English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 3 The United Nations

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 3 The United Nations  Education in Karachi English XI Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Question Answers, Online Test, Guess Papers and Past Papers for Class 11th.

English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 3 The United Nations

What is the function of UNESCO?

The function of UNESCO is to advance human well-being through education, science and culture in order to promote human welfare. This initiative of UNESCO is promoting international understanding which contributes towards the development of world peace.

What do the initials F.A.O. stand for, and what is the function of this organization?

The initials F.A.O stand for Food and Agriculture Organization. The function of this organization is to its members to enhance the yield of farms, fisheries, and forests in general. For this purpose, it sends experts to help countries that want advice on the procedure for growing more food and crops, controlling plant and animal diseases, protecting food in storage and increase the agricultural produce.

What do the initials W.H.O. stand for, and what is the function of this organization?

The initials W.H.O stand for World Health Organization. The function of W.H.O is to advise its member countries on the matters concerning public health and on the prevention and control of diseases.

What is the function of the International Bank?

The function of International Bank is to lend money to its member nations for carrying out different activities for the welfare of the public.

How large staff is employed by the Secretariat and where does it work?

A staff of about three thousand and five hundred people is employed by the UN Secretariat. The staff employed by the Secretariat works directly under the Secretary General at the headquarters of UN, located in New York.

What is the designation of the Chief Officer of the United Nations, for how long is the appointed, and by whom is he appointed?

The designation of the Chief Officer of the United Nations is Secretary General. He is appointed for a period of five years and is elected by the General Assembly with the approval of the Security Council.

What are the more important differences between the General Assembly and the Security Council?

The General Assembly consists of all members of the United Nations, whereas the Security Council consists of fifteen members. Five out of these are permanent ones. Those are China, France, UK, Russia, and the USA. Three out of the rest of the ten members are elected by General Assembly for two-year terms each year. Another difference between the two is that the General Assembly elects its president for each session while the Security Council works as its cabinet. Moreover, the General Assembly members have no veto power whereas five permanent members of the Security Council have veto power.

What part of the work of the United Nations appears, so far, to have yielded the most promising results?

The work of the United Nations in fighting social evils and solving social and economic problems has yielded the most promising results so far.

How successful has the United Nations Organization been, so far, in preventing local wars?

Although the United Nations has been successful in bringing peace to the countries where there was no peace, but in a great many cases, it has failed to prevent local wars caused due to the little quarrels resulting in the disputes between nations.

When was the United Nations Organization founded and (briefly) what inspired its foundation?

The United Nations Organization was founded in April 1945. Its foundation was inspired by the desire of the people all over the world for peace because they were disgusted by the miseries inflicted upon them in the wake of the Second World War. Moreover, the world had become a global village and the human race was drawing closer together. As a result, the ignorance, poverty, disease, and oppression in one part of the world was influencing the other parts of the world. Therefore, uniting the countries on a single platform for promoting peace and happiness was the need of the hour.


Composition

Write between 250 and 300 words on one of the following topics:

  1. The need for international understanding and co-operation.
  2. The importance of literacy.
  3. The value of the United Nations Organization.

The Need for International Understanding and Co-operation


The world today is passing through one of the most crucial periods in history. There is a mad race for Nuclear arms among the most powerful nations of the world and spaceships are being launched one after another in order to explore new possibilities of world domination. Moreover, the human race is threatened by the possibility of a third World War. Since the world has become a global village, ignorance, poverty, disease, and oppression in one part of the world have a tendency to influence other parts of the world. Therefore, mutual understanding and co-operation among the nations of the world for promoting peace and happiness is the need of the hour.
No country is essentially self-sufficient. Even the superpowers like the United States of America and China can not entirely survive on their own resources. All are mutually dependent on each other for the fulfillment of their needs. This mutual dependency of nations upon each other gave rise to the system of barter, that is, the exchange of goods, from the beginning of the time, and has developed into a trade.


All the nations are fighting single-handedly in order to defeat poverty and unemployment but they cannot achieve this agenda on their own. People need to broaden their outlook and co-operate with one another in defeating poverty and unemployment. There should be political freedom and economic freedom for all people of the world. All the developed nations of the world must see that no nation of the world should remain poor and starved. They must join their hands toge­ther, and try to help such poor nations where the men are at the verge of death due to starvation.


