Reading Comprehension Exercise 3 Healthy LifeStyle
Guess the meanings of the words and then check them with the glossary.
parasite transmitted saliva clot
chills constipation dysfunction disorientation
transfusion antibodies immune respiratory
stagnant contagious nausea fatal
display inflammation intense pronounced
|Words||Guessed Meaning||Actual Meaning from Glossary|
|parasite||a living thing that lives on other living organisms||an animal or plant that lives on or in another and gets its food from it|
|transmitted||pass, transfer||to pass something from one person, place or thing to another|
|saliva||natural watery substance in the mouth||liquid produced in the mouth that helps one swallow and digest food|
|clot||lump||a lump form in the blood, which stops or disturbs the flow of blood|
|chills||shivering due to cold||feeling of coldness|
|constipation||infrequent bowel movements||not able to discharge solid waste from the body|
|dysfunction||abnormality||problem in the working of some part of the body|
|disorientation||disturbed mental condition||loss of sense of direction|
|transfusion||blood transfer||putting of one person’s blood into another person’s body|
|antibodies||blood protein||substances in the blood that fight against diseases|
|immune||resistance||cannot be harmed by a disease because the body ahs developed the ability to fight it|
|respiratory||related to breathing||breathing related|
|stagnant||standing||standing in one place, not flowing or moving|
|contagious||transmitted disease||a disease that can spread by touch|
|nausea||vomiting||a feeling of wanting to be sick|
|fatal||deadly||causing or ending in death|
|display||show||to put up something in a place where people can see it easily|
|inflammation||burning||a condition in which a part of the body is red, swollen and sore|
|intense||severe||very great or severe|
Reading Comprehension Exercise 4
Use as much words in your own sentences as possible.
parasite transmitted saliva clot
chills constipation dysfunction disorientation
transfusion antibodies immune respiratory
stagnant contagious nausea fatal
display inflammation intense pronounced
|saliva||The smell of food causes the saliva to flow from the dog’s mouth.|
|clot||The doctors removed a clot from his brain.|
|transfusion||A blood transfusion saved my uncle’s life.|
|immune||Corona Virus affects the immune system of the body very badly.|
|respiratory||Respiratory diseases can be caused by smoking.|
|stagnant||Few fish survive in the stagnant waters of the lake.|
|nausea||The side effects of this medicine includes nausea and faintness.|
|fatal||My grandfather suffered a fatal heart attack last month.|
Reading Comprehension Exercise 6
Read the text and complete the following table.
|Disease||Source (s) of Transmission||Organs/Cells Attacked||Symptoms|
|Malaria||infected mosquitoes||liver/red blood cells||high fever accompanied by chills and sweating constipation, and kidney dysfunction|
|Dengue||infected mosquito, from one human to another, blood transfusion, organ donation, and from the mother to the child||immune system/white blood cells and antibodies||high fever, severe body pain, pain behind the eyes and decreased urine output|
|Chikungunya||mosquitoes, from infected person to another||muscle cells, joints, skin, connective tissues, and central nervous system||fever and skin rash, headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle weakness and joint pain|
Reading Comprehension Exercise 7
Write down the answers of the following questions.
Q.1) What are the most common diseases caused by mosquito bites?
The most common diseases caused by mosquito bites are malaria, dengue, and chikungunya.
Q.2) Which specific part of the body becomes highly infected in Cerebral Malaria?
Brain becomes highly infected in Cerebral Malaria.
Q.3) What can lead to severe liver infection when one has malaria?
Plasmodium, a single-celled parasite infects the red blood cells of the body until they burst. The newly developed plasmodium from the burst red blood cells spread and infects more red blood cells throughout the body of the infected person, thus killing all the cells. This can lead to severe liver infection when one suffers from malaria.
Q.4) How is the immune system affected through dengue?
The immune system is affected when one suffers from dengue. The immune system is affected once the virus enters the body, it circulates around the body and attacks the white blood cells and other antibodies.
Q.5) How often can one get infected with Chikungunya? Why?
One can often get infected with Chikungunya because it can spread from an infected person to others if the mosquito feeds on the infected person first and then bites other people.
Q.6) Which two of the three diseases have similar symptoms? What are these?
Chikungunya and dengue have similar symptoms. Both of them display the similar symptoms of joint pain, inflammation, low platelet count, high bleeding risk and pain behind the eyes.
Q.7) How often does one have fever and chills when one has malaria?
When one has malaria, he often have fever and chills every two days.
Q.8) How do all these diseases affect our life?
All these diseases affect our life to a great extent as one has to take some time to recover from the weakness caused by these diseases and this affects the quality of one’s work.
Q.9) How can we protect ourselves from these three diseases?
