English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 12 Science and Society

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 12 Science and Society Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers for Class 11th.

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English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 12 Science and Society

The writer concludes by affirming that education should contain three elements. What are they?

The writer concludes by affirming that education should contain three elements. According to the writer, these elements of a good education are the education of modern science, knowledge of human beliefs, and religious training.

What is unusual About the construction of the last sentence of the last-but-one paragraph?

What is unusual about the construction of the last sentence in the last-but-one paragraphs that it does not carry the verb. This type of sentence construction has been made by the writer in order to clinch the argument.

The writer mentions four contributions made by science to the welfare of society. What are they?

The writer mentions four contributions made by science to the welfare of society. Firstly, it has added enormously to the interest and comfort of modern living. Secondly, it has been trying hard to diminish the social evils of poverty and disease. Thirdly, it has invented various instruments for observation and measurement. Lastly, it has given people a scientific outlook.

In what period does the writer appear to place the beginning of modem science?

The writer appears to place the beginning of modern science in the seventeenth century.

What is meant by ‘the humanities’?

‘The humanities’ refer to the classical and literary studies. This term is used to denote such subjects, which promote humanistic and moral values.

Define ‘altruism’.

The term, ‘altruism’ means selflessness. A selfless person who follows the principals of altruism, such as, self-sacrifice thinks about the happiness and wellbeing of other people before himself.

With what meaning is ‘values’ used in the above passage?

In the above passage, the word ‘values’ has been used in to refer to moral principles, such as the values of truth and accuracy.

Explain what is meant by the ‘universality’ of science and mathematics.

If we give adequate professional training in the same field, two scientists observing the same physical phenomena are likely to reach the same conclusion, irrespective of their race, religion, or political creed. Under the same conditions, their instrument will give the same readings, and their calculations will be based upon the universal laws of mathematics. This fact is called ‘universality’ of science and mathematics.

What is the difference between ‘objective thinking’ and ‘prejudiced thinking’?

The term, ‘objective thinking’ refers to aim-oriented thinking. Reasoning scientifically is the objective way of thinking. Whereas, ‘prejudiced thinking’ does not allow reasoning but it follows the personal beliefs or assumptions of an individual.

In one sentence state what three features, in the writer’s opinion, are the most important characteristics of modern science.

In the writer’s opinion, the most important characteristics of modern science are reasoning objectively from facts established on the basis of physical evidence, the invention of scientific instruments for making observations and measurements, and the increasingly effective use of mathematics.

Write not more than 350 words on one of the following topics:

  1. The application of science to social problems.
  2. ‘The study of literature should be compulsory in secondary education.’ Discuss.
  3. ‘Education is incomplete without religious training.’ Discuss.
  4. The role of the scientist in the future development of Pakistan.

1. The Application of Science to Social Problems

Today, the human race is living in the age of Science and Technology. The scientific attitude of mind insists on reasoning objectively from facts securely established by physical evidence. The development of a host of wonderful instruments for observation and measurement has uplifted the lifestyle of the people living across the different corners of the world. Science has not only improved mankind’s standard of living but also solved the mysteries and social problems faced by the masses.

Science has brought the people living in different corners of the world closer to each other and work for the common cause of making progress in the field of Science and Technology, irrespective of their race, religion or political creed. For instance, given adequate professional training in the same field, two scientists observing the same physical phenomena are likely to reach the same conclusions about them, no matter what their race, religion, or political creed. Their instruments will give them the same readings and their calculations will be based upon the universal laws of mathematics. The universality of science and mathematics accounts very largely for the stupendous progress of science in modem times. A discovery published on one side of the world is readily accepted and applied by scientists on the other part of the world. In this way, effective teamwork is possible, for members of a team of research workers can divide a large task among themselves, each confident in the soundness of his colleagues’ findings.

Science adds enormously to the comfort and interest of modern living. Science has accomplished much to diminish the social evils of poverty and disease. Beyond doubt, many social, political, and economic problems would be more wisely handled if they were treated with the unprejudiced objectivity and strict regard for truth, which characterizes the work of the physical scientist.   

Science can be applied effectively to the cure of the social and political ills of the world. However, it must be recognized that science has its limitations. Its methods apply only to those things, which can be observed, measured, and treated mathematically. It disregards values, such as those of truth and accuracy as well as happiness, goodness, beauty, courage, adventure, justice, altruism, friendship, love of one’s family, and country. Yet, all these values enter into a man’s conception of what is the good personal life within a good society. It is possible for honest and intelligent men to differ profoundly on the nature of these values and their respective degrees of importance. Hence, the contrast between the modern world’s command of material things and its tragic failure to organize a harmonious world society.

 Scientific outlook towards life has improved the attitude of the people by changing the thinking pattern of the people. Superstitious beliefs are being overcome today, by using the scientific method to demonstrate that there is no sound basis for them. Few people today believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits. Although astrology and fortune-telling are still practiced, they do not influence the lives of as many people as they once did. People have learnt that there is always a good natural reason for everything that happens to them. As a result, most of them no longer fear black cats, broken mirrors, and the number 13. In this way, the discoveries of scientists have helped people develop an attitude of open-mindedness. Without Science, people would find the modern world utterly incomprehensible.

 There is a striking and unhappy contrast between man’s brilliant success at solving scientific problems and his miserable failure to solve so many of his political and social problems. However, besides religion and humanities, Science itself is one of the solutions to many social problems. Modern advancements in Science and Technology are serving the purpose of eradicating various social evils.

2. ‘The study of literature should be compulsory in secondary education.’ Discuss.

 In this day and age, there seems to be a gradual shift towards secondary school subjects which are based on Science and Technology. For this reason, some parents, teachers, and students feel that the study of Literature should not be compulsory to the Secondary School Students. However, there are still various good reasons for the study of Literature. Literature is the reflection of the society, which encapsulates the various aspects of various cultures, traditions, and language, thereby increasing the exposure of the Secondary School students towards the ways of the world, and inculcating the habit of reading among them.