The concern of universal brotherhood friendliness and goodwill amongst different nations of the world also gives rise to the need for international understanding and co-operation. Cordial relations between countries develop a sense of goodwill and the spirit of humanity, which draws all the different nations of the world together. It is the sense of mutual understanding and co-operation that bring the nations together during times of War when calamities hit any nation. However, aids must be given by the developed nations freely, without imposing any political or economic conditions upon the underdeveloped or developing countries.


There is a great need for inter­national understanding and co-operation to eradicate poverty, secure peace and order and bring prosperity to the nations of the world. It is the only beacon of hope for peace. In this day and age, the world has become a global village, so the need for mutual understanding and co-operation has risen among the nations for the sake of their survival and integrity in order to make this world a better place to live in.

The Importance of Literacy

Literacy is the ability to read, view, write, design, speak and listen in a way that allows a person to communicate effectively. The power of literacy does not only lie in the ability to read and write, but a person’s capacity to apply these skills to effectively recognize and interpret the complexities of the world we live in.
Knowledge of literacy skills is essential for a person’s survival in today’s rapidly evolving, competitive world. Strong literacy skills enhance a person’s ability to communicate with others and to comprehend and solve problems and learn from these problems. Strong literacy skills are a key tool which enables the children to recognize and interpret information. Therefore, adults must have strong literacy skills so that they can enhance their children’s literacy level.
Effective literacy skills open the doors to better educational and employment opportunities to the people. Poor literacy is not only a threat to a person’s self-esteem but also his economic well-being. Consequently, higher literacy levels have a tendency to boost the economy of a country.


Through literacy, many social problems can be eradicated from society. A vast majority of homeless people are homeless due to the lack of basic skills that could enhance their lives. Strong literacy skills provide a person with the ability and opportunities to improve his living standards.
Literacy is crucial to economic development as well as the well-being of an individual, the community, and the nation at large. In today’s increasingly complex and rapidly changing technological world, it is essential that individuals continuously expand their knowledge and learn new skills in order to keep up with the pace of change. People with good literacy skills are more likely to have higher self-esteem and better academic and employment opportunities.

The Value of the United Nations Organization

Founded in April 1945, the United Nations Organization was inspired by the desire of the people all over the world for peace because they were disgusted by the miseries inflicted upon them in the wake of the Second World War. Moreover, the world had become a global village, and a hub of communication as the human race drew closer together. As a result, the ignorance, poverty, disease, and oppression in one part of the world influenced the other parts of the world greatly. Therefore, uniting the countries on a single platform for promoting peace, happiness, and goodwill and brotherhood among nations was the need of the hour.


Today, UN is the global march of civilizations against evils of all kinds. A staff of about three thousand and five hundred people is employed by the UN Secretariat. The staff employed by the Secretariat works directly under the Secretary General at the headquarters of UN, located in New York. Besides, hundreds of employees work in other specialized branches of the Secretariat.


Several specialized bodies are associated with the work of UN. Among these are UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, and FAO. The function of UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is to provide education to the underprivileged children and provide them relief from child abuse. Its aim is to promote human welfare through education, science, and culture. This initiative of UNESCO is promoting international understanding which contributes towards the development of world peace. WHO advises its member countries on the matters concerning public health and on the prevention and control of diseases, whereas FAO functions to enhance the yield of farms, fisheries, and forests in general. For this purpose, it sends experts to help countries that want advice on controlling plant and animal diseases, food storage and increase the agricultural produce.


United Nations Organization has played a vital role in the welfare and prosperity of its member countries. The work of the United Nations in fighting social evils and solving social and economic problems has yielded the most promising results so far. Members of the United Nations also discuss matters concerning peace and war and try to find solutions for them. Although UN has been successful in bringing peace to the countries where there was no peace, but in a great many cases, it has failed to prevent local wars caused due to the little quarrels resulting in the disputes between nations.


The United Nations’ aim is to prevent war in the world and reach a state of lasting peace. Moreover, members of the UN identify and discover solutions for the problems of poverty, hunger, oppression, social evils, ignorance, and diseases threatening the peace and prosperity of the world. Different organizations like UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, and FAO are working under the UN for bringing peace and uplifting the conditions of life of the underprivileged countries throughout the world.