We can protect ourselves from these three diseases by following certain suggestions such as:
Wearing fully covered clothes
Using net coverings
Living in hygienic conditions
Avoiding stagnant water, both clean or dirty
Applying good quality mosquito repellent
Taking extra precaution from dawn to dusk
Seeking medical help as soon as possible
Q.10) What should we do if we want to recover quickly from these diseases?
If we want to recover quickly from these diseases, we should seek immediate medical assistance because the earlier they are treated the quicker is the recovery process.
Language Practice Exercise 1
Look at the sentences in the table below. Against each sentence put a tick mark in the column that identifies whether it is a simple or a compound sentence.
|1.||This year has started on a positive note for the students.||Yes|
|2.||The classrooms smell of fresh paint, as they were painted during the holidays.||Yes|
|3.||The students love the newly painted classrooms, and they like the newly polished desks.||Yes|
|4.||Their motivation has increased and their enthusiasm is clearly visible.||Yes|
|5.||Most of the students come to school regularly now.||Yes|
|6.||They actively participate in various class activities.||Yes|
|7.||The students enjoy being outdoors, because they all like sports activities.||Yes|
|8.||They are happy with the new look of the school, but they are not happy with the sports facilities that they have.||Yes|
|9.||They have requested their principal for better sports and game facilities.||Yes|
|10.||The students are hopeful that they will have good facilities soon, because their principal has promised that new play grounds will be developed.||Yes|
Language Practice Exercise 2
Join the two sentences to form a compound sentence, using any conjunction: and, but, for, because, as, so, or, nor, etc.
a. Najma and Rehana studied very hard. They both got A grades in their exams.
b. Her father is a pilot. He has flown many different types of planes.
c. Our car is very old. Its engine is in good condition.
d. The boys were playing cricket. It was the first day of their summer vacations.
e. My brother is a good artist. He cannot sing at all.
f. You may buy only a new dress now. You may buy a new dress and new shoes next month.
g. The baby cannot walk. The baby can crawl very fast.
h. I love gardening. I can grow my own fresh vegetables.
i. The flowers in this pot are very colorful. The flowers in your garden have a lovely fragrance.
j. This book is very informative. It is also very interesting.
a. Najma and Rehana studied very hard so they both got A grades in their exams.
b. Her father is a pilot and he has flown many different types of planes.
c. Our car is very old but its engine is in good condition.
d. The boys were playing cricket as it was the first day of their summer vacations.
e. My brother is a good artist but he cannot sing at all.
f. You may buy only a new dress now as you may buy a new dress and new shoes next month.
g. The baby cannot walk but the baby can crawl very fast.
h. I love gardening and I can grow my own fresh vegetables.
i. The flowers in this pot are very colorful but the flowers in your garden have a lovely fragrance.
j. This book is very informative and it is also very interesting.
Language Practice Exercise 4
Sabiha keeps repeating the same words in her letter to her friend Munira. Help her write a mix of simple and compound sentences to make her writing interesting.
Rewrite the letter. Decide which parts should be simple sentences and which should be compound sentences.
Sabiha’s letter to Munira
I have some exciting news for you about my town. There is a ‘Housing boom!’ in our town. Builders are building new houses. They are planning to build at least 300 new houses. These houses are small. They can easily accommodate single families. The houses will be mainly two storeyed. The people of our town are really excited. The people of our town think that the town needs new people and new business. It will be nice to have new people and new friends.
More people will mean more progress for our town. More people will require more facilities. New roads have to be built. More transport facilities will be required. We will have to build new schools. We will also need to build more colleges. The town will need more shopping areas. The town will also have to provide other facilities. New water and electricity facilities will have to be provided.
Some people are not so happy. They feel that more people will make the town crowded. There will be more electricity problems. There will be more pollution. There will be more garbage in the town. There will be more vehicles and factories. Travelling in the town will take a longer time. There will be more traffic.
The houses will be built soon. The houses are expected to be built within two years. Many people are interested. Many people want to by a house in our town. The town is being connected to the port through a new highway. The town is near a river. Water can be supplied easily to the town from the river. Many people have already selected their property. There are still properties available. Those interested in buying a house should hurry. All the houses will soon be sold. People can contact the builders. The builder’s office can give them more details.
I have some exciting news for you about my town. There is a ‘Housing boom!’ in our town. Builders are building new houses and they are planning to build at least 300 new houses. These houses are small and they can easily accommodate single families. The houses will be mainly two-storeyed. The people of our town are really excited and they think that the town needs new people and new business. It will be nice to have new people and new friends.
More people will mean more progress for our town. More people will require more facilities. New roads have to be built and more transport facilities will be required. We will have to build new schools and more colleges. The town will need more shopping areas and other facilities. New water and electricity facilities will have to be provided.
Some people are not so happy as they feel that more people will make the town crowded. There will be more electrical problems. There will be more pollution and there will be more garbage in the town. There will be more vehicles and factories. Traveling in the town will take a longer time and there will be more traffic.
