English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 13 The Hostile Witness

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 13 The Hostile Witness Question Answers Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

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English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 13 The Hostile Witness

Why did Charlton give away the place where the case was deposited for which he had committed murder?

Charlton gave away the place where the case had been deposited for which he had committed murder because he wanted to pass the suspicion off to Mr. King.

Why was Manning interested in the make and age of King’s car?

Manning was interested in the make and age of King’s car because he had learnt that the criminal had escaped in a stolen sports car.

Why was Manning certain of Charlton’s guilt after peering closely into his face?

Manning was certain of Charlton’s guilt after peering closely into his face because he had seen traces of the false moustache that Charlton had apparently torn off his upper lip.

Briefly explain what was in Manning’s mind when he said, ‘Your story really interests me, Mr. King.’

When Manning said that Mr. King’s story interested him, Manning was quite sure that Charlton had committed the murder. However, he pretended that he did not believe him in order to make Charlton think that he believed him so that he could get hold of the stolen money.

At what point in the play does the audience realize that Charlton is lying in order to throw suspicion on King?

The audience begins to realize that Charlton is lying in order to throw suspicion on King when King states that he had given a lift to Charlton on his way.

At what point in the play does the audience realize that Charlton is lying in order to throw suspicion on King?

Manning never believed that King was the murderer because if King had committed the crime, he could have escaped in his car to west instead of coming to the White Hart Hotel at the time when he had reached. By driving his car fast, he could have escaped from New Castle to Darlington, before the police would have started checking the travellers on the roads.

Briefly explain why Johnson, Carter, and Abbott were suspicious of King even before the revolver was found in his room.

Johnson, Carter and Abbott were suspicious of King because the physical description of the murderer announced by radio matched his personality. He was rather a respectable looking person, who had the medium size and was reluctant to hand over keys to Manning. Therefore, they thought that he was the real murderer.

Why did Detective Sergeant Manning first speak rather coldly to the group of men in the hotel lounge?

The Detective Sergeant, Manning, first spoke rather coldly to the group of men in the hotel lounge because he thought the murderer was there.

What crime had been committed in Newcastle that after­noon?

There had been a robbery and the murder of a person at New Castle that afternoon.

What was in the case that Charlton put in the cupboard behind the reception desk?

The case that Charlton put in the cupboard behind the reception desk contained stolen weekly wages of workers of New Castle factory.


1. As briefly as you can, give an account of the plot of the one-act play you have just read.  and
2. Write a short piece of dialogue, with stage directions, based on one of the following situations:

(a) A traveller discovers that he has got into the wrong train.
(b) A shop-keeper tries to persuade a customer to buy a more expensive article than the one he, or she, really wants.
(c) Three students planning a Sunday excursion find it difficult to agree on where they will go.

1. Plot of the One Act Play ‘The Hostile Witness’

The plot of the play, ‘The Hostile Witness’ by D.Y. Morgan, is based on a detective story. The protagonist of the story, Mr. Earnest King is not satisfied with the performance of the State Police, but his views are changed when he witnesses the performance of the police in arresting a murderer. Norman Charlton works as a servant in White Hart Hotel. He robs the weekly wages of two people at New Castle, who are going to their factory carrying a large sum of money and shoots them. One of them, named John Edward Robson, gets killed while the other becomes seriously wounded. Charlton escapes from the site of robbery in a stolen sports car. After reaching a safe place, he leaves the car and takes a lift from Mr. Earnest King who is on his way to the White Hart Hotel. When they reach the hotel, Charlton transfers the stolen bag from Mr. King’s car into the hotel and places it behind the reception desk. He goes upstairs to put King’s luggage in a room and gets dressed in his white jacket. Mr. King sits in the lounge and orders a cold drink. While he is enjoying the drink, Mr. Abott arrives with two other guests, Mr. Cartor and Johnson. They inform him about the robbery and the murder and the checking of the travelers’ cars by the police. While they are discussing about the robbery, Detective Sergeant Manning Police Constables, Stevens, and Edwards, enter the hotel. They inform them that they intend to check their rooms and luggage of the guests because, in the wake of the recent murder, it is their duty was to check all the hotels in the North of England. Everyone gives them the keys except Mr. King, who finds it unrespectable. But after some discussion, he also gives the keys. The detective then goes up to check the rooms and returns holding a pistol in his hand, which he recovers from the room. He finds it hidden below the mattress of Mr. King’s room and informs that it appears to have been fired recently. Consequently, he suspects Mr. King for the murder. Taking advantage of this situation, Charlton gives the physical description of the murderer, which matches that of Mr. King, making him more suspicious in everyone’s eyes. Charlton also gives the bag of money having massive locks from behind the reception desk and says that this bag was carried by Mr. King. Suddenly, Manning turns at Charlton and orders the constable to arrest him. It is after seeing the remains of the fake moustaches on his upper lip that he suspects him. Moreover, Charlton’s act of taking a lift from Mr. King makes him more suspicious. The Sargent also asks him if he wears horn-rimmed glasses, which he confirms. Manning then arrests him and tells the people how Charlton had committed the crime by disguising his appearance, hiding the pistol under the mattress in Mr. King’s room, and taking a lift from Mr. King in order to escape from the police safely. He also seeks an apology from Mr. King for his harsh treatment towards him. By the end of the play, the efforts made by the police to catch the murderer transform Mr. King’s views regarding the police.

