English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 11 Science and Scientists

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 11 Science and Scientists Question Answers Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

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English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 11 Science and Scientists

How do scientists prove that their facts are correct?

Scientists prove that their facts are correct by making various experiments to test the validity of the facts by conducting different experiments under certain conditions.

Explain the difference between a fact of science and law of science. If you are a student of science, give an example of each.

As science deals with such objects that we can see in our daily life. These are the facts of science and science is also is a collection of rules and laws which express a connection between these facts. It is a fact that electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom but became law when Rutherford stated that how they are revolving in orbits.

Q 6. In not more than three sentences explain why the man in the street considers chemistry to be a science and art not to be a science.

Answer:
The man in the street knows that science deals with facts and logical reasoning, and not imagination. Chemistry experiments with physical facts, so he considers it science. Whereas, art is based on imagination and creativity, so he feels that it is not science.

Q 7. ‘I know that fat people are stupid because I have a cousin who is fat and he is very stupid.’ Explain why these words reveal an unscientific outlook.

Answer:
Science makes experiments to discover universal truths through experiments based on evidence. It does not arrive at any conclusion without any sufficient evidence. The scientist does not let personal prejudices influence his findings. In this case, the conclusion has been drawn by generalizing the observation made of only a single person’s character. Therefore, the words, ‘I know that fat people are stupid because I have a cousin who is fat and he is very stupid’ reveal an unscientific outlook. It is a proven fact is that many people who are fat are not stupid at all.

Q 8. ‘I’ve always believed that girls are less intelligent than boys. I don’t care what the result of intelligence tests show — I’m not going to change my mind.’ Explain why these words reveal an unscientific outlook.

Answer:
A person with a scientific attitude does not allow his personal prejudices to influence his judgment. However, the statement, ‘I’ve always believed that girls are less intelligent than boys. I don’t care what the result of intelligence tests shows – I’m not going to change my mind’ is based on personal prejudices against girls. Therefore, it is clear that the statement reveals an unscientific outlook.

What is an experiment?

An experiment is a scientific phenomenon which refers to the observation of facts under controlled conditions. Scientists conduct experiments in order to test the validity of a hypothesis or already existing theory.

What is the meaning of ‘unambiguous’?

The meaning of the word, “unambiguous” is clear. It refers to something, which is certain and is not open to more than one interpretation.

What is the meaning of ‘object’ in the last sentence of the second paragraph? Give at least two other meanings with which the word can be used.

In the last sentence of the second paragraph, the word, ‘object’ refers to the aim or purpose. However, two other possible meanings of this word are ‘a noun to which an action is directed’ and ‘a nonliving thing or item’.

What is meant by ‘jumping to conclusions’?

By ‘jumping to conclusion’ means arriving at a result quickly, without testing the validity of the statement. Such a conclusion is not backed by any evidence.

What is meant by the phrase, ‘the man in the street’?

The phrase “the man in the street” means a common man. It refers to any other man having a usual attitude and towards life and common concerns as with other people.


Composition

Write not more than 350 words on one of the following topics:

  1. The work of an eminent Muslim scientist.
  2. ‘At least one science should be compulsory in secondary education.’ Discuss.
  3. The scientific outlook.