The houses will be built soon, they are expected to be built within two years. Many people are interested and they want to buy a house in our town. The town is being connected to the port through a new highway as it is near a river. Water can be supplied easily to the town from the river. Many people have already selected their property and there are still properties available. Those interested in buying a house should hurry. All the houses will soon be sold. People can contact the builders so the builder’s office can give them more details.
Language Practice Exercise 5
The following exercise has some statements, exclamations, wishes, hopes and promises in direct speech. Change them from direct to indirect speech.
1. “I have many friends and I have to invite all of them tomorrow,” said Abid.
2. Reshma said, “I hope I will get admission in the medical college this year.”
3. “I wish I had ten hands and a hundred fingers to do all this work,” said Feroza.
4. The student said, “I promise I will do my homework regularly from today.”
5. “They want to buy a new car,” said the lawyer, “but they don’t have any money.”
6. “We hope we will be able to get permission from our parents,” said the children.
7. “I never thought that a son of mine would get such bad marks!” said his father.
8. The blind boy said, “I wish I could see this interesting match on the television.”
9. “Next week, we promise, we will clean the whole house,” the children said to their parents.
10. “Our team has won the champion’s trophy here for the first time!” said the coach.
1. Abid said that he had many friends and he had to invite all of them the following day.
2. Reshma hoped she would get admission in the medical college that year.
3. Feroza wished she had ten hands and a hundred fingers to do all that work.
4. The student promised he would do his homework regularly from that day.
5. The lawyer said that they wanted to buy a new car but they didn’t have any money.
6. The children hoped they would be able to get permission from their parents.
7. His father said he never thought that a son of his would get such bad marks.
8. The blind boy wished he could see that interesting match on the television.
9. The children promised their parents they would clean the whole house the following week.
10. The coach said that their team had won the champion’s trophy there for the first time.
Language Practice Exercise 6
Read the following story and put all the direct speech sentences into indirect speech. The story has statements, exclamations, wishes, promises, and hopes. Make sure you follow the rules related to changing these different types of sentences.
Nasrudin and his son were travelling with their donkey. Nasrudin preferred to walk while his son rode the donkey. Soon they passed a group of bystanders, and one of them said, “This boy is so selfish. He is riding on a donkey while his poor old father is forced to walk alongside.”
“This is so disrespectful,” said another man. “What a horrible and spoiled child!”
Nasrudin and his son felt embarrassed, so they changed places – this time Nasrudin rode the donkey while his son walked. “I hope I am doing the right thing now,” he said to himself.
Soon they passed another group of people. Seeing them, one of them exclaimed, “The poor young boy has to walk while his selfish father is riding the donkey! He is a heartless parent!”
Nasrudin was upset to hear this. “I wish people would mind their own business,” he said.
Since he wanted to avoid any further comments, he decided that both he and his son would ride the donkey at the same time. As they both rode, they passed another group of people. “That man and his son are so cruel,” one bystander commented. “They are forcing that poor donkey to bear the weight of two people. They should be put in jail for this act.”
Nasrudin heard this and told his son, “The only way we can avoid people’s comments is that we both walk.”
“I suppose you are right,” the son replied.
“I promise, nobody will be able to say anything to us as we are doing the right thing this time,” said Nasrudin happily.
So they got off the donkey and continued on foot. But as they passed another group of people, they heard them laughing. “These people are so stupid that both of them are walking in this heat and neither of them is riding the donkey,” they said. “What foolish people they are!”
Nasrudin and his son were traveling with their donkey. Nasrudin preferred to walk while his son rode the donkey. Soon they passed a group of bystanders, and one of them said that boy was so selfish. He was riding on a donkey while his poor old father was forced to walk alongside him.
Another man said that was so disrespectful. What a horrible and spoiled child.
Nasrudin and his son felt embarrassed, so they changed places – this time Nasrudin rode the donkey while his son walked. He hoped he was doing the right thing then.
Soon they passed another group of people. Seeing them, one of them exclaimed the poor young boy had to walk while his selfish father was riding the donkey! He was a heartless parent.
Nasrudin was upset to hear this. He wished people would mind their own business.
Since he wanted to avoid any further comments, he decided that both he and his son would ride the donkey at the same time. As they both rode, they passed another group of people. One bystander commented that the man and his son were so cruel. They were forcing that poor donkey to bear the weight of two people. They should be put in jail for that act.
Nasrudin heard this and told his son that the only way they could avoid people’s comments was that they both walk.
The son replied that he supposed he was right.
Nasrudin promised nobody would be able to say anything to them as they were doing the right thing that time.
So they got off the donkey and continued on foot. But as they passed another group of people, they heard them laughing. They said those people were so stupid that both of them were walking in that heat and neither of them was riding the donkey. What foolish people they were.