The ability to enjoy and appreciate Literature encourages students to develop their interest in reading books and improve their writing skills in general. In addition, exposure to a wide range of literature during their school days not only gives students the confidence to approach and tackle texts based on a variety of topics relevant to their respective professional field. As the internet has reached almost every nook and corner of the world today, children are losing their interest in reading books; therefore the study of literature is vital for the development of the habit of reading among Secondary School students.

When studying Literature, students cannot only learn language aspects, such as vocabulary items but also how language can be used in order to meet specific aesthetic purposes. Reading of literature opens up the minds of the students towards the different shades and ambiguities of meaning. Moreover, familiarity with the concepts of rhyme, metre, and rhythm can also improve the students’ own writing as students are able to appreciate and apply these ideas.

Study of literature increases the pupils’ exposure to different aspects of various cultures and their traditions, from which the literature has originated. Study of the literature of different countries provides the students with an opportunity to broaden their outlook with respect to the worldview and benefit from the insights and perspectives of people belonging to far-flung countries. In this way, literature enables students to expand their knowledge about the places and people, who are alien to them and be able to appreciate the diversity of cultures and beliefs.

 Literature provides a mirror to the society. It broadens the outlook of the Secondary School students towards the cultures, traditions, norms, and perspectives of the people belonging to the other parts of the world. It also develops the habit of reading and improves their knowledge about the various aspects of knowledge. In short, the study of Literature can also provide students with a fresh and creative angle to approach their studies in particular and lives in general.

3. ‘Education is incomplete without religious training.’ Discuss.

Over the years, with the expansion of other fields of knowledge, the focus of the educationists has shifted away from religious training. Students are motivated to spend most of their time studying Science and Technology, Arts and Literature. Researchers are also more inclined towards the latest developments in these areas of knowledge in particular. As a result, education today is devoid of religious training. While education based on Science, Arts and Literature teaches the way of the world to the students, religion directs them towards the way of life based on moral principles.

Religious training defines the moral values, which need to be inculcated in the minds of the students, and adhered by them throughout the course of their lives. Religious training gives direction to the young minds and encourages them to become better citizens. It propagates a sense of humanity among them. Religious training prepares the young minds for the future by educating them about the moral and religious ethics.

Religious education in schools contributes not only to the personal reflection but also psychological development of young people. One of the most significant purposes of education is reformation, which is not possible without religious training. Religious training aids in the spiritual growth of the minds of the students. It inculcates the values of honesty, patience, and perseverance. It encourages them to behave as responsible citizens, and exercise their abilities for the betterment of society in a constructive manner.

Faith in the existence and support of God brings optimism and hope for a better future. Belief in the existence of the deity also leads them to the conviction that they can rely on God Almighty’s supremacy. It can also help them come out of the crux of depression because reliance on God’s will leads to contentment and peace of mind. It leads them to the path of righteousness. In this way, religion is the ultimate guide which does not let the young minds fall astray.

Religion is an important factor in education for various reasons. Religious training in the early years of education broadens the outlook of the students. It nourishes the young minds and inculcates moral and ethical values, encouraging them to become better human beings and productive citizens of society.

4. The Role of the Scientist in the Future Development of Pakistan

(Note: Mistake in the book. Correction: The Role of the Scientists in the Future Development of Pakistan)

Today, the world is said to have been transformed into a global village. The contributions of scientists are vital to the development of society. We are living in the age of technology and communication. The luxuries that we enjoy today are the outcomes of the efforts made by scientists in all the different fields of science and technology. Scientific inventions have not only improved the way of life of the societies but also drawn them closer. Scientific inventions have the tendency to improve the way of life of the nation at large. Therefore, modern advances in Science and Technology have become necessary for the peace and prosperity of Pakistan.

Scientists working in the field of telecommunication have brought the nation closer by making the communication between masses more affordable and convenient. The scientists in this field have made this possible, who have brought internet the nook and corner of the country, including the rural and underprivileged areas. It has not only made the process of communication flexible but also broadened the outlook of the people of these areas, by providing a wide range of possibilities. People have also gained awareness about entrepreneurship. They are now able to reach out to the masses and carry small businesses successfully from their homes. Software introduced by the scientists, such as those for creating virtual classrooms has provided the facility of gaining knowledge with the ease of sitting at home. It has provided educational opportunities to Pakistani students at an international level. Therefore, the advances made in Science and Technology can uplift the status of Pakistan as a developed country.

The invention of modern weapons by the scientists has established Pakistan as a strong nuclear power. The efforts of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan in this regard are praiseworthy. Establishment of Pakistan as a strong nuclear power has the tendency to protect the country from the domination of the superpowers. In this way, scientific innovations can strengthen the defense of the nation in the coming years.

Advances in science and technology and engineering have the tendency to expand the exposure of Pakistani nation. With the growth of modern technology, the sharing of information and knowledge from one corner of the country to the underprivileged areas can become as easy as the click of a button. Moreover, the progress made in science and technology has brought access to entertainment and information from all over the world. Global trends and news updates can easily be carried out from one part of the world to another. They also attract the attention of the tourists towards the country’s culture and traditions. In this way, the innovation of global media and entertainment has a tendency to boost the economy of a country. Moreover, it can uplift the status of Pakistan in the international market, and provide better educational opportunities to Pakistani students at an international level. Therefore, the impact of modern advances in science and engineering on the individual lives of the people and the Pakistani nation at large cannot be overlooked.

Scientists and engineers working in the field of telecommunication have brought the different segments of the Pakistani society closer by making the communication between masses easier. The contribution of the internet to the society is believed to be so profound that if it were its own sector, its contribution to the total global gross domestic product is believed to be greater than that of the mining, energy and agriculture industries. Not only it has made communication easier, but it has also provided a platform for entrepreneurs to reach out to the masses and carry small businesses successfully from their homes. Software introduced by the engineers, such as those for creating virtual classrooms provide the facility of gaining knowledge with the ease of sitting at home.

