English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 7 Letters

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 7 Letters Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 7 Letters

When did Mr. Qureshi arrive in London and where did he stay for the first six days?

Mr. Qureshi arrived in London on Monday 3rd February 1992 and stayed at Montrose Hotel, Montrose Square, London for the first six days. He had made the reservation by writing a letter to the manager of the hotel as soon as his flight was confirmed.

About how long did Mr. Qureshi stay in Britain?

Mr. Qureshi stayed in Britain for about two months.

From Saleem’s letter, how many children does Mr. Qureshi appear to have?

In his letter to David, Saleem mentions one brother, who accompanies him to Baagh-e-Jinnah for offering Eid prayer, and one sister, who prepares delicious Mughal dishes with his mother for all of them. Therefore, from his letter, it appears that Mr. Qureshi has one daughter and two sons.

Briefly explain how Saleem and David came to write to each other.

During his stay in England, Mr. Qureshi went to see his English friends, the Browns. He found out their son David Brown was of the same age as his own son, Saleem. David was keen to know about life in Pakistan and offered to exchange letters with Mr. Qureshi’s son. Mr. Qureshi wrote a letter to Saleem, advising him to accept the offer. He was of the view that it would not only improve Salem’s English, but also provide him an opportunity to gain exposure to David’s country, and share his country’s culture, traditions, and customs with him. In this way, David and Saleem came to write to each other.

Q 5. Where did Saleem go to take part in congregational prayers on Eid-ul-Fitr? Who accompanied him?

Answer:
Saleem went to the Bagh-e-Jinnah in Karachi to take part in congregational prayers on Eid-ul-Fitr. They went there with his brother after putting on their best clothes, at least one of which were new. After saying the prayer, they embraced each other and returned home.

Q 6. What are carols and when are they sung?

Answer:
Carols are traditional Christmas hymns of joy, which play a vital part in creating the atmosphere of Christmas. They are sung by the followers of Jesus Christ during the ceremony at the church on the evening of Christmas day. A week before Christmas, small groups of children sing carol songs and visit homes to collect money, whereas larger groups of local church choirs sing carol songs for collecting charity.

Q 7. Why do children in England hang up empty stockings by their beds on Christmas Eve?

Answer:
Children in England hang up empty stockings by their beds on the Christmas Eve in the hope that the legendary figure, Father Christmas, will fill the stocking with Christmas presents while they are asleep. However, by the time they wake up in the morning, their parents fill the stockings with gifts.

Q 8. Would you expect to see snow if you were in London at Christmas? What sort of weather would you expect?

Answer:
It rarely snows in Southern England before January. So, I would not expect to see snow in London at Christmas. The weather would probably be very cold and gloomy.

Q 9. Does Easter always fall on the same date? What is the season in Britain when it occurs?

Answer:
No, Easter does not always fall on the same date. Although it varies with the appearance of the moon, but it always falls during the Spring season in Britain.

Q 10. What made the Browns decide not to drive to the seaside on Easter Monday in 1986?

Answer:
The Browns’ experience of going to Eastbourne the previous Easter had not been a pleasant one. They have had a very tedious journey because of being constantly held up in traffic jams. So, they had decided not to drive to the seaside on Easter Monday in 1986, and to either stay at home or go for a walk by the river, instead.


Indicate whether the following relative clauses are defining (i.e. like the ‘which’ clause in No. 1) or non-defining (i.e. like the ‘which’ clause in No. 3). In which sentences may the relative pronoun be omitted?

1. The sea which divides Europe from Africa is the Mediterranean.
2. It is the Mediterranean, which divides Europe from Africa.
3. The Mediterranean, which divides Europe from Africa, is tideless.
4. I don’t like the face of the man who has just come into the shop.
5. The glasses which I am wearing have special lenses.
6. My glasses, which I left on my desk, have disappeared.
7. Did you read the advertisement that appeared in yesterday’s paper?
8. For his birthday, which is on 1st February I shall give him a bicycle.
9. The cigarette which you have just given me is stale.
10. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.
11. The man whose car you damaged is furious.
12. The desk that I am writing on is not firm enough.
13. This desk, which I am trying to write on, is not firm enough.
14. The oil-tanker, whose funnel you can just see, is beginning to move.
15. The ship whose funnel you can just see is an oil-tanker.
16. I would hate anyone to see the diary that I keep.
17. The concert that we listened to last night was excellent.
18. The B.B.C. concerts, which are broadcast regularly, are usually very good.
19. The man that I was relying on to help me has died.
20. My friend, whom I was relying on to help me, has died.

