Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 8 People and Places

Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 8 People and Places 9th class English notes Sindh Textbook board Education in Karachi solved exercises, MCQs, important questions, grammar, chapter overview,

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Reading Comprehension Exercise 1 People and Places

Read the diary entries quickly and find out information for filling the following table. One entry is narrative and the other is descriptive.

ItemDayDateTopicPlace MentionedNo. of ParagraphsType of Text
Entry 1Wednesday10th February, 2015 Village LifeVillage7narrative
Entry 2Friday4th August, 2017We need to store rain waterGuddu Barrage8descriptive

Reading Comprehension Exercise 3

Write two paragraphs. Use at least five words from Entry 1 to write one paragraph and five words from Entry 2 to write the second paragraph.

Entry 1:       desperately            siblings              commuting            credit
                   gossips                   devices               compromised        distanced
                   access                     replaced

Entry 2:     devastation             havoc                 capture                  retain
                  structures                releases             irrigation               tamed
                  self-sufficient         surplus

Answer:
Paragraph 1:
We, all three siblings sit together after a week to share family news and  gossips. We are desperately waiting for this moment as all three of us are living in hostels for completing our higher education.  Though, we are in constant touch with one another because of the access to modern technology such as internet, whatsapp, face book, etc. but I must say that devices are no alternate to the wonderful moments people spend together in the flesh and blood.  

Paragraph 2:
Last year, the agricultural lands of Pakistan got sufficient water for irrigation. The country received crops and vegetables in surplus quantity. But, the country faced a major crisis that affected not only the farmers and agriculturists but the whole country. As there was no barrage to retain rain water in the area, an unexpected flood came and created havoc for the farmers.

Read more: Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 5 Healthy LifeStyle


Reading Comprehension Exercise 4


The following sentences are summary of each paragraph of the two entries. Read the text and in the blanks provided, write the number of the paragraph to which each sentence is related. 

Answer:
Entry 1

a. There were no roads and no vehicles.                  4
b. The modern lifestyle has affected our health and our relationships.         7
c. I miss the simple village life.                1
d. Men met and discussed things at the Otaq and women at the village well.      6
e. Three families lived in three rooms.            2
f. The houses were not made of cement.           3
g. People bought things from small shops.         5

Entry 2
a. One of the barrages in Pakistan is the Guddu Barrage.                                  5
b. Construction of more barrages is an important need of Pakistan today.         8
c. The Guddu Barrage irrigates land in two provinces.                 6
d. Rivers has always been important for travel and for growing crops.          2
e. The flow of water is controlled through gates in a barrage.                  4
f. Many different people worked to complete the Guddu Barrage.                  7
g. A way was found to store extra water for later use.                3
h. Rains cause rivers to overflow, leading to flood.                    1

Read more: Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 4 Pakistan and National Pride


Reading Comprehension Exercise 5

How was the village life of the past different from the city life of today, as given in the text? Complete the table to show the difference.

S. No.ItemsVillage life 60 years agoCity life today
1.Housesmade of wood, straw and mudmade of cement, painted with beautiful colours having tiled floors
2.Roads/Streetsnarrow mud lanessmooth roads and paved streets
3.Mode of travelwalkcars, buses, motorbikes
4.Atmospherepollution freepolluted
5.Shops/Marketssmall shopsbig shops and supermarkets
6.Buying from shopsget goods on creditmoney or credit cards
7.Sources of newsvillage men and women themselves share news and issuestelevision
8.Information about peoplevillage men and women themselves share information about one another while meeting at Otaqface book
9.Sources of entertainmentfolk songs sung to the tune of the ghaghar and tambooraYou Tube
10.Communicating with peoplein the flesh and blood (meaning direct communication without using any device like mobile, etc.)via devices

Reading Comprehension Exercise 6

Complete the following sentences.
a. Very few people had knee problems in the village because ……….
b. The people in the village did not need vehicles because………..
c. People could buy things from the shops without money as ……….
d. When the men met at the Otaq in the evening they …………..
e. The writer wanted a time machine so that ………..
f. Rivers have always been important for two reasons …….
g. The main purpose of barrages is ………….
h. The Guddu Barrage has made a difference in this region by ……..
i. Pakistan needs more barrages to ………..
j. Through proper water management we can …………….