1. The Work of an Eminent Muslim Scientist
Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan is one of the most notable names among Muslim scientists of the present times. He is regarded as “the father of the Islamic bomb.” Dr. Khan pioneered and led Pakistan’s effort to enrich uranium with gas centrifuges. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was also an early and vital figure in other science projects of Pakistan. He has made major contributions in research on Molecular Morphology, the physics of martensite alloys, Condensed Matter Physics and Material Physics.
Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan initially worked with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), but he left PAEC as a result of the differences with its policy. In 1976, at Bhutto’s direction, Khan founded the Engineering Research Laboratory, or ERL, for the purpose of developing a uranium-enrichment capability.  In May 1981 the laboratory was renamed the Khan Research Laboratory or KRL. His base of operations was in Kahuta, where he developed prototype centrifuges based on German designs and used his supplier’s list to import essential components from Swiss, Dutch, British, and German companies, among others.
 The scientific contributions of Dr. A. Q. Khan has been recognized in several ways. As an active scientist and technologist, he has published more than 188 scientific research papers in international journals. He assembled the machinery and workforce it would take to produce weapons-grade uranium. For this purpose, he recruited scores of Pakistani scientists living abroad to work with him at Kahuta. Under his supervision, the process of Uranium enrichment was accomplished effectively and significant development was also made with the successful test firing of Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles, Ghauri 1, in April 1998 and Ghauri II in April 1999.
In 1990, Pakistan President Ghulam Ishaq Khan lauded A.Q. Khan’s contributions to the nuclear field and declared: “The name of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan will be inscribed in golden letters in the annals of the national history of Pakistan.” Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto also acknowledged his invaluable contributions not only in the field of nuclear technology but also in other fields including defense production.
Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan is the undisputed hero of Pakistan’s nuclear saga. It would not be wrong to say that he is an asset to Pakistan, and his name would be remembered in the times to come.

           2. ‘At least one science should be compulsory in secondary education.’ Discuss.
 Today, we are living in the radical age of science and technology, and our lives are dominated and controlled by the wonders of science. A curriculum based on Science education, which demands rigorous learning of facts seems to be unconvincing in reality, but one without facts might let the wonder of science fizzle out for school pupils. To be active members of a scientific society, some understanding of the facts of science is important.  
Scientific knowledge develops the habit of logical reasoning and critical thinking among pupils and provides better opportunities for academic and professional growth in the long end. Scientific knowledge increases their ability to question the pre-existing laws. Moreover, it provokes discussions about probing issues and latest developments in the different areas of knowledge. Knowledge of Science cannot only expand their outlook but also provide them better opportunities for higher education.
Basic knowledge of science is necessary for secondary education. It teaches pupils about the mechanisms behind the different physical phenomenon. It enables them to solve the mysteries behind unusual and strange things on their own. Scientific knowledge also improves the problem-solving ability of the students.
Science curriculum heavily focused on facts leaves little room for the nurturing of discussion around scientific issues. Unfortunately, much of the science taught in schools today is about merely remembering facts and figures. Children find it dull and irrelevant to everyday life. Perhaps, a curriculum that can strike the right balance of ‘extension of knowledge’ and participation in discussion, between understanding and engagement, might empower the next generation to take an active and upstream role in shaping the future of science, whilst retaining some of our wonder in science. Therefore, young people must be educated in modern science, its methods, and its mental attitudes.
 Without Science education, secondary school students will find the modern world utterly incomprehensible. However, they cannot be good citizens of the world, or of their own national state, unless they are intellectually and imaginatively aware of the values, which underlie human beliefs, motives, and conduct. In this troubled period of human history, religion and the humanities are as vital as science to the education of good members of a good society.

3. The Scientific Outlook
The most essential characteristic of scientific technique is that it proceeds from experiment, not from tradition.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (Bertrand Russell)

As long as men hunted for knowledge in a random sort of way and believed each other’s assertions without testing them, knowledge made negligible progress. However, Science began to grow as soon as they began to test the validity of their beliefs based on assumptions by doing experiments. Today, the average person has a very fair idea of the meaning of the word science. Science includes the pursuits made in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, biology etc., based on logical reasoning and evidence. Developments in the various fields of science have improved the humankind’s way of life, and perception of the world in general.


A piece of work or a book is regarded as ‘unscientific’ if it is inexact, that is, badly arranged, and jumps to conclusions without sufficient evidence. If the author of a piece of work allows his personal prejudices to influence his report, it is considered as a violation of the ethics of science. Scientific work, on the other hand, is as exact as is possible, orderly in arrangement, and based on sound and sufficient evidence. Moreover, its objective is only to discover the truth behind a phenomenon. Science refers to a vast collection of facts expressed in exact and un­ambiguous language in such a manner that anyone who cares to take the trouble can test the validity of a hypothesis. It also refers to the collection of rules or laws, which express the connection between these facts.