Scientists and engineers work for the betterment and growth of the society in general. Advances in science and technology have not only filled the communication gap across borders but also equipped the people with different sources of entertainment and recreation. Moreover, with the growth of modern technology, the sharing of information and knowledge from one corner of the world to another has become as easy as the click of a button. Therefore, the impact of scientific and technological inventions on the growth and prosperity of Pakistan cannot be overlooked.

Write two separate paragraphs on the subject ‘A Street in a Town:

Paragraph 1: Key-sentence: The main street in my town is a very busy one.
Paragraph 2: Key-sentence: The street where I live is very quiet.

1. The main street in my town is a very busy one. I live in the crowded locality of Hyderabad and the crowd presents the scene of a mela in the evening. People return from the offices, and there is a lot of traffic on the roads. The housewives come out to purchase vegetables, fruits and fulfill other domestic needs. There is a huge crowd in the small vegetable market on the street. The ladies move from stall to stall and bargain for each and every item. The confectioner’s shop is another place of attraction, where little children buy the sweets and snacks of their choice, such as chaat, pakoras, burfi, and jalebi. The street vendors peddle their goods, while the balloon sellers carry a whole bunch of inflated balloons to attract small children and the toy sellers set up their stalls on the pavements. Young boys sell the evening newspaper by shouting out the sensational news but keep the paper folded. Sometimes as soon as the customer makes the payment, he is surprised to read different headlines. Small children play with balls and balloons, making it difficult for the cyclists and motorists to apply brakes and save them. In short, there is a lot of hustle and bustle in the main street in my town.

2. The street where I live is very quiet. It is a closed ended street with a nullah at one end. It is a small street with around ten houses towards left and right respectively. Not many pedestrians or drivers enter the street apart from the people who live here. The residents of the houses in my street do not interact with each other much. There is neither any social welfare society for the street nor any ladies club which would enable people to know each other better. None of the houses has been put to commercial use, so the street presents a serene environment. The security guard also does not let the vendors and beggars enter the street. The evenings are also very quiet as the children are also not seen playing outside their homes. My street presents a very placid atmosphere, but I strongly feel that the need for social interaction among the people living I my street.

Write a paragraph of about six sentences describing one of the following:

1. A railway station.
Words to use: platform; railway-line; booking-office; waiting-room; locomotive; coach; porter; passenger; luggage; arrival and departure indicator.

2. A harbour.
Words to use: breakwater; quay; lighthouse; buoy: channel; sailing- boat; cargo-boat; oil-tanker; liner; tug; to embark; to disembark; crane; warehouse: hold (of a ship); to tow; to the moon.

1. A Railway Station

A railway station forms the part and parcel of train communication of a country. It is a place where trains stop and start from, and is situated by the side of the railway line. They are meant for controlling the movement of the trains. An elevated floor extends from the buildings up to the railway lines. It is called the platform. Trains usually stop by the platform. In a big railway station, there is a shed over the platform but at a small station, it is usually open. Passengers get down and get into a train from a railway station. The building of a railway station is generally made of red bricks. There is a booking office for collecting the tickets and a waiting-room for the passengers. Restaurants and vendors selling food items, bookstall, and the office of the station master, who assists the guards, and railway police etc. Usually, there are separate waiting rooms for male and female passengers. Porters are found at all railway stations caring luggage of the passengers inside or out of the compartments. At small stations, platforms are usually found to be crowded only at the time of arrival and departure of a train. When trains are late, some passengers take tea at the tea stalls. Some read newspapers, while others move lazily around. Before the arrival of a train, the coach gets them down. He moves with his red and green flags which serve as indicators for the arrival and departure of the train. Before the arrival of a train, passengers stand in large queues to buy their tickets. However, when a locomotive arrives, the station becomes busy and noisy. After the departure of the train, the station again sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place.

2. A Harbour
A harbour is an area of water on the coast, which is deep enough to provide protected from the open sea by strong walls, where ships can shelter. Several boats lay in anchor at a harbour. In order to protect the shore or harbour from the force of the waves, a breakwater is built out into the sea, which is a wall that surrounds the harbour. There is a platform, called quay, on the harbour, which is used as a place for cargo-boats and liners as well as sailing boats to stop for loading and unloading goods and passengers respectively. It also includes a tower or another building, called a lighthouse that contains a strong light to guide ships near the coast, and warn them ahead of potential danger. For this purpose, a buoy, which is an object that floats on water in order to show areas that are safe or dangerous for boats is used. The boats pass through the deep passage of water in a river or near the coast that can be used as a route for ships. Small, powerful boats have used a tug, embark, and disembark ships especially in and out of the harbors respectively. Cranes are also used for the purpose of loading and unloading heavy goods carried by ships and to tow or pull the boats behind another vehicle with a rope or chain.

The following are key-sentences. Write a paragraph beginning with one of these sentences:

1. I prefer to live in a big city.
2. The best holiday I ever had was in the country.
3. The seaside is wonderful in summer.
4. I read a very interesting book the other day.
5. Learning a foreign language is never easy.
6. A friend invited me to the cinema last week.
7. One of my pleasures is listening to the radio.

1. I prefer to live in a big city. I grew up living in a big city. Judging from my experience, I find living in a city more convenient because cities offer better facilities in comparison to villages. The means of transportation, especially public transport, is more convenient. Moreover, living in a big city offers one more educational and professional opportunities. Quality higher education facilities and the malls and stores in the cities provide a better shopping experience. Similarly, as opposed to villages, there are many big and small hospitals in the nook and corner of a big city. Moreover, there are more recreational opportunities in big cities. I often get a chance to visit the amusement park, cinema, and attend other events happening in the city. On the whole, I find living in a big city to be much more convenient, fun and simulative than a small town.