2. Dialogue with stage directions on:
(a) A traveller who discovers that he has got into the wrong train.

Asad, a student of the first year, is rushing towards the train while reading his favorite volume from the Harry Potter Series, oblivious of the fact that he is getting into the wrong train. He continues to read, without paying any heed to the children stepping over his bag pack.
Passenger (sitting on the same berth, next to him): Keep­ an eye out at your luggage, young boy!
Asad (alarmed): Oh, thank you, Sir. I just noticed.
(Picks up the bag pack and puts it in his lap. In the meanwhile, the stationmaster comes to check the ticket.)
Station Master (to the old man sitting next to Asad): Take out your ticket, old chap!
(The old man retrieves the ticket from his pocket).
Passenger: There you are.
(Station Master checks the ticket and turns towards Asad)
Station Master: Your turn now.
Engrossed in the novel he’s reading, Asad doesn’t listen to him.
Station Master (to the old passenger while looking at the book cover Asad is reading): This young boy, Harry, I tell you, he has taken our youth by storm.
Asad: Pardon. Are you talking to me, sir?
Station Master (Sighs): Yes, boss! Take out your ticket for verification.
Asad: Oh, I’m extremely sorry. Just a minute, sir.
(Unzips the front pocket of his bag and retrieves the ticket)
Station Master: Oh my God! Did you not see your ticket properly? You got on the train to Lahore, while your ticket shows you intended to go to Jamshoro.
Asad (Worried): I have never been to Punjab in my entire life so far, Sir. What should I do now?
Station Master: All I can do is help you with the emergency exit. (Adds, mockingly) Unless you want to visit the city of Lahore and take a train back to Sindh.
Passenger: Oh, don’t make fun of the poor little boy, sir. Hurry up before the train goes too far!
Asad (Nervous): Yes, please. But I’m afraid my parents will be really mad at me. By getting into the wrong train, I have wasted the money I spent on buying the ticket.
 Station Master: No use crying over spilt milk now. Hurry up, boy! And don’t forget your book (Laughs).
Asad (Rushes behind him): Ok, sir.
Station Master (Pulls the chain): There you go. Be careful.
Asad (Breathless): Thank you so much. Goodbye.
Station Master: Goodbye.