The scientific method has improved the lifestyle of the people. It has enabled them to solve such problems as the causes of diseases and their prevention and has improved the sanitary conditions. As a result, it has improved the life expectancy of people on average. Sewage from all sections of a city is now carried through sealed pipes to disposal plants. In addition, the eating habits of people have also changed by the use of science. Moreover, it has expanded their knowledge about the methods of controlling them. People have been able to improve their ways of building houses, communication, and transportation. It has also improved the way in which they can spend their leisure time.
Scientific outlook towards life has improved the attitude of the people; it has changed the thinking pattern of the people. Superstitious beliefs are being overcome today, by using the scientific method to demonstrate that there is no sound basis for them. Few people today believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits. Although astrology and fortune-telling are still practiced, they do not influence the lives of as many people as they once did. People have learnt that there is always a good natural reason for everything that happens to them. As a result, most of them no longer fear black cats, broken mirrors, and the number 13. In this way, the discoveries of scientists have helped people develop an attitude of open-mindedness.


Scientific outlook has not only changed the lifestyle of the people but also improved their perception of the world at large, as they have become critical thinkers. They are no more willing to look for new truths than to assume that what has been considered true will always be true. Ideas must now be supported by facts in order to be acceptable to the scientist or to people who use the scientific method. Mankind has benefited greatly from the use of the scientific method in solving problems such as those dealing with the maintenance of health, the production, and preservation of foods, the construction of our homes, and improved communication and transportation. Not only have our ways of living changed, but they are better able to explain the things, which were previously considered strange and mysterious.


Rewrite the following statements to give the words used by the speakers.

Examples:
He said he didn’t want to go.
He said, ‘I don’t warn to go.’
She denied that she had refused to help.
She said, ‘l did not refuse to help.” (or) ‘ It is not true that l refused to help.’

1. He said that he was feeling tired.
2. She said that she couldn’t go out after 3 pm.
3. He told his sister that he intended to run away from home.
4. They said that they would wait for a later train.
5. She said that she was going to be a teacher.
6. He said that he had never been so insulted an all his life.
7. A member of the audience said that he couldn’t hear what the lecturer was saying.
8. He told his brother that he had to go out and would not be back until late.
9. He said that he wouldn’t have believed it even if it had been true.
10. They said that they had too much work to do and were going on strike.
11. The Prime Minister declared that the country had never been more prosperous.
12. She exclaimed that there was a mouse in the room
13. They complained that they were so exhausted that they could not walk any farther.
14. The little boy cried out that his sister was drowning.
15. My friend warned me that it would be too hot to sun-bath in comfort.
16. The children confessed that they had stolen all the apples from the tree.
17. He regretted that he hadn’t any biscuits to offer to his guests.
18. She replied that she wouldn’t answer such a silly question.
19. The Foreign Secretary stated that he did not intend to change his country’s policy in the near future.
20. He denied that he had wasted his life.

Answer:
1. He said, “I am feeling tired.
2. She said, “I cannot go out after 8 p.m.”
3. He said to his sister, “I intend to run away from home.”
4. They said, “We will wait for a later train.”
5. She said, “I am going to be a teacher.”
6. He said, “I have never been insulted so much in life.”
7. A member of the audience said, “I cannot hear what the lecturer is saying.”
8. He said to his brother, “I have to go out and would be not be back until late.”
9. He said, “I won’t have believed it even if it had been true.”
10.  They said, “We have had too much work to do and were going on strike.”
11. The Prime Minister said, “The country has never been more prosperous.”
12. She said, “Ouch! There is a mouse in the room.”
13. They said, “We were so exhausted that we cannot walk any farther.”
14. The little boy cried out, “My sister is drowning.”
15.  My friend said, “It will be too hot to sun-bath in comfort.”
16. The children said, “We have stolen all the apples from the tree.”
17. He said, “ I haven’t any biscuits to offer to my guests.”
18. She replied, “I won’t answer such a silly question.”
19. The Foreign Secretary said, “I do not intend to change my country’s policy in the near future.”
20. He said, “I have not wasted my life.”