Answer:
a. Very few people had knee problems in the village because people of all ages comfortably sat on the floor, which exercised their knees.
b. The people in the village did not need vehicles because they just walked.
c. People could buy things from the shops without money as the village shopkeepers knew everyone by name and were usually willing to give goods on credit.
d. When the men met at the Otaq in the evening they spent their free time, shared news and gossips, laughed at shared jokes, talked about the weather, their crops, and village issues, and enjoyed folk songs sung to the tune of the Ghaghra and tamboura.
e. The writer wanted a time machine so that he would be taken back to his simple life, simple people, simple interests, and simply wants and needs.
f. Rivers have always been important for two reasons, for growing crops and for traveling from one place to another.
g. The main purpose of barrages is to capture and retain the rainwater for later use and prevent it from flooding.
h. The Guddu Barrage has made a difference in this region by taming the river and putting an end to the damage caused by floods.
i. Pakistan needs more barrages to control flooding during the rainy season and to supply water throughout the year for irrigating more land.
j. Through proper water management we can grow surplus food items, which we can then export and earn foreign exchange.

Read more: Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 3 Education and Careers


Reading Comprehension Exercise 7

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Q.1) What are the things that the writer was missing?

Answer:
The writer was missing his village; the simple, mud house where he lived, the simple toys of his childhood that gave him pleasure in a true sense, and the simple carefree people of the village with whom he had spent his memorable childhood.

Q.2) Why did the lanes in the village become slippery in the rainy season?

Answer:
The lanes in the village became slippery in the rainy season because they were made of mud.

Q.3) Is the writer happy with his present life? Why? Why not?

Answer:
The writer is not much happy and satisfied with his present life because the luxuries of life have compromised people’s health, the access to various devices especially internet, Facebook, Skype, etc. has distanced people from one another, and technology has replaced the human touch.

Q.4) Why do most parts of Pakistan have flood problem in summer?

Answer:
Most parts of Pakistan have flood problem in summer because rivers flood and there are no barrages to control and retain that overflowing rain water.  

Q.5) Why did people start building barrages?

Answer:
People started building barrages in order to capture and retain the rain water for later use that prevented it from flooding.

Q.6) Do you agree/think that we should build bridges? Why? Why not?

Answer:
Yes, we should build barrages so to control the flow of water in the flood season and to store and release water for irrigation, through the canals, throughout the year. By building barrages, we can become self-sufficient in meeting the needs and demands of grains, fruits, and vegetables of local people as well as earn foreign exchange by exporting them.


Reading Comprehension Exercise 8

By looking at the mind map in the textbook, use the hints to provide information about the Guddu Barrage.

Answer:
Guddu Barrage
1. Built on: The River Indus
2. Breadth of river at Guddu: fourteen kilometres in width
3. Breadth of barrage: one kilometre
4. Length of barrage: 1355 kilometres
5. Amount of flood water that can flow through it: 1.2 million cusecs
6. Number of main canals: three
7. Names of right and left bank canals: The Begari Sindh Feeder and the Desert Pat Feeder (right bank canal) and Ghotki Feeder (left bank canal)
8. Total area to be irrigated: 2.7 million acres
9. Names of districts irrigated: Sukkur and Jacobabad districts of Sindh and Kalat division of the Baluchistan
10. Number and kind of people involved in construction: More than 5000 people involving engineers, technicians and labourers
11. Started working on: 4th February, 1962


Language Practice Exercise 1

Complete the following table by adding the missing degree of adverbs. 

