English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 14 Silence

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 14 Silence Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

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English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 14 Silence

Q 1. Only one paragraph in the essay does not begin with a key- sentence. Which is it?

Only the third paragraph in the essay ‘Silence’ by Robert Lynd does not begin with a key sentence.

Q 2. In not more than three sentences explain how one can tell that the writer’s background is England.

One can tell that the writer, Robert Lynd’s background is from England from the second paragraph of the essay, ‘Silence’, in which he speaks of two persons talking about the memories of old times spent by them in an English academic institution. In the last paragraph of the essay, the writer drops another hint on his background, where he discusses the Armistice Day ceremonies in London.

Q 3. How can one tell that the essay was written between 1919 and 1939?

One can tell that the essay was written between 1919 and 1939 because the writer has mentioned the “Two Minutes” silence observed in connection with Armistice Day, in the remembrance of the cease-fire after the first World War, in 1918. The celebration of the ceremony ceased with the beginning of the Second World War in 1939. Therefore, it can be concluded that this essay was written between 1919 and 1939.

Q 4. On what grounds does Robert Lynd defend conversation about the weather?

Robert Lynd defends the conversation about the weather on the ground that a conversation must be based on mutual sympathy. A common note of sympathy is struck by talking about experiences, which are shared by both. Weather is one experience which is generally shared by people and enables them to talk on the same note. Therefore, it is an ideal subject for initiating a conversation.

Q 5. According to this essay, what kind of topic should be avoided in a conversation among three peoples?

According to the essay ‘Silence’ by Robert Lloyd, such topics, which do not cater to everyone’s interests, should be avoided while making a conversation. The topics which have no relevancy and context to any one of the three people is likely to make a person feel out of place.

Q 6. What is one reason, in the writer’s opinion, for people’s fear of the dark?

In Robert Lloyd’s opinion, people’s fear of silence is the reason behind their fear of the dark. He is of the view that half of these fears experienced by people would vanish if the daytime noise could be heard in the dark of the night.

Q 7. If the paragraph beginning ‘For complete silence produces feelings of awe in us …. ‘ had to be divided into two, where would you make the difference?

If the paragraph beginning, ‘For complete silence produces feelings of awe in us …. ‘ had to be divided into two, I would make the division by beginning the new paragraph with the sentence: “This is not said that we never enjoy the awfulness of silence.”

Q 8. Explain the meaning of ‘moves’ in the sentence, ‘The cathedral moves us most deeply in perfect stillness.’

The word, “moves” in the sentence, “The cathedral moves us most deeply in perfect stillness” refers to the effects or feelings evoked by the cathedral. In this sentence, the writer intends to say that it is on the times there is absolute silence in the church that our we tend to ponder and feel more intensely.

Q 9. What is the purpose of the Two Minutes Silence?

The purpose of the Two Minutes silence was to remember the large number causalities resulted by the First World War.

Q 10. ‘The men and women had suddenly become statues. Is this literally true? If not, what does it mean?

No, the phrase, ‘The men and women had suddenly become statues’, is not true literally.  It refers to the Two Minutes Silence observed by people in connection with Armistice Day, where everybody stood to attention to honour the casualties that occurred during the first World War. This phrase used metaphorically here in order to describe those people standing “motionless”.

Write an essay of not more than four hundred words on one of the topics below. If you fancy trying a difficult topic, choose number one or two. If you feel at all doubtful about your ability to handle either of them, choose number three or four instead.

1. Patriotism

2. Humour.

3. The career I should like to follow.

4. College life — its pleasures and its cares.


A patriot is a person who is extremely loyal towards his country and is always willing to defend it. He feels that he is indebted to his motherland. The spirit of patriotism lies in the love and patriotism for one’s motherland. It is natural for a person to have love and devotion to the place where he is born, and lives. A strong association and devotion for one’s country culminate into the sublime qualities of patriotism.

 One of the qualities of a true patriot lies in having love, and a sense of responsibility and commitment to his motherland. The first and the foremost responsibility lies in acting as responsible and law-abiding citizens of our native country and eventually contributing towards the betterment and progress of the fellow countrymen. It urges us to outdo ourselves and do something for our fellow citizens. A true patriot works for the welfare of his motherland whole­heartedly. Patriotism does not mean only to fight for the liberation of one’s own country from the burden of foreign rule. It includes true love and honest feelings for fellow men and passionate work for the country’s progress.

