Class 12 English Notes Rawalpindi Board Chapter 2 Using the Scientific Method Punjab all boards Grade 12 FSc Pre Engineering include solved exercises, review questions, MCQs, and chapter overview.
Chapter 2 Using the Scientific Method Class 12 English Notes
How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?
The scientific method has helped us remarkably in our fight against diseases. Average life expectancy of a human has increased up to thirty more years. Previously, the lives of babies were threatened by contagious diseases like measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever, and diphtheria, which were incurable. Now babies are born in hospitals so there is a remote possibility of getting them a disease. With the advent of the scientific method, causes, prevention, and treatment of these diseases have been made possible.
What are the sanitary conditions like in our villages today and how would you improve them?
The sanitary conditions of in our villages these days are deplorable because of the lack of proper sewerage system to carry waste material and disposal plants. Due to a poor drainage system, accumulation of filthy water beside the homes of villagers is a common sight. These dirty pools of water are the breeding grounds of germs, flies, and insects because of which diseases and epidemics such as cholera, malaria, influenza break out.
Drinking water is scanty in underdeveloped rural areas and is generally obtained from pools and uncovered wells. Moreover, the cattle float freely in the ponds and people who use drinking water for bathing and washing purposes pollute it. For the improvement of sanitary conditions in the villages, I would suggest that a proper drainage system should be introduced and the streets and drains should be cleaned regularly. Awareness campaigns about cleanliness and its impact on their health hygiene should be held in order to enlighten the villagers. Methods for purification of drinking water should be introduced. Moreover, old wells for drinking water should be abandoned.
How has the scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?
The scientific method has helped us in the production and preservation of food in many ways. Regardless of the season and climate, people can now enjoy fresh a variety of fruits and vegetables all year round. Seafood and a variety of meat can be preserved by the quick-freeze method and their nutrition is retained at the same time.
Modern methods of selection, gradation, and processing of foods have made it more wholesome and fresh. Dehydration or removal of water is a practical method of preservation, which has obliterated the risk of poisoning from canned foods such as milk, eggs, potatoes, and apples.
We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
There is no doubt towards the fact that we are now generally less fearful than our ancestors were in their times. Our ancestors were afraid of unseen powers and evil spirits. Supernatural causes were held responsible for diseases so they were terrified by the evil spirits. Superstitions such as bad luck associated with black cats, broken mirrors, and number thirteen that gives rise to feelings of anxiety were rampant. Back in the day, people wore charms to avoid bad luck. Hence, feelings of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty prevailed in the times of our ancestors.
How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
The scientific method has enabled us to get over our old fears because it has brought changes to our attitude and enlightened our minds. It has enabled us to discover the causes and devise the methods of prevention and cure of diseases and we do not believe in evil spirits. Superstitions of black cats, broken mirrors, and the number thirteen do not horrify us because our thoughts rest upon the idea that everything happens for a reason. Instead, ideas are supported by facts and scientific proofs in our times, so the elements of uncertainty and fear that were prevalent in the past have reduced fundamentally.
What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples.
In the past, superstitions had an astonishing grip over the people. They relied on astrology for everything they did and fortune telling influenced their lives. For example, before doing any work or going on a journey, they sought the help of astrologers. However, Astrology and fortune telling are still practiced in our times but they do not influence the lives of most of the people anymore and they believe that everything happens for a reason.
Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?
Some of the superstitions still prevalent in our country in spite of the fact that science has dispelled them include the omen of black cats, which stands as a symbol of bad luck.
The misfortune associated with broken mirrors is another superstition that many people in our country still believe in it. There are tremendous effects of superstitions on the thinking pattern and lives of people in general. Superstitions often cause unrealistic and unfounded fears. Feelings of fear of the unseen supernatural forces occupy their minds.
Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago.
The streets and roads of our cities today are paved and well drained and they are cleaned regularly as opposed to the narrow, unpaved, and poorly drained streets where household garbage and other waste material were thrown. The effective sewerage system carries off the filthy material to the disposal plants through sealed pipes. Towns and cities are supplied a sufficient amount of water through pipelines, so the age-old bucket system used for carrying water to their homes is no longer in practice.