Answer:
1. Defining relative clause.
 The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
2. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
3. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
4. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘who’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
5. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence may be omitted.
6. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
7.  Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘that’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
8.  Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
9. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘which’ in this sentence may be omitted.
10. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘who’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
11. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘whose’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
12. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘that’ in this sentence may be omitted.
13. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘which’ in this sentence may be omitted.
14. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘whose’ in this sentence can be omitted.
15. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘whose’ in this sentence may be omitted.
16. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘that’ in this sentence may be omitted.
17.  Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘that’ in this sentence may be omitted.
18. Non-defining relative clause. The relative pronoun, ‘which’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.
19. Defining relative clause. The relative pronoun ‘that’ in this sentence may be omitted.
20. Non-defining clause. The relative pronoun, ‘whom’ in this sentence cannot be omitted.]


Combine the following pairs of sentences by making the sentence of each pair into a non-defining relative clause.

For Example:
This house was built by my grandfather. I have always lived in it.
This house, in which I have always lived, was built by my grandfather.

1. This coat is worn out. I’ve been wearing it for ten years.
2. The garage is just round the corner. I keep my car in it.
3. This flower vase is a thousand years old. It comes from China.
4. William Shakespeare is the greatest English dramatist. His works are studied all over the world.
5. My landlord introduced me to some of his friends. He is a very sociable person.
6. The English Channel separates England from France. It is 33 kilometres across at the narrowest point.
7. The London train arrived half an hour late. We were travelling in it.
8. The English live mainly on trade. Napoleon called them a nation of shopkeepers.
9. My father-in-law advised me to invest in some oil shares. I have great confidence in his judgment.
10. She suffers horribly from sea-sickness. There is nothing more unpleasant than that.
11. The Thames is the most important, but not the longest, river in England. It flows from west to east.
12. She left her handbaq in the restaurant. It contained both her money and her passport
13. The burst water-pipes have been mended. They were frozen in the last spell of cold weather.
14. This car is a 1984 model. I only paid (£) 500 for it.
15. The head waiter obviously wants a bigger tip. I don’t like his attitude.
16. Queen Victoria died in 1901. Everyone respected her.
17. Indigestion often results from eating the wrong kind of food. Most people suffer from it at some time in their lives.
18. The old man is very ill. I took him to hospital last night.
19. My nephew has just left England. He is emigrating to Australia.
20. My niece has just got married again. Her first husband died.

Answer:
1. This coat, which I’ve been wearing it for ten years, is worn out.
2. The garage, in which I keep my car, is just round the corner.
3. This flower vase, which comes from China, is a thousand years old.
4. William Shakespeare, whose works are studied all over the world, is the greatest English dramatist.
5. My landlord, who is a very sociable person, introduced me to some of his friends.
6. The English Channel, which is 33 kilometres across at the narrowest point, separates England from France.
7. The London train, which we were travelling in, arrived half an hour late.
8. The English, whom Napoleon called a nation of shopkeepers, live mainly on trade.
9. My father-in-law, in whose judgment I have great confidence, advised me to invest in some oil shares.
10. She suffers horribly from sea-sickness, to which nothing is more unpleasant. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct statement: She suffers horribly from seasickness. There is nothing more unpleasant than that.)
11. The Thames, which flows from west to east, is the most important, but not the longest river in England.
12. She left her handbag, which contained both her money and her passport, in the restaurant. (Note: Spelling mistake in the book. Correct sentence: She left her handbag in the restaurant. It contained both her money and her passport.)
13. The burst water-pipes, which were frozen in the last spell of cold weather, have been mended.
14. This car, which I only paid £ 500 for, is a 1984 model.
15. I don’t like the attitude of the head waiter, who obviously wants a bigger tip.
16. Queen Victoria, whom everyone respected, died in 1901.
17. Indigestion, which most people suffer from at some time in their lives, often results from eating the wrong kind of food.
18. The old man whom I took him to hospital last night, is very ill.
19. My nephew, who is is emigrating to Australia, has just left England.
20. My niece, whose first husband died, has just got married again.


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