The testimony of being honest and truthful towards one’s country lies in the ability to sacrifice. In its extreme form, patriotism obliges us to sacrifice our lives.  A true patriot is so loyal towards his country that he does not hesitate in sacrificing his personal interests and life for the sake of the country. He lives and dies for his motherland. He is not only loved and respected in life but also remembered by people even after his death. Such a patriot is immortal in the eyes of his fellowmen. Such a spirit of patriotism has been displayed by many of our national heroes, like, Allama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan, Syed Ameer Ali and many others. A true patriot has a never-ending spirit; he remains fearless even in the face of even death.

Patriotism is an ideal attribute of revolutionary rulers. The future of the country depends on its rulers and only a patriotic ruler keeps the nation’s interest above his own. He thinks of the interests of the country and the people before his personal benefits. A patriotic ruler strives for the betterment and progress of the country. He can go to any length in order to glorify his country or free it from the shackles of the enemy.

 In Pakistan, many patriots who suffered from cruelty inflicted upon them by the foreign rulers, whom they protested against, in order to seek freedom for their native land from the shackles of the foreign rule. Some of them were imprisoned, publicly beaten and had undergone inhuman torture for their undying patrio­tism. However, they did not let their spirits die, even at the cost of their lives, and carried on their struggle for freedom until they shed the last drop of their blood.

Patriotism broods from the spirit of love for one’s country and the ability to sacrifice one’s self. A true patriot is a responsible, law-abiding citizen. The devotion of a patriotic person lies in his ability to sacrifice his personal interests for the betterment of the country. However, patriotism towards one’s own country should not mean having a feeling of hatred and animosity towards other countries, but patriotism teaches us to devote our lives for the service of humanity. 

2. Humour “A day without laughter is a day wasted.” Charlie Chaplin.

It is rightly said that “Laughter is the best medicine”. Humour is one of the most crucial aspects of our lives. In everyday life, human beings suffer from a lot of challenges and problems. The school-going children and college-goers are increasingly being burdened with exams and struggling to face the increasing competition with every passing day. They are either under the pressure of looking for jobs or under the pressure of meeting deadlines. Similarly, while the bread-earner of the family has to be concerned about his family’s needs and expenses, the housewife has to take care of all the domestic issues in the house. Everyone is caught up in this vicious circle of life. In such times, humour is the only tool that enables a person to face the hardest times in his life, and appreciate smallest of things. Laughter and positive emotions add colour to our lives by simply putting us in a better mood and making everyone around us happier.

Humour lightens up the mood of any situation. A little bit of humour may aid in finding the solution to any problem or in resolving a dispute. If a person is going through personal conflict or any stressful phase of life, just a pinch of humour at the right time can act as “comic relief” to help him get out of the situation. In this way, humour gives strength to a person. It brings about a positive outlook towards life. It is only by means of good humour that a person can remain calm and composed even in the worst of situations. Therefore, the role of good humour in our lives, which has the capability to cure our souls, cannot be denied. 

Having a good sense of humour brings people closer to each other. It enables them to build healthy relationships with others by knowing what to say or do that helps or comes in the way of a conversation. Humor often takes human beings to the edge of uncertainty where they exaggerate or tease others to make their point. Successful humor brings trust and cooperation. They not only discover that they are not alone but also learn to accept their mistakes. It also broadens their outlook and makes their attitude more flexible, as they tend to look for the good in others as well as themselves. Losing a sense of humour, on the other hand, leads to people becoming more critical or defensive, as we start blaming others or ourselves for everything.

Incorporation of humor is a commonly used trend in English literature. Famous English prose writers on humour include Stephen Leacock amongst many others. Satire is the most common form of humour, which is frequently employed by the novelists like Jonathan Swift. However, satire is aimed at meeting a relatively more serious objective, that is, bringing about the follies of the society to the forefront in a light manner, for the purpose of the reformation of the society. The various devices which are commonly incorporated in order to add humour to any piece of literature include surprise, sarcasm, irony, and pun etc. among many others. Every writer has a distinctive style and uses one or more of these devices in his piece of writing, depending upon the context.

Humour is the key to finding happiness. It would not be wrong to say that humour is the best helping hand in the hardest of times. Humour is a ray of light that lightens up a situation and gives hope to a life doomed in dark shadows. It gives us the strength to meet with the challenges of our lives. In other words, in the absence of humor, life would become extremely mechanical and the world will become a difficult place to live in. On the contrary, incorporation of humour in our everyday life makes it much easier and happier to live.

3. The Career I Should Like to Follow

(Note: Mistake in the book. The correct title of the essay: The Career I Would like to follow).