2. The best holiday I ever had was in the country. When I was seven, I had a chance to visit my aunt’s place in Sialkot, Punjab. I had never been to Punjab before, so I found the culture, language, and lifestyle of the local people to be quite different from the urban city of Karachi where I have lived all my life. We took the journey by train. When we reached my aunt’s place, we were served the traditional Punjabi drink lassi, which I found to be more refreshing than any other drink I ever had. After lunch, we took some rest on a chaarpai and went to our aunt’s farm in the evening. Men wearing dhotis were harvesting the rice fields, while women were busy picking up cotton. I also took bath in the fresh water of the tube well and drank tea made with goat milk for the first time. Although I could not completely understand the language spoken by the people, but I was overwhelmed by their courteous gestures. All in all, visiting the country proved to be a memorable experience which I would cherish for life.

3. The seaside is wonderful in summer. Since I live in Karachi, going to the seaside is the favorite pastime of me and my family during summer holidays. We usually go for a picnic to the seaside, carrying fruit baskets and snacks. The cool breeze is quite refreshing while the sea waves present a beautiful view on a sunny day. The seaside is usually occupied by a massive crowd of people during Summer. Children enjoy cotton candy and while qulfi and flavoured ice popsicle is a favorite among children and the young ones alike. Vendors also sell fresh fruit juices and milkshakes. These chilled drinks and ice creams are a perfect solution to beat the summer heat. I enjoy camel rides and playing football and cricket with cousins and friends most. Walking barefoot across the seashore, collecting pebbles, and stones while watching the beautiful sunset is very bracing. Going to the seaside with friends or family during the summer season is always a delightful experience.

4. I read a very interesting book the other day. Titled, A Passage to India, this novel has been written by the renowned English writer, E.M. Foster. Written against the backdrop of the British rule and the Indian subcontinent, it was a novel based on an Englishman’s perspective of the sub-continent. The setting of this novel is an imaginary city, Chandrapore, where cultural conflicts and false accusations doom the friendship between the Indian protagonist of the novel, Mr. Aziz and the Englishman, Mr. Fielding in British colonial India. The climax of the plot revolves around Englishwoman, Adela, who is engaged to marry a city magistrate, visits the mysterious caves where she hears strange echoes and gets terrified. She accuses Mr. Aziz for the unfortunate event that occurs there and takes him to the court. As a result, the innocent man develops a strong feeling of hatred for all English people, including Mr. Fielding, whom he assumes to be interested in Adela, because of her money. This novel presents a unique approach to the relationships between the British and the Indians under the Colonial Rule.

5. Learning a foreign language is never easy. It is a scientifically proven fact that a child learns his mother tongue through his interaction with the external environment, without any conscious effort on his part. Acquiring any language other than one’s native language or mother tongue, however, requires a conscious effort on part of the language learner. Speakers of other languages face many difficulties in learning a foreign language due to which they are not able to communicate effectively. One of the most common problems faced in learning a foreign language is that of pronunciation and spellings. Foreign language learners find it difficult to speak a foreign language according to the standard rules of pronunciation. This problem occurs because not all the sounds present in any other language are the same as those of their mother tongue. They also find making an appropriate choice of words, that is, vocabulary and the use of appropriate tenses according to the context, that is, situation and time difficult. One of the causes of this problem is that they try to acquire a foreign language by translating it into their native language, or mother tongue whereas, every language follows a different set of grammatical rules for the construction of sentences. Lack of exposure and hesitation also impede the process of acquiring a foreign language. All these factors lead to the lack of fluency and accuracy on part of the language learners. However, these difficulties of pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammatical structures can be overcome by understanding the rules of the foreign language and avoiding the translation into native language.

6. A friend invited me to the cinema last week. Ali had returned to Pakistan after five years and wanted to meet me over a movie. Initially, I thought that he would have invited me to watch some action movie. But, I was surprised to see that he intended to watch Jinnah Se Quaid, which was being aired after a long time, on account of the independence day of Pakistan. Watching the movie in the cinema was a wonderful experience. It portrays the Pakistan Movement in an unbiased, and realistic manner. The plot of the movie, which is based on true facts, is heart-wrenching. We were so engrossed while watching the movie that we did not speak to each other at all. By the end of the film, I turned around and was shaken by surprise to see that my friend, who had always made fun of my patriotic sentiments, was teary-eyed. When we left the cinema, he revealed that he had been through a very tough time in the United States, and had learnt the worth of his native land the hard way. He told me how difficult it was to adjust there, while he was treated like an inferior ‘outsider’. I have watched many films in cinema before, but watching Jinnah Se Quaid with my friend was an enthralling experience.

7. One of my pleasures is listening to the radio. Lying down in my bed and listening to the radio after a long day at college and tuition center is my favorite pastime. Although radio has become less popular these days, but I prefer it to television because the radio programmes are transmitted live. Live commentaries of cricket and football matches are also broadcasted on radio, so besides enjoying music it keeps me updated with sports, and other news updates. Moreover, many informative programmes are broadcasted on the radio. People also share their thoughts by making phone calls to the radio presenters. I like to take part in constructive discussions, so I am also one of the regular callers of a few of the radio programmes. One feels that he is connected to a large number of people at the sometime.

Relate in one paragraph one of the following :
1. Any funny story you know.
2. Any interesting journey you have made.
3. Any occasion when you were in danger.