2. (b) A shop-keeper who tries to persuade a customer to buy a more expensive article than the one he, or she, really wants.
 It is 11:00 am in the morning and raining cats and dogs since dawn. Ali, the salesperson at a shop dealing with genuine leather goods, stands outside the shop, sipping a cup of tea, hoping that it is not going to be a busy day, as not may customers would turn up in this weather. Just then, a customer wearing a suit, raincoat and holding a briefcase in on hand, and umbrella in the other, walks down the road and stops by at the shop.
Ali (Shopkeeper): Good afternoon, sir, it’s good to see you in my shop on such a wet day.
Customer (Putting the wet umbrella and the briefcase aside): Oh, Hi! Yes, it has been raining a lot lately. Such a cold day it is. (Taking his shoes off) The sole of my shoe broke on my way to the office, as you can see. Also, my feet have got quite wet in these thin shoes. Could you show me a nice pair of shoes?
Shopkeeper: Yes, sir. We have different designs of imported and local shoes.
Customer: Show me the local variety of shoes that you have got.
Shopkeeper: Sure, sir. What colour would you like to have?
Customer: Tan.
Shopkeeper: Do you wear size nine?
Customer: No. It’s size ten that fits me perfectly.
Shopkeeper(Giving him the shoes): Here you go.
Customer:  I don’t like this design. I would like to buy pointed suede shoes.
Shopkeeper (Trying the shoes on):  Wait a bit, sir. We have some latest designs of shoes. I hope you will like them. But they would be imported ones. A bit more expensive, you see.
Customer: You should display more designs in a local variety of shoes.
Shopkeeper: We do, sir. But their quality is not as good as the imported ones. (Shows another pair of shoes) Here, have a look at this. It is made of genuine leather.
Customer: Hmm. This looks nice. How much would it cost me?
 Shopkeeper: Six thousand rupees, sir.
Customer: Oh my God. This is too much.
 Shopkeeper: The same pair of shoes is being sold for nine thousand rupees in the Arena Mall, sir. We do not overcharge our customers.
Customer: I think it is quite expensive. Show me some other.
 Shopkeeper: It is the latest design, sir. And look at the sole, sir. It’s Italian.
Customer (Scratches his head): Umm… Any discount?
Shopkeeper: It is a fixed price shop, sir.
Customer: Okay. So do you offer any warranty?
Shopkeeper: One year warranty from the day of the purchase on all imported stuff.
Customer: And local?
Shopkeeper: Sorry, sir. We don’t offer any warranty on local shoes.
Customer: Oh, okay.
Shopkeeper: I insist you buy the imported one Sir. I can assure you won’t regret spending money on it.
Customer: Pack it. Don’t forget to mention the warranty date.
 Shopkeeper: Sure (Enters the date)
Customer: (Hands over the money) Thank you.
Shopkeeper: You’re welcome, sir. Have a good day!

2. (c) Three students who are planning a Sunday excursion and find it difficult to agree on where they will go.
Fahad, Arham, and Awais are sitting in the college café during the recess. Arham shows them the pictures of his last holiday outing to Ayubia with family.
 Awais (Pointing at the photograph where Arham is feeding the monkeys): Seems like you enjoyed a lot.
Arham: Yeah. It was a good break from our hectic schedule. Had a great time with family after a long time.
Fahad (While eating the sandwich he had ordered): I think we should go out together this Sunday.
Awais: Not a bad idea. We should visit Mohatta Palace. What do you think, guys?
Fahad: Oh, but I went there only last month. I have heard a lot about the PAF Museum, Karachi. Many planes would be on display. Why don’t we go there?
Arham: You and your craze for airplanes. Why don’t we go to the seaside?
Fahad: Living in Karachi since my childhood, the sea has no charm for me. It must be the same as you, Awais. Isn’t it?
Awais: Yes, you’re right.
Arham: Oh, come on guys! Playing cricket, enjoying a camel ride while eating ice popsicles and a scrumptious lunch by the seashore, and watching the sunset in the evening can never lose its charm.
 Awais: But always the same place, I…
Fahad (interrupts): Okay, let’s go for a movie then. And may he have a nice dinner afterwards?
Awais: Umm…
(The school bell rings)
Arham (Sighs): Time for the next class.
Fahad: Hurry up, guys! Sir Sajid will give us a severe punishment if we got late.
Awais (While running): Our indecisiveness would get us nowhere, I tell you.
Arham (Breathless): We’ll discuss it in the evening over the phone call.

Q 1. This is the first paragraph of an essay on ‘Entertainment’, and the first sentence of the second paragraph. Complete the second paragraph.

Older people often affirm that the modern world is suffering from too much entertainment, or at least from too much ready-made entertain­ment. Instead of doing things for ourselves, the tendency nowadays is to sit and listen to, or watch, a few artists and athletes doing things for us. The gramophone, the radio, the cinema and the television are recent inventions which have entirely changed the pattern of entertainment in the modern world. Modern means of travel, too, have made it possible for large numbers of people to assemble in one place at one time to watch open-air sporting events. Is this altogether a good thing?
In the old days, people had to provide their own amusements.