Ambition gives direction to the life of a person. Those people who do not plan their careers are like a ship without a rudder or an envelope without an address. Different people adopt different aims according to their inclinations. Some people want to become doctors, while others aspire to start a business of their own. If the law appeals to some, armed forces have an attraction for others. Some aim at becoming teachers while social service or politics attracts others. I believe that success in life depends upon having a well-planned aim. I am in the first year of college, but since I do not want to take a leap in the dark, I have already decided that I am going to be a teacher one day. My father is an efficient teacher, and he has inspired me to choose the profession of teaching as a career.

Teaching is the noblest of all professions. Being a teacher, I feel I can serve this society and the country in the best possible way. Since a teacher has the capacity to shape the minds of the students who are the future of the country, I aspire to become a Lecturer of Urdu. However, many people do not prefer the profession of teaching because teachers are not paid well these days, and can hardly make both ends meet. But money is not the only consideration with me. What is important for me is to make a significant contribution to the future of our country, and be remembered by future generations. I strongly believe that a teacher lives among the smiling faces and young hearts, even after his departure from this world.

A teacher alone can impart the right type of education and make the students ideal citizens. He can inculcate refined qualities in the young minds and develop the spirit of patriotism in them. However, when I tell my friends about my ambition and goals, they make fun of me because they consider my choice to be old-fashioned. The dilemma of our society is that we do not take pride in our own culture. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, and it is a pain to see that most of the people are not fluent in speaking and writing Urdu

I do not want to take up the conventional role of a teacher, who is rigid and does not give room for creativity to his students. As far as the classroom environment is concerned, I plan to incorporate humor in teaching because I feel that students always retain the ideas in taught in a light manner in their minds for a long time. However, I would always make sure that no compromise is being made on class discipline and maintaining a level of respect at the same time. Moreover, I am strictly against the growing trend of discrimination in the treatment of the students and plan to abstain from this practice. As an Urdu teacher, I hope to awaken the spirit of nationalism by teaching Urdu to the students and spread knowledge about the rich history and unique trends of Urdu literature.

If a person aims to make a significant contribution towards society, teaching provides the best possible platform. It is rightly said that a teacher is a nation-builder, as he can shape the lives of the future generations. If teachers are efficient and serve as torchbearers to the students, there is a fair chance for the country to prosper. As Wordsworth says, “a noble profession is a noble deed”, my ambition is to become a hardworking, honest and an efficient teacher and achieve the best of both worlds.

4. College Life — its Pleasures and its Cares

College life has its own pleasures and cares. Owing to its pleasures, there is no doubt that college life is the golden period of a student’s life. A college student has to bear the strain of adjusting a completely new environment, and also take a decision regarding the choice of the career he aims to pursue in future. However, in comparison to school life, college life is a life of liberty, self-respect, and confidence. The knowledge gained, the opportunities availed, and the friendship made during the stay at college goes a long way in shaping the career and personality of a student.

A college student begins to see life as a whole, with the help of highly educated and experienced professors. He develops a sense of honour, dignity, duty, and responsibility in himself, and is treated as a grown-up man. When students enter college, they get freedom from the authoritative attitude of the schoolteachers because of college teachers quite friendly and persuasive. His feelings of self-respect are recognized properly and he is encouraged to be self-dependent. His opinions and decisions are given due importance. He is no longer fears physical punishment from his teacher.

College life offers innumerable pleasures and facilities in the form of extra-curricular activities, such as sports and debating competitions. These activities play a great role in the training of a student’s character and refining his abilities. College students are also encouraged to do self-study and research. They have access to the college library where they can find relevant books, research and study material in order to enrich their minds by borrowing books that cater to their interest. Moreover, there are also a number of societies of various subjects and student activity centers, which arrange regular workshops and educational trips to enhance the knowledge of students and increase their awareness. Students are expected to become more polished, and their manners to be improved after entering college.

College life also provides an opportunity for enjoying the company of like-minded young fellows of the same age and similar interests. One can socialize with a large number of college fellows, belonging to different families, and having different temperaments, qualities, habits, manners, etc. In this way, he is free to make new friends and to learn and adopt what is good in others. Once they enter college life, students are expected to gain more confidence and start asserting themselves. Such a healthy influence on the minds of students may not only prove to be decisive in shaping their future career but also broaden their outlook of life in general. It also enables them to recognize their abilities to excel in a particular field.

In comparison to school, college is an advanced seat of learning. Life of college students is usually filled with pleasure, adventures, and inspiration. College students gain the opportunity to gain knowledge from encouraging and progressive guidance of many learned professors. It not only provides vast opportunities for education but also co-curricular activities and In short, college life is full of pleasures, facilities, possibilities and opportunities of progress which cannot be available to a young man in his life once he enters practical life. However, all these things are of value to those who are willing to participate and benefit instead of hesitating and staying away and aloof.