Put the following sentences into reported speech. In some cases an appropriate reporting verb is supplied. Say may be used for others. Put the reporting verb in the Past Tense and use an appropriate pronoun.

1. I shall come and see you as soon as I can.
2. Ours is a large family and we need more space.
3. I can’t find anyone to help me. (complain)
4. I’m quite unable to repay you the money you lent me. (regret)
5. Although she is my sister. I don’t trust her.
6. I am not in the habit of telling lies. (affirm)
7. I have no patience with ill-mannered people.
8. We can spend Sunday at the seaside. (suggest)
9. He locked the safe but forgot to put the cash-box inside.
10. I am not lazy, whatever people may think. (deny)
11. We must get up early if we are going to catch the train.
12. The meeting will continue until all the problems have been solved. (declare)
13. It will probably be all right. (suppose)
14. As far as I know, the statement is quite correct.
15. The swimming-pool will be empty by the time we get there.
16. The advertisement appeared on two consecutive days.(report)
17. I hate being out of work.
18. My friend doesn’t think it is worthwhile.
19. There is nothing to be afraid of: you will be able to do it easily. (reply)
20. I shall have a rise in pay very soon. (boast)

Answer:
1. She said that she would come and see him as soon as I could.
2. He told me that theirs was a large family and they needed more space.
3. He complained to me that he couldn’t find anyone to help him.
4. He regretted that he was quite unable to repay him the money he had lent him.
5. He said that although she is his sister, he doesn’t trust her.
6. He affirmed his friend that he is not in the habit of telling lies.
7. He exclaimed that he had no patience with ill-mannered people.
8. They suggested us that we could spend Sunday at the seaside.
9. He told me that he had locked the safe but forgot to put the cash-box inside.
10. Whatever people might think, he denied being lazy.
11. They said that they must get up early if they were going to catch the train.
12. The manager declared that the meeting would continue until all the problems would be solved.
13. He supposed that he would probably be all right.
14. He told us that the statement is quite correct as far as he knows.
15. He told us that the swimming pool would be empty by the time we would there. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correction: swimming pool).
16. The reported that the advertisement appeared on two consecutive days.
17. He told us that he hated being out of work.
18. He told them that his friend didn’t think it was worthwhile.
19. He replied to his sister that there was nothing to be afraid of; she would be able to do that easily.
20. He told us that he would have boasted a rise in pay very soon.


Reported questions are usually introduced by ask, but other verbs, for example, wonder, inquire, want to know, are sometimes used. Rewrite the following to reported questions to give the words used by the speakers.

1. He asked what I was going to do.
2. He asked the policeman how he could get to the station.
3. The policeman asked him which station he wanted to get to.
4. She asked me why I was looking so unhappy.
5. They asked her when she could come for an interview.
6. He asked me where I intended to live.
7. They asked me if I had played hockey recently.
8. They asked him how he wanted to be paid — in cash or by cheque.
9. She wondered whether it would rain.
10. The manager inquired if the staff had any complaints to make.
11. The boys wanted to know if they had to do any homework in the holidays.
12. He wanted to know whether he could go home early.
13. She doubted whether he would make a good engineer.
14. He wanted to know what time the sun rose on 4th August.
15. The tax collector inquired if he had paid his taxes up to date.

Answer:
1. He said to me, “What are you going to do?”
2. He said to the policeman, “How can I get to the station?”
3. The policeman said to him, “Which station you want to get to?”
4. She said, “Why are you looking so unhappy?”
5. “When can I come for an interview?”, she said.
6. He said to me, “Where do you intend to live?”
7. They said to me, “Have you played hockey recently?”
8. They said to him, “How do you want to be paid — in cash or by cheque?”
9. “Will it rain?”, she said.
10. The manager said to the staff, “Do you have any complaints to make?”
11. The boys asked, “Do we have to do any homework in the holidays?
12. “Can I go home early?”, he asked.
13. She said, “Will I make a good engineer?”
14. He asked, “What time the sun rose on 4th August?”
15. The tax collector said to him, “Have you paid your taxes up to date?”