No.PositiveComparativeSuperlative
1.angrilymore angrilymost angrily
2.bravelymore bravelymost bravely
3.carefullymore carefullymost carefully
4.comfortablymore comfortablymost comfortably
5.earlyearlierearliest
6.easilymore easilymost easily
7.loudlymore loudlymost loudly
8.fastfasterfastest
9.gentlymore gentlymost gently
10.happilymore happilymost happily
11.hardharderhardest
12.probablymore probablymost probably
13.longlongerlongest
14.farfartherfarthest
15.noisilymore noisilymost noisily
16.highhigherhighest
17.quicklymore quicklymost quickly
18.skilfullymore skilfullymost skilfully
19.truthfullymore truthfullymost truthfully
20.wellbetterbest

Read more: Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 2 Role Model


Language Practice Exercise 2

Fill the following blanks with the correct degree of adverb. Select an adverb from the list in Exercise 1.
1. My uncle went the _________ from his home during the recent flood.
2. Let’s see who runs the _________ in the race.
3. The workers protested ___________ at getting low salaries, as compared to long working hours and shorter breaks.
4. The Bolan Express is the __________ train you can take, the rest leave after 10 o’clock.
5. The drivers from Germany drove their cars _________ than those from Japan.
6. Salim climbed __________ than Fazal but Hanif climbed the ____________.
7. As compared to the soldiers in the first and middle rows, the soldiers in the last row fought the enemy ___________.
8. Saima answered __________ than her friends.
9. Newborn babies should be handled ___________ than all other age groups.
10.My father was sitting ___________ in his chair and enjoying the talk show on TV.

Answer:
1. My uncle went the farthest from his home during the recent flood.
2. Let’s see who runs the fastest in the race.
3. The workers protested angrily at getting low salaries, as compared to long working hours and shorter breaks.
4. The Bolan Express is the earliest train you can take, the rest leave after 10 o’clock.
5. The drivers from Germany drove their cars more skilfully than those from Japan.
6. Salim climbed higher than Fazal but Hanif climbed the highest.
7. As compared to the soldiers in the first and middle rows, the soldiers in the last row fought the enemy most bravely.
8. Saima answered more quickly than her friends.
9. Newborn babies should be handled more carefully than all other age groups.
10.My father was sitting comfortably in his chair and enjoying the talk show on TV.


Language Practice Exercise 3

Complete the following passage using the correct degree of the adverbs given below.
well        probably           easily             loudly         happily                 quickly
long        hard                     carefully      noisily

The teacher had to shout ______ the second time before the students settled down. The reason why the students were working ________ was that they wanted more time to do the work. The teacher said that the student who finishes _________ would get two extra marks. Salim wanted to perform _____ than his friends because he wanted to get the scholarship. He had worked _____ for his English paper and wanted to be able to do the paper _______ than he had been able to do in the previous test. He read each section _______ to avoid silly mistakes. He knew that he would _______ finish well in time to be able to edit his work. He worked the ________ on the writing section because he wanted to write a good essay. He submitted his paper _________ when the teacher announced that the time was up.

Answer:
The teacher had to shout more loudly the second time before the students settled down. The reason why the students were working noisily was that they wanted more time to do the work. The teacher said that the student who finishes quickly would get two extra marks. Salim wanted to perform better than his friends because he wanted to get the scholarship. He had worked hard for his English paper and wanted to be able to do the paper more easily than he had been able to do in the previous test. He read each section carefully to avoid silly mistakes. He knew that he would probably finish well in time to be able to edit his work. He worked the longest on the writing section because he wanted to write a good essay. He submitted his paper happily when the teacher announced that the time was up.


Language Practice Exercise 4

In the following exercise, the quotation marks are missing. Write down these sentences by putting the quotation marks.
1. We are going to be late for school, Amjad, said his sister.
2. The students stood up and said, Good morning, teacher.
3. The cleaner said, I have cleaned your yard, and then he went away.
4. The small child was crying, and kept saying, Where is my mother?
5. Come on in, children, said the gatekeeper, I am going to close the gate.
6. All the people were shouting, Pakistan Zindabad! We have won the match!
7. I have lost my car keys, said the old man. How can I start my car now?
8. Be careful! There are many bees flying here. They may bite you, said Zahra.