                                     1. Any Funny Story you Know
Once upon a time, there was a young boy, Asad, who loved animals. He lived in the countryside. Being the only child of his parents, he did not have any company a home, so his favourite pastime was looking after the animals on the farm. People from the city nearby would come to buy eggs from their poultry farm. One day, his parents went to see his ailing aunt in the neighborhood, so he was left on his own. “Mrs. Ahmed, who usually brings a dog along, would be coming in half an hour. Give her a dozen eggs. Do not forget to feed the animals, and lock the door”, her mother said. “Dog?”, Asad screamed. “Don’t worry, Tommy is a harmless fellow”, his father said while leaving. He went to the farm, collected the eggs, and came back home. Asad was skilled in taking care of horses and the cattle, but he had always feared dogs. After waiting for a long time, he went off to sleep.
Suddenly, the doorbell rang. He woke up and rushed towards the door to find that Mrs. Ahmed was here. “Good evening, ma’am.” Good evening, said Mrs. Ahmed. Asad gave her the eggs. “Thank you”, she said. Asad could see a dog running around Mrs. Ahmed. “Does your dog bite?” Startled at the question, Mrs. Ahmed said, ”Err… No, he is with me for two years, and is certainly the best dog I’ve ever had.” “That’s great! Even the sight of dogs scares me to death”. “Feed a dog, take care of him, and he will be your best friend. I’ve got to go. Take care, Goodbye.” Mrs. Ahmed turned away towards the parking area, but Tommy stood in front of the door, with his tongue hanging out. “He’s probably hungry. Muster up the courage to feed him, and he’ll your friend. Tommy is a nice dog anyway”, Asad said to himself. He brought him a morsel of bread and started feeding him. The dog bit his finger. “Ouch!”, he cried. Mrs. Ahmed, who was just going to start her car, ran back to him. “Oh my God! What have you done to yourself, poor child?”, she said while holding his hand. Asad could not say a word. “Who asked you to feed a stray dog?” “Stray dog? But I thought it was Tommy. Your dog!”, Ahmed said. “My dog? I never brought it here today. Hurry up, now! I need to take you to the hospital.”
Asad received tetanus injection at the hospital. His parents were informed by Mrs. Ahmed. They reached the hospital within an hour, and soon he was discharged. Whoever came to inquire after his health made fun of him.

                                 2. Any Interesting Journey you Have Made
During the last summer holidays, I got the opportunity to visit our family friends’ hometown in Bahawalpur. On my insistence, we opted to travel by car. My father and elder brother drove the car alternatively for twelve long hours. I was amazed to see that my uncle had his car’s tank filled with the maximum fuel twice, and the journey wouldn’t end. My legs were sore, and I also had a terrible headache. We stopped by at Sial Service station on Motorway for a cup of coffee, and later, at Multan. From there, we bought the mouthwatering famous sweet Sohan Halwa, which is the sociality of the city of saints. Two hours later, we reached Bahawalpur to find that there was a huge traffic jam because of the train passing by. After having waited for around forty-five minutes, we crossed the railway track and reached uncle’s place in Bhawalpur Cantonment within half an hour. This journey from Islamabad to Bahawalpur turned out to be the longest journey I had ever had until we moved to Karachi. Although it was a tiresome journey, but having a long journey by car with an extremely jovial company was a memorable experience in itself.

                              3. Any Occasion when you were in Danger
Although I have never experienced danger in terms of an attack from some force, but vulnerability to the natural disasters. One such incident happened on my recent trip to Islamabad. On the morning of 26th October 2015, my cousins and I went to Safa Gold Mall to celebrate one of my cousins’ birthday. We headed towards the food court, located on the 7th floor of the mall, and presented a beautiful view of the city. We ordered Turkish cuisine. While we were taking pictures and enjoying our meal, one of my cousins felt earthquake tremors. The magnitude of the earthquake increased gradually, and all the people started reciting verses from the Holy Quran. Shaken by fear, we could not move. The elevators had been stopped by the security. My eldest cousin insisted that we should follow the rest of the people going downstairs. It took us about ten minutes to reach the ground floor and we were shivering with fear by the time we reached there. A massive crowd of people was present outside the building. Although the building was evacuated successfully, and no casualty or injury was reported, but sometimes I feel that I have developed a phobia of heights after this incident.

Imagine that you keep a diary. In this diary write one or more paragraphs describing one of the following:

1. An interesting character you have recently met.
2. A person whom you dislike.
3. A long week-end spent away from home.
4. Your plans or hopes for the future.
5. Your chief interest in life apart from your work.
6. A quarrel with a friend.
7. An accident you have witnessed.
8. A good meal in a restaurant.
9. The wedding of a relative.
10. An excursion by motor-coach.
11. A visit to a historical monument.
12. An interesting dream.
13. A short stay in hospital.
14. Your feelings just before sitting for an examination.
15. Your feelings just after hearing the result of an examination.

1. An Interesting Character you have Recently Met
2nd May 2016.

Today, I had invited Sierra, my new classmate at home for lunch. My elder brother could not pick us up from college because he had a meeting, so, my friend and I had to take a taxi. It was a hot, sunny day, so we got into the first cab we saw outside the college. My English friend was quite excited to go to my home, and we were discussing about the different cuisines of Pakistani and English food when the taxi driver interrupted. “Where are you from?”, he asked Sierra. She told him casually that her father is a Pakistani, but she was born and bred in London, and that her family had recently moved to Pakistan. I was shaken by surprise. The cab driver, who was an old man of weak structure, could actually speak English fluently.
When I asked him how if he was educated, he told us that he had done O Levels. He went on to say that he had not been able to complete his O Levels from Lahore Grammar School, but he could not pursue his studies because of the sudden demise of his parents in a car accident. When I asked him whether he had any siblings, he said that he had an elder brother, who lived in America and had abandoned him completely. His relatives also did not bother about taking up his responsibility. Eventually, he became homeless. Wandering across the streets, he came across a fruit-seller who took him home. He said that he is married to the fruit seller’s daughter now, and drives a rented cab since the past twenty years. By the time his story ended, we had reached home.
The heart-wrenching story of the cab driver made us feel really bad for him. The selfish attitude of his brother and relatives reflects the self-centeredness and insensitivity of the society of our times.

