation was begun in 1807. A small English army was sent to help the Spanish nationalists. It was based on Lisbon and was supplied by sea. After the first year, this army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington, of whom it was said that he never lost a battle. In a series of short but brilliant campaigns, the French were driven bade to the Pyrenees. These mountains were crossed at the same time as Napoleon himself was defeated in Russia. French domination was ended at last by a combined revolt of all the nations. Napoleon was obliged to abdicate and was sent into exile on the small island of Elba.