Answer:
1. “We are going to be late for school, Amjad,” said his sister.
2. “The students stood up and said, “Good morning, teacher.”
3. The cleaner said, “I have cleaned your yard, and then he went away.”
4. The small child was crying, and kept saying, “Where is my mother?”
5. “Come on in, children,” said the gatekeeper, “I am going to close the gate.”
6. All the people were shouting, “Pakistan Zindabad! We have won the match!”
7. “I have lost my car keys,” said the old man. “How can I start my car now?”
8. “Be careful! There are many bees flying here. They may bite you,” said Zahra.


Language Practice Exercise 5

Insert quotation marks, capital letters, full stops and commas in the following story, where required.

Frogs
Once upon a time there was a bunch of tiny frogs who arranged a running competition. The goal was to reach the top of a very high tower. A big crowd had gathered around the tower to see the race and cheer on the contestants.

the race began no one in the crowd really believed that the tiny frogs would reach the top of the tower one person said oh way too difficult!

another one said they will never make it to the top

not a chance that they will succeed said an old man the tower is too high!

the tiny frog began collapsing one by one however some of them kept their spirits high and continued climbing higher and higher the crowd continued to yell it is too difficult! no one will make it!

more tiny frogs got tired and gave up but one frog continued to climb higher and higher and higher this one wouldn’t give up.

at the end everyone else had given up climbing the tower except for the one tiny frog who after a big effort was the only one who reached the top then all of the other tiny frogs asked each other how did this one frog manage to do it

a contestant asked the tiny frog how did you find the strength to reach the goal

it turned out that the winner was deaf!

the wisdom of this story is: never listen to other people when they are being negative or pessimistic because they take away your most wonderful dreams from you

always remember that words have power and everything you hear and read will affect your actions therefore always be positive friends and listen only to positive people above all be deaf when people tell you what you can do and what you cannot do believe in yourself and always say with God’s help I can do this

Answer:
Frogs

Once upon a time, there was a bunch of tiny frogs who arranged a running competition. The goal was to reach the top of a very high tower. A big crowd had gathered around the tower to see the race and cheer on the contestants.

The race began. No one in the crowd really believed that the tiny frogs would reach the top of the tower. One person said, “Oh! Way too difficult!”

Another one said, “They will never make it to the top.”

“Not a chance that they will succeed,” said an old man, “The tower is too high!”

The tiny frog began collapsing one by one. However, some of them kept their spirits high and continued climbing higher and higher. The crowd continued to yell, “It is too difficult! No one will make it!”

More tiny frogs got tired and gave up but one frog continued to climb higher and higher and higher. This one wouldn’t give up.

At the end, everyone else had given up climbing the tower except for the one tiny frog who after a big effort was the only one who reached the top then all of the other. Tiny frogs asked each other, “How did this one frog manage to do it?”

A contestant asked the tiny frog, “How did you find the strength to reach the goal?”

It turned out that the winner was deaf!

The wisdom of this story is: never listen to other people when they are being negative or pessimistic because they take away your most wonderful dreams from you.

Always remember that words have power and everything you hear and read will affect your actions. Therefore, always be positive friends and listen only to positive people. Above all be deaf when people tell you what you can do and what you cannot do. Believe in yourself and always say, “With God’s help, I can do this!”


Writing Exercise 1

Write a job application for the profession you want to choose.

Answer:
Application:

December 02, 2020
Mr. Kareem
HR Manager
University of Karachi
Karachi

Subject: Application for the Post of a Professor of English Literature

Dear Sir,
In response to your advertisement appeared in Sunday newspaper on November 29, 2020, about the vacant post of professor of English Literature at your respective organization. I, therefore, writing this application to apply for the post by providing you all the relevant details of my qualification, abilities, and experiences.

I have passed my Masters in English Literature from Jinnah University for Women in 2013. Right after that, I was fortunate to join Defence Authority Degree College For Women as English teacher where I served for more than four years. Then, I was promoted as Assistant Professor at the same college. During the tenure of seven years of my career, my job responsibilities include teaching students about the structure and content of the English language, including proper grammar, spelling, and sentence structure, also plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction. I have taught students about different literary styles. Apart from that, I have to create positive educational climate for students to learn in. I have also attended workshop on latest teaching methodologies. I do have good computer skills along with effectual communication style.