2. A Person Whom you Dislike
5th May 2016.

I have never really hated a person, but I have started disliking my classmate, Aneeqa because of her misbehavior and selfish attitude. Her behavior all my classmates is quite deceptive, but as we all have come to know her better over the passage of time, nobody wants to befriend her anymore. The other day, she became the reason for a quarrel between two of my classmates by backbiting about one in front of the other. She needs to realize that these tactics will not win her anything but hatred. She is also quite jealous of my performance in the First Term examinations. A friend of mine told me that she had seen her rolling her eyes while I was receiving my award at the stage. also, she likes to flaunt about her looks and wealth all the time. Her pompous behaviour makes her quite obnoxious. I think she really needs to change her attitude.

3. A Long Weekend Spent away from Home
10th May 2016.

The Adventure Club, comprising of teachers and students of my school often organizes excursion trips to different places across the country twice a year. Last weekend, we went to the Northern areas of Pakistan. The initial plan was to visit the areas of Shogran and Siri Paye, but we spent a night at Balakot, Kashmir, before heading to these areas. Even though it was the first week of May, the weather was quite pleasant in Kashmir. The beauty of nature could be seen in its best form. We could hear the mysterious yet enchanting sound of the fast flowing River Kunhaar against the silence of the small city. In the morning, we went to the riverside. While we were taking pictures over there, the army personnel came and warned us to leave because a tide was expected. We checked in the hotel rooms soon after and packed our luggage.
Next, we headed towards Shogran. Unlike the one in Balakot, the hotel where we stayed was well-furnished. The locality was beautiful and well-established. Horse riders showed us around. In the evening, we also went to the mall from where we bought ethnic jewelry, woodcraft, and hats etc. On the next day, we took a ride to Siri and Paye on jeeps. The dangerous route, and travelling by jeep was a thrilling experience. The makra pahaar (spider mountain) could also be seen from there. The guide also narrated some myths related to these places. All in all, the weekend was well spent. Although I enjoyed a lot with my friends, but I would like to visit these places again with my family.

4. Your Plans or Hopes for the Future
18th April 2016.

I believe that success in life depends upon the well-planned aim. I am in the first year of college, but since I do not want to take a leap in the dark, I have already decided that I am going to be a teacher one day. My father is an efficient teacher, and he has inspired me to choose the profession of teaching as a career. I strongly believe that teaching is the noblest of all professions and I feel that being a teacher, I can serve this society and the country in the best possible way. Since a teacher has the capacity to shape the minds of the students who are the future of the country, I aspire to become a Lecturer of Urdu.
 Many people do not prefer the profession of teaching because teachers are not paid well these days, and can hardly make both ends meet. But money is not the only consideration with me. What is important for me is to be remembered by future generations, and I strongly believe that a teacher lives among the smiling faces and young hearts, even after his departure from this world. However, when I tell my friends about my ambition and goals, they make fun of me because they consider my choice to be old-fashioned. The dilemma of our society is that we do not take pride in our own culture. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, and it is a pain to see that most of the people are not fluent in speaking and writing Urdu.
 I do not want to play the role of a conventional teacher, who is rigid and does not give room for creativity to his students. As far as the classroom environment is concerned, I plan to incorporate humor in teaching because I feel that students always retain the ideas in taught in a light manner in their minds for a long time. However, I would always make sure that no compromise is being made on class discipline and maintaining a level of respect at the same time. Moreover, I am strictly against the growing trend of discrimination in the treatment of the students and plan to abstain from this practice. As an Urdu teacher, I hope to awaken the spirit of nationalism by teaching Urdu to the students and spread knowledge about the rich history and unique trends of Urdu literature. I also aspire to launch an e-library one day, where people would be able to access English literature free of cost.
I strongly believe that if a person aims to make a significant contribution towards society, teaching provides the best possible platform. If teachers are efficient and serve as torch-bearers to the students, there is a fair chance for the country to prosper.

5. Your Chief Interest in Life Apart from Your Work
3rd June 2016.

I am very happy today. My article on ‘J.K. Rowling’s Lexicon in Harry Potter’ got approved for publication in The News International. Apart from studies, my chief interests lie in reading fiction and writing articles and short stories. The credit of my profound interest in reading fiction goes to my mother and aunt. Since my childhood, I have seen them reading English novels. My father also has a small library at home, where he keeps a collection of books including books on Islamic history, literature as well as biographies of renowned scholars and scientists.
I used to read stories of Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton in my childhood. Later on, my interest grew towards reading Classic and Popular fiction. My English teacher inspired me to write book reviews and short articles for different newspapers. J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Series is one of my favorite series of novels. The author has coined many new words in this novel. I conducted some research on the vocabulary used by J.K. Rowling and the sources of mythology etc. that inspired it. Having my work acknowledged and published always makes me feel elated. I cannot wait to break the news to my English teacher tomorrow morning and hope to continue writing more articles and short stories in the future.

6. A Quarrel with a Friend
6th June 2016.

Today, I had a quarrel with my best friend since childhood, Amun. It was for the first time in the past ten years that we have known each other, that I had a quarrel with her. We have stood by each other through every thick and thin. Yesterday, our English teacher took a surprise test on essay writing. The results were declared today, and my composition was rewarded as the best one in the class, for which I received a box of chocolates from the teacher.
All my classmates congratulated me except Anum, who ignored me completely. I followed her going straight to the basketball court to enquire what was wrong with her. When I called out her name, she asked me to go away at once. I was shocked. Anum actually seemed to be out of her wits. I insisted on knowing the real cause of the problem. At first, she resisted, but when I said that I should be the one to be angry at her because she had not even congratulated me, she got furious. She said that her composition was better than mine, and the English teacher had favoured me over her because I have always been her favorite student. I was extremely disappointed in her opinion of me. We had a fierce argument as I denied her accusation. After hearing us shouting at each other, one of my classmates called upon our English teacher. When she came to know about the point of dispute, she showed both the compositions to the head of the department of English, who said that both the essays were good, but my expression was slightly better than Anum’s.  She said that my winning composition would appear in the yearbook representing the class. Since Anum’s composition was also good enough, she would try to include his in the yearbook as well.
Both of us accepted the head of the department’s explanation. Anum apologized to me, and I accepted her apology. This incident taught me the lesson that quarrels are inevitable in any relationship because no two persons are alike, but how we deal with it is what matters.