Put the following questions into reported speech:

1. Where did you go for your holiday?
2. What are you doing with, those valuable plates
3. How many times must  I tell you not to do that?
4. Which film shall we see on Saturday?
5. Can we make up a team to play cricket?
6. Did you return my bicycle?
7. Who’s given you a black eye? Have you been fighting?
8. Which is the more difficult language to the team — Hungarian or Turkish?
9. What are you afraid of? Are you a man or a mouse?
10. Will he come if I send him an invitation?
11.  Were you doing anything important?
12. What is that awful nose upstairs?
13. Have you found the book you lost?
14. Is she really ill or is she only pretending?
15. What does it say in the newspaper?
16. Can I have the afternoon off to go to a funeral?
17. Whose desk am I sitting on?
18.  Will you excuse my interrupting you on such a trivial matter?
19. Has he gone mad or does he always behave like this?
20. What’s the matter with Jimmy?

Answer:
1. He asked me where I had gone for my holiday.
2. She asked me what I was with those valuable plates.
3. He complained how many times he must tell him not to do that.
4. He asked us which film we would see on Saturday.
5. He asked me if they could not make up a team to play cricket.
6. He enquired if I had returned his bicycle.
7. She asked him who had given him a black eye, if I had been fighting.
8. He asked him whether Hungarian or Turkish was the more difficult language to the team.
9. He asked me what I was afraid of if I was a man or a horse.
10. She asked me if he would come if I sent him an invitation.
11.  He asked me if I were doing anything important.
12. He asked her what that awful nose upstairs was.
13. She asked me if I had found the book I had lost.
14. He asked her/enquired if she was really ill or she was only pretending.
15. He asked her what it said in the newspaper.
16. He asked the manager if he could have the afternoon off to go to a funeral.
17. He asked whose desk he was sitting on
18.  She asked if I would excuse her interrupting me on such a trivial matter.
19. He asked me if he had gone mad or he always behaved like that.
20. He asked me what the matter with Jimmy was.


Put the following sentences into reported speech. Distinguish carefully between a statement, a question, an order and an exclamation.

1. I always spend my week-ends in the country.
2. What will you do when I’m not here?
3. Go straight upstairs and get into bed.
4. What a wonderful time the children have had!
5. The earth goes round the sun.
6. I rarely dream, but when I do I have nightmares.
7. Lock the front door when you go out.
8. They go sailing as often as they can.
9. A person who always tells lies can never be trusted.
10. What a pity you have to leave so soon!
11. Take the shirt back to the shop, and change it for one with a bigger collar.
12. Remember where you are and behave yourself.
13. The two old men are discussing the battles they fought in the last war.
14. What are you looking for? I can’t see anything under the table.
15. Will you play tennis with me tomorrow?
16. What a miserable day I Must we stay at home all the time?
17. Don’t believe everything she says.
18. They are asking me to do a job which I am sure I can’t do.
19. It is fortunate that Britain is an island.
20. Will you be in at seven o’clock tonight? I must talk to you privately.

Answer:
1. He said that always spend my week-ends in the country. (Note: Mistake in the book – Correction: weekends.)
2. He asked me what I would do when he had not been there.
3. My mother ordered me to go straight upstairs and get into bed.
4. The teacher exclaimed with joy what a wonderful time the children had had.
5. The teacher told them that the earth goes round the sun.
6. He said that he rarely dreams, but when he does, he has nightmares.
7. He asked me to lock the front door when I go out.
8. They told me that they go sailing as often as they can.
9. He said that the person who always tells lies can never be trusted.
10. He sighed that what a pity it was that I had to leave so soon.
11. He ordered the servant to take the shirt back to the shop, and change it for one with a bigger collar.
12. He ordered us to remember where we were and behave ourselves.
13. She told us that the two old men were discussing the battles they had fought in the last war.
14. He asked me what I was looking for. He told me that he couldn’t see anything under the table.
15. He asked me if I would play tennis with him tomorrow.
16. He exclaimed with sorrow what a miserable day it was. He asked if he must we stay at home all the time.
17. He advised me not to believe everything she says.
18. She told me that they are asking her to do a job, which she was sure she couldn’t do.
19. He said that it is fortunate that Britain is an island.
20. He asked me if I would be in at seven o’clock tonight. He said that must talk to me privately.