I am an energetic and passionate person and if I would be given an opportunity I will prove myself to be the best candidate. Based on my experience and job requirements, I consider myself suitable for the post. I am available for the interview on any day of the week as per your convenience.

Along with my application, I have enclosed my CV and attested copies of educational documents and professional experience.

Should you be kind enough to appoint me, I shall try my level best to render entire satisfaction to you.

Thanking You.
Yours Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Karachi


Writing Exercise 2

There are three positions vacant in your school. Your brother/sister wants to apply for one of these positions. The positions are as follows:
1. Subject teacher
2. Laboratory Assistant
3. Secretary

Answer:
1. Application for Subject Teacher

October 23, 2020
Miss Armina
HR Manager
Jinnah University for Women
Karachi

Subject: Application for the Post of Subject Teacher

Dear Madam,
In response to your advertisement appeared in Sunday newspaper on October 11, 2020, about the vacant post of Subject Teacher at your respective organization. I, therefore, writing this application to apply for the post by providing you all the relevant details of my qualification, abilities, and experiences.

I have passed my Masters in English Literature from Defence Authority Degree College For Women in 2018. Then, I joined Government College for Girls, Gulistan-e-Jouhar as English teacher. There I served for two years. During the tenure of my career, my job responsibilities include planning, preparing, and delivering lectures, helping students improve their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills through individual and group sessions, checking and assessing students’ work and organizing and running specialist courses. Furthermore, I have taught students about different literary styles. I have also attended workshop on latest teaching methodologies. I do have good computer skills along with effective communication style.

I am an energetic and determined person and if I would be given an opportunity I will prove myself to be the best candidate. Based on my experience and job requirements, I consider myself suitable for the post. I am available for the interview on any day of the week as per your convenience.

Along with my application, I have enclosed my CV and attested copies of educational documents and professional experience.

If I would be given a chance to serve as English Teacher at your organization, I shall try my level best to render entire satisfaction to you.

Thanking You.
Yours Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Karachi

2. Application for Laboratory Assistant
February 09, 2020
Mr. Shahzad
HR Manager
Agha Khan Laboratory
Karachi

Subject: Application for the Post of Laboratory Assistant

Dear Sir,
In response to your advertisement appeared in Sunday newspaper on January 20, 2020, about the vacant post of laboratory assistant at your respective laboratory. I, therefore, writing this application to apply for the post by providing you all the relevant details of my qualification, abilities, and experiences.

I have passed my Bachelors in Biogenetics from Allama Iqbal University in 2019. I performed the job of laboratory assistant at Chughtai Lab for a period of one year. During the tenure of my career, mu job responsibilities include performing laboratory tests, preparing samples/specimens, performing daily quality control checks, preparing reports with reliable data, use of latest methodologies and best practices, and adhering to correct procedures and policies, and finally documenting all activities. I have excellent computer skills along with effective communication style.

I am an energetic and passionate individual and if I would be given an opportunity I will prove myself to be the best candidate. Based on my experience and job requirements, I consider myself suitable for the post. I am available for the interview on any day of the week as per your convenience.

Along with my application, I have enclosed my CV and attested copies of educational documents and job experience.

If I would be given a chance, I shall try my level best to render entire satisfaction to you.

Thanking You.
Yours Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Karachi

3. Application for Secretary
April 13, 2020
Mr. Saleem
HR Manager
Ministry of Finance
Hyderabad

Subject: Application for the Post of Secretary

Dear Sir,
In response to your advertisement appeared in Sunday newspaper on April 06, 2020, about the vacant post of secretary at your respective organization. I, therefore, writing this application to apply for the post by providing you all the relevant details of my qualification, abilities, and experiences.

I have passed my Bachelors in Computer Science from Government College for Boys in 2017. Right after that, I was lucky enough to the a job of personal secretary at one of the leading firms of the city. During the tenure of three years of my career, I was responsible for answering calls, taking messages and handling correspondence, maintaining diaries and arranging appointments with the clients, typing and preparing reports, filing, organizing and servicing meetings (producing agendas and taking minutes), managing databases and prioritising workloads. I have excellent computer skills along with effectual communication style.