Exercise 12

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Past Tense (Simple or Progressive):

1. The bus (turn) a comer when a private car (crash) into it.
2. I (put) up the Christmas decorations when I (fall) and (twist) my ankle.
3. He (have) a bath when the telephone (ring), so of course he (not answer) it.
4. When the football match (start) many people still (try) to buy tickets.
5. While we (stay) in the country, our hotel (catch) fire and (burn) down to the ground.
6. It (begin) to rain just as we (leave) the house.
7. I (hear) some shouts and (look) out of the window to see what (happen). A man (run) down the street and two policemen (chase) after him.
8. The aeroplane (fly) at 3430 metres when suddenly one of the engines(stop).
9. The convict (serve) a long prison sentence when he (escape).
10. He (hide) in London when the police finally (find) him.
11. The wireless (make) so much noise just now that I (not hear) what you (say).
12. Who (throw) that piece of chalk while I (write) on the blackboard?
13. The ship (sink) rapidly when the captain (order) the crew to jump overboard.
14. The cat (catch) the mouse as it (run) desperately round the room.
15. No one (watch) the television, so Father (turn) it off.
16. She (iron) a shirt when the iron (slip) and (fall) on her toe.
17. While I (go) to the office a pickpocket (steal) my wallet.
18. A tyre (burst) while the car (travel) at 120 kilometres per hour.
19. When the accident (occur) she (stand) on a ladder.
20. We (sit) down to dinner when the lights (fail).

Answer:
1. The bus was turning a comer when a private car crashed into it.
2. I was putting up the Christmas decorations when I fell and twisted my ankle.
3. He was having a bath when the telephone rang, so of course, he did not answer it.
4. When the football match started many people were still trying/still tried to buy tickets.
5. While we were staying in the country, our hotel caught fire and burned down to the ground.
6. It began to rain just as we left/were leaving the house.
7. I heard some shouts and looked out of the window to see what was happening. A man was running/ran down the street and two policemen were running after him.
8. The aeroplane was flying at 3430 metres when suddenly one of the engines stopped.
9. The convict was serving a long prison sentence when he escaped.
10. He was hiding in London when the police finally found him.
11. The wireless was making/made so much noise just now that I could not hear what you were saying/said.
12. Who threw that piece of chalk while I was writing on the blackboard?
13. The ship was sinking rapidly when the captain ordered the crew to jump overboard.
14. The cat caught the mouse as it was running desperately round the room.
15. No one was watching the television, so Father turned it off.
16. She was ironing a shirt when the iron slipped and fell on her toe.
17. While I was going to the office a pickpocket stole my wallet.
18. A tyre burst while the car was travelling at 120 kilometres per hour.
19. When the accident occurred she was standing on a ladder.
20. We were sitting down to dinner when the lights failed.


Exercise 14

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (Present Perfect, or Past):

1. Since I (have) influenza test December, I (not feel) very well.
2. The children (not believe) in Father Christmas since they (be) eight years old.
3. They (not be) abroad for the last few years. The last time they (go) was in 1954.
4. He (have) several accidents since he (start) learning to drive.
5. My brother (go) to India in 1945 but I (never be) there.
6. This country (be, independent tor ten years. Before that it (not be) free.
7. We (spend) the summer before last in Scotland. I (never have) such a wonderful holiday.
8. I (just sell) my car. It (be) worth $ 500, but I only (receive) $ 450
9. He (make) a fortune in the steel industry in recent years. When I first (know) him, he (be) quite a poor man.
10. There (be) a good film at the club last week. I (not see) a better one for ages.
11. It (start) raining on Friday and (rain) continuously for the last forty-eight hours.
12. Who (build) St. Paul’s Cathedral?
13. The Queen Elizabeth (sail) from Southampton this morning
14. Where you (buy) that watch? I (want) one like that for years.
15. The doctor (give) me some medicine when I (go) to see him, but I (not take) it yet.
16. He (live) all his life in Paris since he (be) a boy, and he is still there.
17. I (enjoy) myself more when I (be) young than I ever (do) since.
18. She (marry) a diplomat in May, and now they (go) to live in Mexico.
19. I know an old man who (never leave) the town in which he (be) born.