1. Put the following conversation into reported speech.
2. Reproduce the story in your own words.

Tom’s father: My son is so stupid I really don’t know how he’s ever going to earn a living.
Jack’s father: Well, he can’t be any worse than my boy. Jack has failed every examination he’s ever sat for; he’s always bottom of his class, and I simply can’t imagine what I’m going to do with him when he leaves school.
Tom’s father: Don’t worry! Jack’s quite intelligent compared to Tom.
Jack’s father: What nonsense! You’re crazy if you believe that, I tell you the boy’s a half-wit.
Tom’s father: All right, keep your hair on! Anyway, we can soon settle the question.
Jack’s father: Do you mean you can prove that Tom is stupider than Jack?
Tom’s father: Yes. certainly, I can call the boy in and I’ll show you.

                                        (Tom comes in.)

Tom’s father: Tom, I want you to do something for me. Here’s sixpence. Just go out and buy a car for me, will you?
Tom: Yes, Dad.

                                         (Tom goes out.)

Tom’s father: There you are. Doesn’t that prove he’s an idiot?
Jack’s father: Yes, perhaps it does. But Jack is even more of an idiot. Call him in and watch what happens now.

                                         (Jack comes in.)

Jack’s father: Jack, I want you to do something for me. Ring up the office and find out if I’m there, will you?
Jack: Yes, Dad.

                                          (Jack goes out and meets Tom.)

Jack: Hello, Tom. You can’t imagine what a stupid father I’ve got.
Tom: Well, he can’t be any worse than mine. He’s just given me sixpence to buy a car with, and he hasn’t even told me what colour he wants.
Jack: Oh, that’s nothing. My father has just asked me to ring up his office to find out if he’s there, and all the time he had a telephone right by his side.

Answer:
1. Tom’s father said that his son is so stupid. He really doesn’t know how he’s ever going to earn a living.
Jack’s father said that he couldn’t be any worse than his boy. Jack had failed every examination he’d ever sat for; he was always bottom of his class, and he simply couldn’t imagine what he was going to do with him when he would leave school.
Tom’s father asked him not to worry. Jack was quite intelligent compared to Tom.
Jack’s father exclaimed with surprise what nonsense it was. He said that he was crazy if he believed that, he told him that the boy was a half-wit.
Tom’s father said that it was all right and asked Jack’s father to keep his hair on. He said that they could settle the question soon anyway.
Jack’s father asked him if he meant he could prove that Tom was stupider than Jack.
Tom’s father affirmed that he certainly could. He asked him to call the boy in and he’d show him.
Tom’s father told the boy to do something for him. He told him that there’s sixpence. He asked him if he would go out and buy a car for him.
Tom assured.
Tom’s father said to Jack’s father that there he was. He asked him if that didn’t prove he was an idiot.
Jack’s father agreed that perhaps it did. But, he said that Jack was even more of an idiot. He asked him to call him in and watch what happens then.
Jack’s father ordered Jack that he wanted him to do something for him. He asked him if he would ring up the office and find out if he was there.
Tom assured.
Jack greeted Tom. He said that he couldn’t imagine what a stupid father he had got.
Tom said that he couldn’t be any worse than his. He said that he had just given him sixpence to buy a car with, and he hadn’t even told him what colour he wanted.
Jack said that it was nothing. His father had just asked him to ring up his office to find out if he was there, and all the time he had a telephone right by his side.