I am an enthusiastic and determined person and if I would be given an opportunity I will prove myself to be the best candidate. Based on my experience and job requirements, I consider myself suitable for the post. I am available for the interview on any day of the week as per your convenience.

Along with my application, I have enclosed my CV and attested copies of educational documents and professional experience.

If I would be given a chance to serve as secretary at your organization, I shall try my level best to render entire satisfaction to you.

Thanking You.
Yours Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Hyderabad


Writing Exercise 4

Write the summary of the poem.

Answer:
Summary:

The miller of the Dee and King Hal are the speakers in the poem, ‘The Miller of the Dee’ by Charles Mackay. Once there lived a miller near river Dee. He used to work from morning to night. While being busy in his wok, he used to sing. One day, he was singing about the happy days of his life when neither had he envied anybody nor anybody envied him. At that very moment, old king Hal happened to pass by him, the king saw him singing happily in a light mood. He stopped and asked the miller what was wrong.

Moreover, in spite of being a wealthy and powerful man, the king was not happy, and his life was filled with worries and anxieties, so he could not believe how a miller’s life could be carefree. The miller replied in a polite tone that he earn his bread, love his friend, wife and three children, and he owed not a single penny that he had to pay. That was the reason for his happiness and carefree life. The miller said that he was thankful to river Dee as it helped him in grinding the corn in his mill. The Miller was the happier of the two because he had limited desires, and he remained content with whatever he had. The King, on the other hand, remained dissatisfied with his life, in spite of having authority and fortune. At the end, the King said to the miller that his mealy cap was worthy of the King’s crown and his mill was more precious than his kingdom. He also appreciated the miller by saying that men like him are the pride of England.


Exercise Task 3 (The Healthy Living)

Talk to your parents, teacher, community members and if you have access to library or internet, use those sources as well to collect information on the following:
– What are the main sources of drinking water in your residence area/neighbourhood?
– How does water get contaminated?
– Are there any visible signs of water contamination or unhygienic practices near the source of drinking water? List them down.
– What are the common ways of purifying or cleaning water?

Answer:
– There are two main sources of drinking water in our neighbourhood, one is private mineral water plant and the other one is the filter plant run by the society. Private mineral water plant charge Rs. 2/liter whereas the water obtained from the society filter plant is free of cost. Both the filter plants have their fixed timings. Private mineral water plant is open for 24 hours day. On the other hand, society filter plant is open for four hours in the morning i.e. 6-10 and then for four hours in the evening i.e. 4-8.

– Water get contaminated through various means. For instance, industrial waste, chemical rich water discharged by factories into water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and streams, polythene bags and other stuff being dumped into seas and oceans by humans, accidental oil leakage from ships, chemical fertilizers and pesticides and human wastes from sewage system.

– No, there are no such visible signs of water contamination or unhygienic practices near the source of drinking water in our neighbourhood.

– Water needs to be cleaned and purified to live a healthy life because contaminated or dirty water causes a number of diseases. One of the simplest and easiest way to purify water is boiling it for a good amount of time. After that, comes the water purifiers that are easily available in the market nowadays. Only few drops of such water purifiers are required to purify litres of water. Water can also be purified by using latest scientific methods on a large scale such as Reverse Osmosis, water chlorination, distillation, solar purification, iodine addition, etc. These types of water purification are quite expensive.


Exercise Task 1 (You are what you eat)

Explore the effects of stunting on young children by using resources available to you including local medical staff or doctor, internet, science textbook or other reading materials.

Answer:
Stunting is the disorder that is caused in early stages of childhood due to malnutrition. It is the impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The damage that is caused by stunting to the health of the children is irreversible.
Stunting causes adverse effects on the health of the children. It not only affects a child’s health, making them more receptive to disease and infection, but also impairs their mental and physical development. This means that children who suffer from stunting are less likely to achieve their full height and cognitive potentials as adults. Apart from this, stunting also leads to poor school performance, which can result in future income reduction.