Replace the dashes in the following passage by verbs chosen from this list:

march, stroll, saunter, hurry, chase, swing, grasp, gaze, stare, pause, present, afford, glitter, flutter, cheer, gesticulate, shout, wave, stop, shine.

The soldiers — ed along the street, —ing their arms. An officer was in front of the column, — a sword. The civilians on the route, who were —ing from one shop to another, —ing in the windows, — ed to — at the soldiers as they went by. The latter —ed a splendid spectacle with their rifles and equip­ment  — ing in the sun, and the regimental flag —ing above the front rank. A few small boys —ed after them, —ing and —ing.

The soldiers marched along the street, swinging their arms. An officer was in front of the column, grasping a sword. The civilians on the route, who were gazing from one shop to another, staring in the windows, shouted to cheer at the soldiers as they went by. The latter presented a splendid spectacle with their rifles and equip­ment  gesticulating in the sun, and the regimental flag fluttering above the front rank. A few small boys chased after them, waving and shouting.

1. Complete the following sentences by adding the most suitable verb from the list of three on the right.
2. For each two sentences compose a third to illustrate the use of the remaining verb.

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1. (a) The soldiers marched along the street with fixed bayonets.
   (b) The women walked along the street, looking at the shop windows.
   (c) Accompanied by her dog, she strolls in the park every morning.

2. (a) What are you staring at me like that for? Is my face dirty?  
    (b) He was lying on his back, gazing thoughtfully at the sky.
    (c) He is looking for his wrist watch since the past half an hour.

3. (a) He laughed merrily when I told him my story today.
    (b) He smiled sarcastically and shrugged his shoulders.
   (c) I could assume from the mischievous grin of the little boy that he was up to some mischief.

4. (a) The dog pursued the bait.
    (b) Once, in India, I spent three days hunting a tiger.
    (c) The police has been chasing the thief for two hours.  

5. (a) “Don’t hit me”, cried the little boy, trembling with fear.
    (b) He struck him a sharp blow on the head.
    (c) The strong and fierce Japanese wrestler knocked his opponent’s head on the floor. 

6. (a) I’ve taken my suit to the dry cleaners.
    (b) They are going to bring it back on Wednesday.
    (c) Fetch me a glass of water, please.

7. (a) The crowded football stadium presented an impressive sight.
    (b) The war offered many people an opportunity to get rich.
    (c) He cannot afford to lose the opportunity of working with this reputable company.

8. (a) The statue was erected in the center of the park.
    (b) A new oil refinery is being constructed on the west coast.
    (c) The platform of the railway station will be built soon.

9. (a) The surface of the lake gleamed in the moonlight.
    (b) The silver tea-service glittered on the sunlit lawn.
    (c) His face shone with enthusiasm as he watched his son playing his first ever cricket match on an international level.

10. (a) She was in tears and asked me to help her.
      (b) She begged God to let her husband live.
      (c) Teary-eyed, she prayed for her son’s health who was fighting cancer.

A verb used with many different particles is ‘to get’. It even has a number of different meanings without the help of prepositions and adverbs Replace ‘get’, wherever it occurs in the following passage, with another verb. Here is a list of possible substitutes:

be; have; earn; arrive at; rise; leave; agree with; find; meet; survive; return; depress; buy; obtain; forget; become; grow.

‘When I was your age, said the old man’ ‘I only got thirty shillings a week. Life was much harder then. I had to get up at six and get to work by seven. We got no holidays and worked ten hours a day for six days a week. There was a lot of unemployment, too, and slow workers were often told to get out. I got dismissed once because I didn’t get on with the boss, and it was several months before I got another job. Then the First World War broke out Well, of course, I joined up, but I was lucky and got through it without getting killed or wounded. When I got back after the war. unemployment got worse for a time, and it really got me down. It took me two years to get a good job. I’ve never really got over that period of frustration. So just remember, young fellow, you’ve got nothing to complain of nowadays. You don’t know how lucky you are!

‘When I was your age, said the old man’ ‘I only earned thirty shillings a week. Life was much harder then. I had to rise at six and arrive at work by seven. We obtained no holidays and worked ten hours a day for six days a week. There was a lot of unemployment, too, and slow workers were often told to leave. I was dismissed once because I didn’t agree with the boss, and it was several months before I found another job. Then the First World War broke out. Well, of course, I joined up, but I was lucky and survived it without getting killed or wounded. When I returned after the war, unemployment grew worse for a time, and it really depressed me. It took me two years to find a good job. I’ve never really forgotten that period of frustration. So just remember, young fellow, you have nothing to complain of nowadays. You don’t know how lucky you are!

Read more: English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 12 Science and Society