English notes for class 11 Sindh board Chapter 1 Pakistan Zindabad

English notes for class 11 Sindh board Chapter 1 Pakistan Zindabad Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers and Past Papers for Class 11th.

English notes for class 11 Sindh board Chapter 1 Pakistan Zindabad

Where is the tomb of the Quaid-i-Azam?

English notes for class 11 Sindh board Chapter 1

The tomb of the Quaid-i-Azam is in Karachi. He was also born in Karachi and buried in the heart of the city.

Why does the writer apply the word ‘terrible’ to the first year of Pakistan’s history as an independent state?

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The writer applies the word, “terrible” to the first year of Pakistan’s history as an independent state because the Muslims who were migrating to Pakistan after its independence met a bad fate. Angry mobs of Sikhs and Hindus brutally killed or imprisoned about half a million Muslims migrating from the subcontinent to the newly born state of Pakistan.

How does Pakistan compare in size and population with the other nations of the world?

Compared with the other nations of the world, Pakistan is the greatest of the Muslim states and the fifth largest nation in the world.

How large was the population of Pakistan when it became independent?

When Pakistan became independent, its population was seventy million. Together, these people gained their identity as a nation as they gained a separate homeland for themselves.

Why did Kashmir not join Pakistan?

Kashmir did not join Pakistan because a Hindu Maharaja conquered Kashmir, where the Muslims were in majority. Quaid-i-Azam was distressed by the fate of Kashmir.

What were the provinces that voted to join Pakistan?

The provinces that voted to join Pakistan were Sindh, North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan West Punjab, Sylhet, and East Bengal. As a result, about forty million Muslims were left in India, but most of the Muslims had a homeland of their own now.

State briefly what the ‘Pakistan Resolution’ decided?

Pakistan Resolution decided that India needed to be split into two nations. The Muslim League agreed not to accept any plan for India which failed to give Muslims an independent state in those parts of India where there were more Muslims than Hindus, such as, East Bengal and North-West.

When and where was the ‘Pakistan Resolution’ passed?

Pakistan Resolution was passed in Lahore in March 1940. Pakistan Resolution was passed by the Muslim League, who took the decision to split India into two separate nations.

Who was the last Viceroy of India?

Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India. He became the Viceroy of India in March 1947. He was sent to India with orders to find out a way of handing over the government. However, he discovered that the country was already on the verge of the Civil war, and the British government was divided and powerless. So, he took the decision of dividing India into two states at once.

Who was the first Governor-General of Pakistan?

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first Governor General of Pakistan. He was also the founder of Pakistan and an exemplary figure for the Muslims of India. It was because of his struggle, firm determination and effective leadership that Muslims were able to gain independence.


Composition

Write an essay of 250 to 300 words on one of the following personalities:

  1. Mohammad Ali Jinnah
  2. Liaqat Ali Khan
  3. Syed Ahmad Khan
  4. Allama Mohammad Iqbal.

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in 1876, in Karachi. He received his early education in Karachi and passed his matriculation examination when he was sixteen years old. Later, he went to England in order to pursue higher education in the field of law. On his return to India, he started his practice as a lawyer in Karachi. Soon, he moved to Bombay, where he continued his practice.
Initially, Jinnah joined Indian National Congress and was impressed by its anti-imperialist stance. He was the ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity but he was extremely disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. At that stage of his political career, Jinnah left Congress and dedicated himself to the Muslim League.

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a great leader who had revolutionary ideas. He realized the dream of Iqbal and awakened the spirit of freedom among the Muslims. It was due to his determination, undaunting spirit and exemplary leadership that Muslims were able to gain a separate homeland for themselves on 14th August 1947.

After the independence of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam became the first Governor-General of Pakistan. He only made constitutional efforts in the freedom movement and for the establishment of Pakistan but also made the country stable by working hard. He not only persuaded the people to be patient but also took a practical step for the settlement and the rehabilitation of refugees. Therefore, he came over the difficulties, which were faced by Pakistan after the division of India. He stressed on the importance of education, the unity of faith and discipline for the Muslims of India.
Quaid-e-Azam was a great leader, constitutionalist, a distinguished parliamentarian, a determined freedom fighter, a dynamic Muslim leader, a political strategist, and, above all one of the great nation-builders of modern times. He was a man of faith and courage, who devoted his life to the creation of Pakistan.