In the old days, people had to provide their own amusements. However, professional entertainers were in demand. People would arrange puppet shows for the amusement of children. Elders would gather in the streets to enjoy the puppet plays. Comedy was another major source of entertainment. Like comedians, singers and strolling players were welcomed in courts. Moreover, open-air amphitheaters were also an important feature of entertainment available to the public in the ancient society. On the other hand, with the advances in the modern technology, there is a wide variety of sources of entertainment in the modern times, which are effortless and readily available to us with the click of a bu

Q 2. Draw up a possible plan for the remaining paragraphs of the essay.

Paragraph 3: Key-sentence:
 Most commonly used modern means of entertainment include television, sound broadcasting, and internet among others.
(Subject matter: types of modern means of entertainment) Points to mention entertainment programmes on the internet and radio — music — plays — social media etc.
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: Entertainment in modern times has decreased the tendency of the people for physical activity and social interaction.
(Subject matter: disadvantages of modern sources of entertainment) Points to mention: children and young people spend most of their time on the internet — online games — social media websites — online movies, documentaries etc. — no physical activity — long periods of inactivity — lethargy — health issues — lack of interaction with family.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: Although the sources of entertainment have changed in modern times, the human need for entertainment is increasing with every passing day.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: mechanical lives — busy routine — need for entertainment — to provide relaxation — acquire peace of mind — children should also practice sports’ activities for a healthy lifestyle.

Q 1. This is the last but one paragraph of an essay on ‘Methods of Travel’ and the first sentence of the last paragraph (the conclusion). Complete the last paragraph.

But the fastest method of travel is, of course, the aeroplane. Nothing is more marvellous, in this age of marvels, than the way in which air travel has developed in the last fifty years; from the early fragile machines of wood and canvas to the gleaming metal monsters of today; from a bare grass field to a modern airport, with its miles of concrete runways, its huge hangars, and its complicated devices for ensuring the safety of aeroplanes in all kinds of weather. Now you can fly round the world in a few days; soon you will be able to fly from Europe to America and back in a mere twelve hours.
With all these rapid means of travel at our disposal the world is truly growing smaller.

With all these rapid means of travel at our disposal, the world is truly growing smaller. But the fastest method of travel is, of course, the aeroplane. Nothing is more marvellous, in this age of marvels, than the way in which air travel has developed in the last fifty years; from the early fragile machines of wood and canvas to the gleaming metal monsters of today; from a bare grass field to a modern airport, with its miles of concrete runways, its huge hangars, and its complicated devices for ensuring the safety of aeroplanes in all kinds of weather. Now you can fly around the world in a few days; soon you will be able to fly from Europe to America and back in a mere twelve hours. The invention of the aeroplane has added enormously to the comfort and interest of modern living. In short, the modern invention of aeroplane has made travelling across the world easier with the discovery of comfortable, fast-paced, and timesaving means of transportation. With the invention of the airplane, air flights became a more common mode of transport as compared to ships. The next step in transport will probably be the commercial space flight. If it happens, it will certainly be very expensive at first, however, it will eventually become cheap enough for ordinary people to afford.

Q 2. Draw up a possible plan for the first three paragraphs of the essay.

 Paragraph 1: Key-sentence:
 Modern means of travelling have brought the people living in different corners of the world closer to each other.
(Introduction) Points to mention: 19th Century — Railways and sea transportation —- 20th century — invention of cars —- 1960s —- commercial airlines — expanded rapidly.
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: The most accessible and commonly used means of travelling is land transport, but it has its limitations.
(Subject matter: land transportation) Points to mention: Cars, trucks, vans and pickups —- these vehicles move on wheels — preferred for short distances
Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: During the last hundred years, vessels on the oceans have got bigger and faster for the swift transportation of goods from one place to another.
(Subject matter: sea transportation) Points to mention:  relatively slow means of travelling — but, can carry heavy loads — cheaper than air transport — more time-consuming.
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: Air transport is the most fast-paced means of transportation to travel across the countries and continents.
(Subject matter: air transportation) Points to mention: Airplanes, helicopters, cargo planes and jumbo jets — initially used for wars — now for passenger transportation —within countries and across one country to another — fastest — expensive yet common — safest.

