Class 12 English Notes Chapter 10 The Jewel of the World

Class 12 English Notes Chapter 10 The Jewel of the World Punjab all boards Grade 12 FSc Pre Engineering include solved exercises, review questions, MCQs, and chapter overview.

The Jewel of the World Class 12 English Notes Chapter 10

Q 1. Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rahman I, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa.

Abd-al-Rahman I was a capable and strong man who belonged to Umayyad family. Once, when he was in Bedouin camp, Abbasid soldiers reached him and his brother to kill them. They dashed into the Euphrates River. He succeeded in swimming across the river but his younger brother, who was a poor swimmer got killed. He bore great hardship and reached Palestine. In North Africa, he barely escaped assassination at the hands of the governor of the province. He kept on wandering in Africa from tribe to tribe to save himself from the spies of the enemy and reached Ceuta after a period of five years.

Q 2. How did Abd-al-Rahman deal with the governor appointed by the Abhaad caliph to contest his rule?

Abd-al-Rahman killed the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph. He cut his head off, preserved it in salt and camphor. Then, he wrapped it in a black flag with a letter of appointment and sent it to the Caliph in Baghdad.

Q 3. What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?

On receiving the head of the governor, the Abbasid caliph said; “Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe!”

Q 4. What did Abd-al-Rahman do to make himself strong and to beautify has capital?

In order to make himself strong, he trained a well-disciplined, highly trained army of 40,000 or more Berbers and paid them generously to maintain their favour. In order to beautify his capital, he built an aqueduct for the supply of pure water and ordered the construction of a wall around it. He also built up a grand palace for himself with a garden outside where he introduced exotic plants. He also founded the great most of Cordova.

Q 5. Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al- Rahman III.

Under the reign of Abd-al-Rahman III, remarkable economic progress was made by Arabs. At that time, Spain was considered as the most cultured country in Europe with Constantinople and Baghdad as one of the three cultural centres of the world. With its seventy libraries and numerous bookshops, libraries, mosques, and palaces, it acquired international fame and admiration of travelers. Under his Caliphate, Spain became one of the wealthiest and most populated lands of Europe. Beside agricultural development, weaving and leather industry, silk, glass ware, brass work and the art of inlaying and decorating steel as well as other metals like silver and gold with art patterns flourished.

Q 6. What did Al-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?

In order to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom, Al-Hakam, who was a scholar himself patronised learning. He was generous to scholars and established twenty-seven free schools in Cordova. During his reign, University of Cordova became one of the most prestigious educational institutions of the world and attracted Muslim and Christian students from all over the world. He enlarged the mosque around the university and also established a grand library having four lakh books from all over the world.

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