Liaqat Ali Khan

Liaqat Ali Khan was born at Karnal in Punjab, India on 1st October 1896. He received his early education in his hometown. Later, he joined Aligarh’s famous MAO College. From here, Liaqat Ali Khan completed his bachelors in Political science. Afterward, he completed his bachelor’s degree in law in 1918. In order to pursue higher education, he joined Oxford University’s Exeter College. Liaqat Ali Khan was a brilliant student who got many scholarships and prizes during his educational career. After completing his higher education, Liaqat Ali Khan returned to India in 1923.

Liaqat Ali Khan was elected as a member of the Legislative Council of the United Provinces in 1926, where he served for the next fourteen years. During this period, he remained active in the affairs of the Muslim League and became its secretary in 1937. He became the right hand of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Together, they worked closely in building up the Muslim League as an effective political organization. He was elected as a member of the Central Legislative Assembly in 1940, where he served to strengthen the Muslim demand for a separate homeland, as the deputy leader of the Muslim League party.

In 1946, when independence for India was being negotiated with the British, Liaqat was appointed as the finance minister of the interim government. After the creation of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan became the first Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Liaqat Ali Khan was also the first Defence Minister of Pakistan Defence Authorities and also the first Minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Matters.
After Quaid-i-Azam’s demise in 1948, he emerged as the most powerful figure in the nation. He was a liberal democrat and was assassinated by a fanatic on 16th October 1951. He will always be remembered as one of the founders of Pakistan.


Syed Ahmad Khan

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 in an aristocratic family in Mughal Delhi. He was a great theologian, scholar, social reformer, educationist, politician, author, and journalist. He devoted his entire life to the betterment of the Muslims of the subcontinent. He was of the view that only modern education would help in the progress and development of Muslims. He visited England in the year 1869 and visited the most prestigious of British educational institutions. On his return to India, he established an educational committee. The purpose of this committee was to establish educational institutions in India, conforming to the British standard of education.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established English High School at Aligarh in the year 1857, which was named ‘Muhammadan Anglo Oriented School’. Its model was based on Cambridge University London. In 1863, he established ‘The Scientific Society’ that aimed to spread knowledge through the translation of Standard English books into Urdu. In 1877, he laid the foundation of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh to impart modern as well as religious education.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was also a social reformer and he wanted the Muslims of India to get an honorable status in the Hindu dominant society. For this purpose, he wrote his famous books, ‘The Causes of The Indian Revolt’ and ‘The Loyal Mohammedans of India’. Through these books, he tried to clear the misunderstandings between the Muslims and the British.


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan also provided great political services. He is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation Theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy, he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. In 1878, Sir Syed became a member of the Viceroy’s Legislative Council and he took up the Indian problems very effectively with the Indian Government.


In 1886, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan laid the foundation of Muhammadan Educational Conference. The purpose of this conference was to spread the massage of the Aligarh Movement to the Muslims throughout India and to motivate the Muslims for acquiring modern knowledge.


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a man of great courage and he worked throughout his life for the betterment of the Indian Muslims. He gave a new vision to the Muslims after the War of Independence. Moreover, he also revived the dormant consciousness of Muslims and through his educational, political, and social reforms. His name goes down in Muslim history as arguably the most influential Indian politician of the 19th century.


Allama Mohammad Iqbal

Allama Iqbal, generally known as the poet of the East and West, was born in the city of Punjab, Sialkot, on 9th November 1877. He received his early education in his home town. He joined Government College, Lahore in 1895, and completed his Masters from University of Punjab in 1899. In 1905, he left for England, where he was awarded a degree in PHD by Munich University for his work on Persian philosophy in 1908.
Iqbal was not only a great poet but he was also an active member of the All India Muslim League. Initially, he was also a believer of Hindu-Muslim unity, however, later he realized the prejudicial attitude of Congress towards the Muslims of India.

In 1930, during his Allahabad address, he presented the idea that the Muslims are a separate nation. He declared that there would be no peace in India unless and until Muslims were recognized as a separate nation. Allama Iqbal suggested that since Punjab, Sindh, N.W.F.P, and Balochistan are Muslim majority areas, so they must be united under a single Muslim state.