Write plans for essays on the following subjects (five paragraphs each) :
1. My ideal summer holiday.
2. A capital city.
3. The cinema and the theatre.
4. Modern inventions.
5. Newspapers.

1. My Ideal Summer Holiday

Paragraph 1: Key-sentence: Nearly everyone dreams of spending an ideal summer holiday at the place he likes best either all by himself or accompanied by people sharing similar interests.
(Introduction) Points to mention: summer holidays — rejoiced as best part of the year — planned in my imagination — hilly area — beauty of nature
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: Being a keen observer of nature, my ideal summer vacation would be in a hilly area across beautiful waterfalls and streams flowing nearby.
(Subject matter: situation) Points to mention: — away from the hustle and bustle of the city life — peaceful atmosphere — straw hut — cliffs — lovely view — hiking — track to the beach — swimming.
Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: I’d like to spend my day enjoying the tranquil and serene atmosphere all by myself.
(Subject matter: activities) Points to mention: morning hike — long summer afternoons — under the shades of the trees — chirping of birds — solitude — contemplation
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: My surroundings will inspire me to appreciate the beauty of nature and evoke my creative faculty.
(Subject matter: effect) Points to mention: be able to enjoy nature in its pure form — soothing effect on my senses — evoke me to write songs of nature — read books.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: My ideal summer holiday is more like an unfulfilled dream, but it is not larger than life.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: hope to have it accomplished one day — difficult since I am young enough to pursue it — but life is full of surprises.

2. A Capital City
Paragraph 1: Key-sentence:  The capital city of every country is considered to be the seat of administration and government of a state.  
(Introduction) Points to mention: capital cities do not necessarily dominate large global urban networks — seats of power and decision — including the economic sphere.
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: Every country has only one capital, and it has considerable political and symbolic significance to the national territory to which it belongs.
(Subject matter: function) Points to mention:  Etymology— derived from Latin word ‘caput’ — refers to the city at the “head” of a territory — four characteristics: has a unique status in its territory,  its existence is essential for that territory, urban in form, it entertains a symbolic link with the State.
Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: A capital city, whether big or small, usually consists of a fairly wealthy population, which contributes to the prosperity of the country in which it is located.
(Subject matter: population) Points to mention: expensive metropolitan city — large numbers of jobs in the administration, in embassies and consulates, in the media and — tourism — large numbers of diplomats, journalists, and prominent guests visit the city frequently.
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: A capital city is usually one of the most well-planned urban centers of a country, which houses the Parliament and offers better facilities than the rest of the cites within the country.
(Subject matter: state/condition) Points to mention: usually a metropolitan city— offers more educational and professional opportunities — well-constructed roads — better facilities of transportation — latest technology in institutions — well-equipped hospitals etc.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: In all cases, the capital city possesses a symbolic dimension that distinguishes it from other towns and cities.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: Like the flag or the national anthem — represents the identity of the State — political inclinations of the State at a given time etc.

3. The Cinema and the Theatre
Paragraph 1: Key-sentence: Cinema and theatre are great sources of entertainment but the two differ in the style of the characters’ performances and impact on the audience.
(Introduction) Points to mention: busy life of the city — people often lack time for fun and relaxation — one form of entertainment — watching productions — either on stage or in film — choosing between theatre productions and movies — matter of personal preference.
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: In modern times, the cinema halls are equipped with the latest technology while not many theatres are established.
(Subject matter: cinema halls versus theatre rooms) Points to mention: Modern cinema halls — comfortable — many rows with convenient seats — everyone can see the screen clearly — quality of the sound has improved — refreshment rooms in cinema — Theatre — live performance — consists of two parts: the stage and the hall —  separated by a curtain and the orchestra.
Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: The level of entertainment of theatre productions and movies varies depending on not only their presentation but also how the audience perceives them.
(Subject matter: factors affecting the level of entertainment) Points to mention: the main purpose — to entertain people, either through drama, comedy, or action — costumes, props, effects add to the entertainment level. Most people find movies — more entertaining — often larger than life — but some are realistic too — rely on props and sound effects — but usually more realistic.  
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: The cost and quality of cinema and theatre production differ to a great extent.  
(Subject matter: difference with respect to production cost and quality) Points to mention: require more budget in production — have more enhanced visual and audio effects — can be edited through computers and other equipment. Theatre productions — require relatively less budget in production — limited effects — presented live — cannot be edited.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: Although movies and theatre productions are both entertaining, people generally prefer watching movies to theater.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: more practical — enhanced visual and audio effects — both provide a different experience altogether — movies are more readily available as videotapes for renting purposes — Nowadays people are equipped with video recorders in their majority.