7. An Accident you have Witnessed
5th May 2016.

On a rainy day last month, while I was returning home from along with my parents from a wedding in North Nazimabad, Karachi, I witnessed an accident which I shall never forget.
It was raining heavily and the road, therefore, could not be seen clearly. My father, an old man, was driving slowly to avoid an accident. The journey seemed longer than usual, which made me begin to feel tired. All of a sudden, a small car ran at great speed, overtaking us. My father was shocked at the recklessness of the driver of the car. We could not count the number of persons in the car but we’re sure that there were at four to five young boys. My mother at once predicted that if the driver will continue to drive like this, a tragedy would befall the occupants of the car. Although the car had gone quite far away from us, its rear lights could still be seen.  
In the distance, there was a narrow bridge. Looking at the way the car was over speeding, I too was now sure that an accident would occur.
A bus was coming from the other side of the bridge. The driver of the car, however, was unable to control the speed of the car. He lost control of the car, which skidded and plunged into the river. Somehow, the driver managed to slip out of the car. Rest of the passengers, however, were doomed. When we arrived at the bridge, we were deeply touched by what we saw. Three young boys were struggling in the river and we could do nothing to save them because none of us could swim. They were swept away by the rush of the current and drowned. The driver began to cry piteously because of the unfortunate death of his friends. It was indeed a very soul-stirring scene that I shall never forget.

8. A Good Meal in a Restaurant
7th May 2016.

I have come to my grandmother’s place in Islamabad these days. Today, my cousins took me to The Figgi’s Grill, a restaurant in Islamabad, which was raved about by all my cousins. The restaurant, which is located in Blue Area, is a cozy place which offers a great menu comprising of an elaborate menu of Continental food, including Mexican, Thai and Italian cuisine. We ordered steaks, which were served piping hot. The aroma of the steaks was mouth-watering. The chicken was tender and the grilled vegetables were equally delicious. The baked potato was topped with white garlic sauce and the fries were lightweight and crispy. We ordered molten lava cake afterward, which was served with vanilla ice cream. The meal was served in no time, and it was a wholesome experience. After the scrumptious meal, we had green tea as soon as we reached home.

9. The Wedding of a Relative
13th March 2016.

Last week, we went to Lahore to attend the wedding of my cousin. It was a grand affair. Three events were hosted by the families of the bride. Mehendi was held at the bride’s house. The lawn was decorated with yellow flowers against the backdrop of a fancy pink cloth. The theme of this event was yellow and pink. Almost all the guests dressed up according to the theme. The bride’s hands were decorated with henna. The families of the bride and groom danced to the tunes.
Baraat was held in a marquee on the following day. The decoration of this event was done by a renowned event manager of the city. The entrance of the bride was one of a kind. Wearing a stunning red dress, she looked ethereal. A lot of Chinese and Pakistani dishes were served to the guests. I came across my classmate who turned out to be from the groom’s family. We took photographs with the bride and enjoyed the meal. This event was followed by Walima, which was a star-studded event. A famous musical band from Lahore were present to perform at the event. I was told by my cousin that the groom’s family had some relatives who worked on Television as actors and singers.
Although I enjoyed a lot, but I strongly feel that one should not spend too much money on weddings. Such lavish weddings should be discouraged.

10. An Excursion by Motor-Coach
14th April 2016.

Although I have been to many cities across the country, but I had never travelled by a motor-coach until today. My friends and I had planned a road trip from Karachi to Umerkot, but my friend’s car’s engine crashed on the day of the trip, so we decided to go by a motor-coach. we bought our tickets from the terminal and headed towards our destination as the engine of the motor-coach started. The motor-coached was air-conditioned, and the seats were quite comfortable too. It equipped with a DVD player and 3D glasses. We watched the English movie, Pearl Harbour. While watching the movie, we were served with drinks and bun kebab. After three hours, the coach stopped by at a service station. We got ourselves the snacks and drinks and after thirty minutes, the driver pressed the horn to gather all the passengers, and the journey continued. Various handicraft shops could be seen across the road. I wanted to buy some, but the coach would not stop according to our will. This is the luxury we could have only on our private vehicle. Apart from that, our journey, which lasted for about six hours, was a comfortable one. Besides, travelling with friends is always a wonderful experience.