Iqbal not only gave the idea of a separate nation for Muslims but he also played an important role in the struggle for Pakistan. He awakened the spirit of freedom among the Muslims of India through his poetry and raised awareness about the propaganda of West against Muslims. His idea was opposed by Hindus and British alike, but he continued his efforts and wrote a letter to Quaid-e-Azam in 1937, who realized his dream, and the Pakistan resolution was passed in 1940.
Allama Iqbal was a great poet, thinker, scholar, and politician. He was a philosopher and revolutionary, who presented the idea of Two-Nation theory, on the basis of which Pakistan Resolution was passed in 1940. Although he passed away in 1938, and could not see the actual creation of Pakistan, but he played a major part in its creation.


Exercise

Using only the Simple Present Tense put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

1. She (do) all her housework in the evening.
2. Everyone (have) a hobby; mine and my brother’s (be) stamp- collecting.
3. Which of these mountain roads (remain) open in winter ?
4. Which one of these mountain roads (remain) open in winter ?
5. Neither you nor I (be) good enough to pass this examination.
6. Whoever (answer) this question (win) the prize.
7. ‘He who (hesitate) (be) lost.
8.  Nobody (like) wars and yet to fight (be) a part of human nature.
9. There (be) one officer and three soldiers guarding the palace.
10. Gulliver’s Travels (be) a satire.
11. Many a student (fail) because of poor attendance.
12. The manager and his secretary (be) in the office.
13. The manager with his secretary (be) in the office.
14. ‘Nothing (succeed) like success.’
15. My brother, who is an athlete, says that a hundred yards (be) his best distance.
16. The committee (meet) today at 3 p.m.
17. This bread and butter (be) not fresh.
18. The treatment and cure of this disease (be) very slow.
19. The present king, like his predecessors, (love) good food.
20. Four and seven (make) eleven.

Answer:
1. She does all her housework in the evening.
2. Everyone has a hobby; mine and my brother’s is stamp- collecting.
3. Which of these mountain roads remains open in winter?
4. Which one of these mountain roads remainopen in winter?
5. Neither you nor I am good enough to pass this examination.
6. Whoever answers this question wins the prize.
7. ‘He who hesitates is lost.’
8.  Nobody likes wars and yet to fight is a part of human nature.
9. There is one officer and three soldiers guarding the palace.
10. Gulliver’s Travels is a satire.
11. Many a student fails because of poor attendance.
12. The manager and his secretary are in the office.
13. The manager with his secretary is in the office.
14. ‘Nothing succeeds like success.’
15. My brother, who is an athlete, says that a hundred yards is his best distance.
16. The committee meets today at 3 p.m.
17. This bread and butter is not fresh.
18. The treatment and cure of this disease is very slow.
19. The present king, like his predecessors, loves good food.
20. Four and seven make eleven.


Exercise 5

Rewrite the following sentences in the same way:

1. Our daily newspapers contain many items of information.
2. The milkman delivers many bottles of milk to our school every day.
3. How many litres of petrol do you want?
4. The storm broke many panes of glass in my greenhouses.
5. He composed a great many pieces of music in his lifetime.
6. Haven’t you bought too many pieces of furniture for your new house?
7. The lions in the zoo need many kilograms of meat every day.
8. How many ounces of tobacco do you smoke in a week?
9. How many tins of jam are there in the cupboard?
10. How many metres of cloth will you need for that dress?

Answer:
1. Our daily newspapers contain a great deal of information.
2. The milkman delivers tons of milk to our school every day.
3. How much petrol do you want?
4. The storm broke a lot of panes of glass in my greenhouses.
5. He composed a great deal of music in his lifetime.
6. Haven’t you bought a great deal of furniture for your new house?
7. The lions in the zoo need tons of meat every day.
8. How much tobacco do you smoke in a week?
9. How much jam is there in the cupboard?
10. How much cloth will you need for that dress?


Exercise 6

Rewrite these sentences using the adjectives in italic type in this way :

1. It is quite possible for poor people to be happier than rich people.
2. Young people are often more enthusiastic than old people.
3. A wise man listens to advice; a foolish one does not listen to advice.
4. After the battle the stretcher bearers picked up the men who were wounded and those who were dying.
5. Nurses helped to look after those who were injured.

Answer:
1. It is quite possible for the poor to be happier than the rich.
2. Young people are often more enthusiastic than the old.
3. The wise listen to advice; the foolish do not listen to it.
4. After the battle the stretcher-bearers picked up the wounded and the dying.
5. Nurses helped to look after the injured.

Read more: Sindh | Karachi board Class 10 Eng Notes Chapter 1 to 26

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