4. Modern Inventions
Paragraph 1: Key-sentence: Modern inventions made in Science and Technology have not only made our lives more comfortable but also provided us to better opportunities for successfully carrying out daily matters.
(Introduction) Points to mention: Modern inventions — vital to the development of the society — age of technology and communication — luxuries — comfort — improved lifestyle of societies — drawn societies closer
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: Modern inventions have added enormously to the comfort and interest of modern living.
(Subject matter: luxuries provided by modern scientific inventions) Points to mention: telephone — internet — television — better opportunities for education research and communication — electrical appliances and other facilities.
Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: The invention of the latest means of transport, aeroplanes, has made it easier for us to travel across the world in a short period of time.
(Subject matter: transportation) Points to mention: past versus present — in the earlier times — ships — took days to travel to far off places — more time consuming — invention of aeroplanes — traveling has become more convenient — less time-consuming.
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: Scientists working in the field of telecommunication have brought the people living across the world closer by making the communication between masses more affordable and convenient.
(Subject matter: benefits of telecommunication technology) Points to mention: internet — flexible process of communication — wider exposure – a wide range of possibilities — examples: entrepreneurship, small online business, software for creating virtual classrooms etc.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: Owing to the modern inventions in the fields of science and technology, today the world has developed into a global village.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: scientific inventions — luxury — comfort — ease — save time and energy — changed man’s way of life.

5. Newspapers
Paragraph 1: Key-sentence: Newspapers bring us news and views from all corners of the world.
(Introduction) Points to mention: world; a global village — what happens in one corner of the world affects the other — newspaper; print media — a necessity in modern life — printed in almost all languages and in all countries of the world — keep us well-informed about latest news and happenings — classified according to the number of times they appear in a year — daily, some twice in a week, some weekly, some fortnightly, and or monthly.
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: Newspapers cater to the interests of the people of all ages because they carry information regarding all walks of life.
(Subject matter: scope of newspapers) Points to mention: carry information for everyone: businessman, politician, unemployed people, players, and kids etc. — all sorts of information, local, national, and international — keep us in constant touch with news, developments, changes, advances and occurrences in each nook and corner of the world
We must know about Newspapers serve many purposes. They wield much influence and power.

Paragraph 3: Key-sentence: Reading newspapers provide a wealth of knowledge to an individual either related to science or technology; education or medicine and so on and so forth.
(Subject matter: advantages of reading newspapers) Points to mention: widens exposure — increases knowledge — keeps one abreast of all advances made in the fields of science, education, medicine and technology — events happening every day in the fields of politics, civic life, industry, commerce, fashion, sports, science, arts as well as latest inventions, researches, discoveries, etc. and new ideas and so on — at a very little price to the reader — serve as a link between the people and the Government — trade advertisements — medium to promote social evils — medium of communication — quote inspiring speeches — importance of reading newspapers cannot be denied.
Paragraph 4: Key-sentence: Newspapers wield much power and influence on the thoughts and perceptions of the readers but they often misuse the power to distort the worldview in the minds of the people.
(Subject matter: Yellow journalism and its disadvantages) Points to mention: biased, one side of the picture — sometimes newspapers serve a political agenda — fabricated stories — mold public opinion — may spread communal hatred — false advertisements may deceive the reader.
Paragraph 5: Key-sentence: Newspaper is the most powerful tool of print media, which can spread the latest news updates and information regarding all walks of life.
(Conclusion) Points to mention: It is essential to in the readers so that they do not believe every word of news. The newspaper should present facts —  cultivate thinking faculty of the readers — follow a strict code of ethics — many papers serve a particular interest and give biased views. Therefore, people should not be led away by false news or by the views of a particular paper. They should exercise their own judgment and form their own opinion.

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