2. Once upon a time, there were two boys Tom and Jack. Their fathers were extremely disappointed in them. One day, they were discussing about their foolish habits when Tom’s father expressed his anxiety over his son’s foolishness. He said that he feared if his son would ever be able to earn a living. On hearing this, Jack’s father said that he couldn’t be any worse than his son. He told him that Jack had failed every examination he’d ever sat for; he was always bottom of his class, and he simply couldn’t imagine what he was going to do with him when he would leave school. Tom’s father asked him not to worry. He insisted was quite intelligent compared to Tom.

The latter considered it an act of sheer nonsense on his part. He said that he was crazy if he believed that and told him that the boy was a half-wit. However, Tom’s father asked Jack’s father to keep his fingers crossed, and they could settle the question soon anyway.
Jack’s father was surprised. He asked him if he meant he could prove that Tom was stupider than Jack. Tom’s father affirmed that he certainly could. He asked him to call the boy in and he’d show him. He gave sixpence to Tom and told him to buy a car for him. Without giving it a second thought, Tom assured that he would. Tom’s father was certain that Jack’s father would have been convinced of his son’s imprudence by now. However, it turned out that although he was convinced, he still believed that his son was more thoughtless than Tom. He asked him to call him in and watch what happens then. Jack’s father asked Jack to go and make a call at his office in order to find out if he was there. Tom assured that he would.
The two boys met each other soon afterward. Jack told him that he couldn’t imagine what a stupid father he had got. Tom said that he couldn’t be any worse than his. He said that his father had just given him sixpence to buy a car with, and he hadn’t even told him what color he wanted. Jack said that it was nothing in comparison to what his father had just done. He had just asked him to ring up his office to find out if he was there, while he had a telephone right by his side all the time.


The following is a report of a speech made by the guest of honour at a school prize-giving ceremony. Read it carefully and then reproduce the actual words spoken by Sir Hugh.

Sir Hugh Tarbet began by saying that he had been much impressed by all that he had seen of the school. The Headmaster had shown him round that morning and he had had a chance to see the boys at work. The classrooms were clean and airy; the laboratories and the gymnasium were well-equipped and up-to-date. The boys had to realize how lucky they were. He, himself, at their age, had been to a school that was not half so good. Sometimes, he confessed, he felt that the modem generation was being spoilt; things were made too easy for them; they did not acquire that valuable training in character which’ comes from overcoming difficulties. But that was really only envy. He was naturally glad that the young people of today had the opportunity of learning and growing up in such pleasant surround­ings. He just wanted to emphasize a fact which was often forgotten; that a school was not only a place in which to learn facts aid pass examinations but also a place in which to learn how to be a good citizen and how to face life with courage and determination. It must form character as well as minds. He hoped that neither the boys nor the masters would ever forget that. Finally, it only remained for him to ask the Headmaster — as was the custom, and a very pleasant one, too — to give the school a whole day’s holiday in honour of the occasion.

Answer:
Sir Hugh Tarbet said: “I am much impressed by all that I have seen of the school. The Headmaster has had shown me around this morning and I have had a chance to see the boys at work. The classrooms are clean and airy; the laboratories and the gymnasium are well-equipped and up-to-date. You have to realize how lucky you are. I, myself, at your age, have been to a school that was not half so good. Sometimes, I feel that the modern generation is being spoilt; things are being made too easy for them; they do not acquire that valuable training in character, which comes from overcoming difficulties. But, I am naturally glad that young people of today have the opportunity of learning and growing up in such pleasant surroundings. He just wants to emphasize a fact which is often forgotten that a school is not only a place to learn facts and pass examinations but also a place to learn how to be a good citizen and how to face life with courage and determination. It must form characters as well as minds. I hope that neither the boys nor the masters would ever forget that. Finally, it only remains for me to ask the Headmaster – as is a custom and a very pleasant one too – to give the school a whole day’s holiday in honor of the occasion.”

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