Answer:
1. Since I have had influenza test December, I have not felt very well.
2. The children have not believed in Father Christmas since they were eight years old.
3. They have not been abroad for the last few years. The last time they went was in 1954.
4. He has seen several accidents since he started learning to drive.
5. My brother went to India in 1945 but I have never been there.
6. This country has been independent tor ten years. Before that it was not free.
7. We spent the summer before last in Scotland. I have never had such a wonderful holiday.
8. I have just sold my car. It was worth $ 500, but I only received $ 450.
9. He has made a fortune in the steel industry in recent years. When I first knew him, he was quite a poor man.
10. There was a good film at the club last week. I have not seen a better one for ages.
11. It started raining on Friday and has been raining continuously for the last forty-eight hours.
12. Who has built St. Paul’s Cathedral?
13. The Queen Elizabeth has sailed from Southampton this morning.
14. Where have you bought that watch? I wanted one like that for years.
15. The doctor gave me some medicine when I went to see him, but I have not taken it yet.
16. He has lived all his life in Paris since he was a boy, and he is still there.
17. I enjoyed myself more when I was young than I ever have done since.
18. She married a diplomat in May and now they have gone to live in Mexico.
19. I know an old man who has never left the town in which he was born.


Exercise 15

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (Past or Past Perfect, Simple or Progressive):

1. The train (be) in the station at least five minutes before I (recog­nize) my friend in the crowd.
2. After she (wash) the clothes she (hang) them up to dry.
3. I never (see) such high mountains until I (go) to India.
4. The natives of Central Africa never (see) a white man until Dr. Livingstone (appear) among them.
5. As soon as the Inspector (get) in, the car (drive) off.
6. After the management (refuse) to increase their wages, the workers (go) on strike.
7. The cost of living (go) up by fifty percent, before the government (take) any action.
8. When the guests (leave) the servants (start) to clean the table.
9. Mr. Forester (drive) half-way to the party before his wife (discover) that she (leave) her handbag at home.
10. In 1914 when the First World War (break) out, King George V (reign) for four years.
11. Before Smith (die) in 1940, he (write) ten plays and three novels.
12. He (commit) suicide because, his friend (say), he (lose) all interest in life.
13. They said they (wait) ten years to emigrate to Australia.
14. By the time the rescuers (reach) the wreckage of the aeroplane, the snow (cover) it to a depth of two metres.
15. Until she (be) twenty-one she never (be) to London.
16. Unfortunately, I already (have) my holiday when I (receive) an invitation to go to Spain.
17. The orchestra (play) continuously for six hours by the time the dance (finish).
18. Before his mother (see) him, the baby (break) two cups and four saucers.
19. The sun already (set) when they (start) on the long walk home.
20. The clock (strike) midnight before I (finish) my homework.

Answer:
1. The train had been in the station at least five minutes before I recognized my friend in the crowd.
2. After she had washed the clothes she hung them up to dry.
3. I had never seen such high mountains until I went to India.
4. The natives of Central Africa had never seen a white man until Dr. Livingstone appeared among them.
5. As soon as the Inspector got in, the car drove off.
6. After the management refused to increase their wages, the workers went on strike.
7. The cost of living had gone up by fifty percent before the government took any action.
8. When the guests had left/left the servants started to clean the table.
9. Mr. Forester had driven half-way to the party before his wife discovered that she had left her handbag at home.
10. In 1914 when the First World War broke out, King George V reigned for four years.
11. Before Smith died in 1940, he had written ten plays and three novels.
12. He committed suicide because, his friend said, he had lost all interest in life.
13. They said they waited ten years to emigrate to Australia. (Note: Mistake in the book. Correct statement: They said they (wait) for ten years to emigrate to Australia.)
14. By the time the rescuers reached the wreckage of the aeroplane, the snow had covered it to a depth of two metres.
15. Until she was twenty-one she had never been to London.
16. Unfortunately, I already have had my holiday when I received an invitation to go to Spain.
17. The orchestra had been playing continuously for six hours by the time the dance finished.
18. Before his mother saw him, the baby had broken two cups and four saucers.
19. The sun had already set when they started on the long walk home.
20. The clock stroke midnight before I had finished my homework.


Read more: English notes for class 11 Sindh Board Chapter 2 Birkenhead Drill

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