11. A Visit to a Historical Monument
10th May 2016.

I’m staying at my grandmother’s place in Islamabad these days. Today, I had an opportunity to visit the Pakistan Monument. Located at the best viewpoint of Shakar Parian Hills, it is a national monument representing Pakistan’s four provinces and three territories. The entry fee for the museum was just Rs. 20 for adults and Rs. 10 for children. We were told that mobile phones have to be switched off and no eatables are allowed inside and that the visitors are not allowed to touch the artefacts. I feel that it is really important that we respect and follow the rules and do not argue with the caretakers so that this museum remains in an immaculate condition.
The architecture of the monument is magnificent. The blooming flower shape of the monument represents Pakistan’s progress as a rapidly developing country. The four main petals of the monument represent the four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, while the three smaller petals represent the three territories of Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The monument has been designed to reflect the culture and civilization of the country and depicts the story of the Pakistan Movement, dedicated to those who sacrificed themselves for future generations. From a bird’s eye view, the center of the monument looks like a star and a crescent moon formed by walls forming the petals. These represent the star and crescent on Pakistan’s flag. Once we entered the wrought iron gates, we came across a path that divides into two.
The door that hints to the left directed us towards the Pakistan Monument Museum. The museum is truly awe-inspiring and one must commend the efforts of the designers, artists, and sculptors who have preserved the heritage and rich culture of Pakistan in such an extraordinary way. The museum is composed of various sections including the picture gallery, the historical struggling era in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent, a theater room, the statues of Quaid-e- Azam and Fatima Ali Jinnah, their office and sitting areas, about the culture, tradition, tourism, national games, etc.
The multi-dimensional, life-like exhibits in the museum brought life to the struggle of Muslims for freedom and the history of the Indus Valley Civilisation, the majestic Mughal era, the Freedom Movement of 1857, the journey from the advent of Islam in the subcontinent as well as, the poetry and vision of Allama Iqbal and Jinnah’s peerless leadership before our eyes. There are realistic statues, wonderful paintings, pictures, and colorful backgrounds to bring history alive to its modern viewers. One can easily spend hours here absorbing the wonderful historical heritage.
The upper floor of the museum houses the theater room, which shows rare speeches, photos, videos, documentaries, and national records. A special section for children offers video games, interactive quiz, music, and movies related to our forefathers’ struggle and many sacrifices for the sake of our homeland. A section of the museum also depicts the country’s development and success in various fields.
There is a large circular terrace at one end of the monument from where one can have a terrific bird’s eye view of the capital city. This section is called the Islamabad View Point. A lift is also available for the physically handicapped people so that they can be taken to the upper level to see the monument. The Pakistan National Monument in Islamabad is a must visit the place; it is a fantastic tribute to those who sacrificed their lives for their future generations. It is high time that we realize that the responsibility of working for the progress of the country lies on our shoulders now.

12. An Interesting Dream
11th February 2016.

I was quite tired when I reached home after a long day at college today. After having lunch, I went to my bedroom to take a short nap. During my two hour sleep, I saw an interesting dream. I was brushing my hair while looking in the mirror when I saw a gleam of light reflecting from the mirror, and entering the room. When I touched the mirror with my index finger, I found myself standing amongst a crowd of people wearing fancy gowns of the Victorian era.
It was a grand castle, where a lot of people were gathered to celebrate the wedding of the Duke’s daughter. Nobody noticed me or stopped me to initiate a conversation as I wandered here and there. I was watching the wedding celebrations, standing in a corner, when a little boy pushed me accidentally while running towards the stage to be a part of the family photograph. I fell on the floor and my ankle sprained. I could not help but cry for help. All the people became alert, but not being able to find who was crying, they got terrified. It took me a while to realize that all of them could hear my voice but they were not able to see me. At last, they evacuated the castle, thinking that it was haunted by some ghost. Soon, the lights went off, and all my hopes were doomed as I was left alone in the castle. Then, my mother woke me up, and I realized that it was only a dream.

13. A Short Stay in Hospital
8th March 2016.

Today, I was told that one of my childhood friends had met an accident the other day. His leg had been fractured and he was admitted to Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center. After college, I went to see him in the evening along with my elder brother. The parking area was quite big, and the guards charged us a token of twenty rupees for the security of our car. During my short stay at the hospital, I could not explore most of the departments, but as I passed through the huge wall that surrounded the hospital, I could see that it was quite big. There was a big ground whereby a large number of tall trees provided cool shade to the visitors. The roads, paths, and sidewalks were free from litter and dirt. I was quite impressed by the clean surroundings of the huge building of the hospital.
Inside the building was a reception desk, where I discovered that my friend was admitted in Room No. 98 on the second floor of the hospital. The ward boy of the surgery ward directed me towards the room. Under the effect of the sleep-inducing medicines, my friend was fast asleep. His father assured us that he was out of danger and would not wake up before an hour or so. My brother stayed back while I accompanied uncle to collect the medical reports. We passed across the outdoor medical wards, which were crowded with people, who were standing in a long queue, waiting for their turn helplessly. I requested the doctor to check the old man who was about to faint, before everyone else, but his behaviour was quite impolite. He said that it was an everyday story. We also crossed the emergency ward, and it was painful to see the patients groaning with pain. Finally, we reached the radiology department and collected the reports.
I discovered that the patients of the private rooms availed better facilities, and quick attention of the doctors, and the nursing staff alike. However, the expenses of a private room were out of the reach of the common people. After staying with my friend for an hour, I left the hospital with a sad feeling that poor people are ill-treated, while the world is apparently for the rich man’s land.

14. Your Feelings just before Sitting for an Examination
12th March 2016.

I have my entry test at Edward’s College Peshawar this morning, and it is 5:00 am already. I have woken up to offer my Fajar prayers. I am extremely nervous. My grandparents, parents and elder siblings have all completed their graduation from the same college. Since my father wanted me to complete my intermediate from there, he told me to start preparing for the entry test as soon as I completed my matriculation. I have prepared well, but I am feeling as if I am carrying the burden of carrying the legacy of my family forward. My siblings have told me that the entry test is quite difficult. Since I know that my father had high expectations from me, the constant feeling of anxiety is overpowering me. I can feel goose bumps and butterflies in my stomach already.

15. Your feelings just after hearing the result of an examination.
15th April 2016.

The result of my entry test for admission to the first year of college at the Edward’s College Peshawar has been declared today. I just checked the list of the candidates who have qualified the entry test to find that my name is at the top of the merit list. It is like a dream come true. Two of my friends have also qualified the test, while one of them has flunked. We are feeling very bad for her. Since she does not have the facility of internet at her home, breaking the news to her was the hardest part. My friends are quite excited and want me to throw a party as soon as possible. My family is overjoyed. Seeing the joy and pride in my parents’ eyes is an inexplicable feeling. My elder sister has planned to cook something special in my honour, and my brother has offered to give me a gift of my choice. But, what is most important to me is the unconditional love and support of my family, which has made it possible.

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