Writing Exercise 1
Write a descriptive essay of at least four paragraphs, on one of the following topics:
1. My favourite Aunt/Uncle
2. A teacher that I remember
3. Our school principal
4. My grandmother/grandfather
1. My Favourite Aunt
Allah Almighty has blessed us with a great number of blessings that are uncountable. One of them, is our relatives that surrounds us and has direct influence on our lives. Without such relationships, its really difficult to have a joyous, worthwhile living. I find myself quite lucky that I can enjoy the company of both my maternal and paternal relatives. My paternal relatives live in Islamabad whereas my maternal ones live in Karachi. Though I have close and cordial relations with all my relatives but my favourite aunt is my ‘khala’ i.e. my mother’s sister.
My khala’s name is Shazmina. She is the youngest of all her siblings. She is 22 years old and lives with my maternal grandparents ‘nano and nana abu.’ She has done Masters in Computer Sciences and now looking for a good job. Her nickname is Shazo. I, too called her by this name. She has fair complexion and glowing skin. She is medium heighted and enjoys perfect weight. Her light, brown hair are long, reaching her knees and this always reminds me of Rapunzel. Her almond shaped eyes have a touch of grey. She has a broad forehead, thin nose and rosy cheeks with fine lips. She has nice voice, too.
My aunt is kind and gentle. Since my childhood, I have enjoyed her company. I still remember the warmth of her lap. She used to sing lullaby to me and when I turned two, she used to take me to the nearby park. She is cooperative and helpful. I have never seen her treating anyone harshly or using abusive or bad language with anyone not even with her servants and maid. She likes to wear nice, simple clothes. She is very punctual in her prayers. I have noticed that she always speaks truth and is very honest in all her work. Aunt Shazmina loves painting and creative work. She has made many beautiful paintings that one can see in my grandparents’ home. She likes giving gifts to others, I too have many stuff toys, jewellery, and cosmetics given to me by Aunt Shazmina on different occasions.
We should be thankful to God for the relationships we enjoy in our lives. Khala Shazmina is a nice, caring, well-disciplined lady. She gives respect to everyone and takes care of the needs of all especially of her parents. One of the reasons that make her my favourite aunt is because she resembles my mom a lot. I always pray for her health and success.
2. A Teacher that I Remember
A teacher holds an important place in the life of a student. A student has vast experience of tolerating or enjoying the company of different kinds of teachers throughout his study years, some are polite while others are strict; some are young while others are old. A number of teachers taught me from playgroup to grade 04 but one of the teachers I like the best and still remember was Miss Aqsa Kanwal, our English teacher. She had many qualities that made her the favourite teacher of all the students.
Miss Aqsa had a pleasing personality. She was a tall, and smart lady. She had big, brown coloured eyes defined with fine brows. Thin nose and full lips add an extra charm to her beauty. She had flawless, glowing skin with a beautiful small mole on the right side of her chin. I still remember that she used to wear surma or kajal in her eyes and not very fond of too much make up. I was really in love with her simplicity. I didn’t know anything about hair colour and style because she always covered her head with dress matching scarves that really suit her. Yes, I remember on asking one day, she told us that she had long, dark brown hair. She used to wear simple but elegant dresses. She had good collection of bags and shoes that she wore according to her dress. Miss Aqsa had long, thin fingers with nicely shaped nails. I had never seen her nails painted with nail polish, instead sometimes she dyed her hand nails with mehndi, especially in summers.
Miss Aqsa’s mannerism and attitude were so great that attract everyone towards her. She was a well-disciplined, soft-spoken, gentle-natured person. She never compromised on rules and regulations. She always reached on time as she was a punctual lady. She always loved to help others in time of need especially the students. Once, I forgot to bring my lunch from home, she was the one who shared her lunch with me. Miss Aqsa was an experienced and learned teacher. She was very fond of reading books on different topics that’s why she was a sea of knowledge. She had complete command over her subject. She had the quality to understand the problems of her students and always tried to resolve them on priority basis. Her way of teaching was so impressive and her teaching methodology was quite simple that we learn and understand everything in the class and not a single student of her class required any tuitions.
Everyone has different experience at school and with the teachers who teach us in different grades. Teachers cast direct influence on the mind and personality of their students. If one is fortunate to have a teacher just like Miss Aqsa then he can really learn a lot in a fine way and reflects a well-groomed personality as well. All in all, Miss Aqsa was the teacher who had many good qualities that made her an impressive and unique individual. She always remain in my heart as she was not only a teacher for me but a friend and mother too. I always pray to Allah to bless her with good health, success and happiness in life. (Ameen)
3. Our School Principal
School has many pillars that supports it to stand firm. One of the most significant pillars is the principal. He/she is the one who shoulders the responsibility of taking care of not only administrative and management departments, but of training teaching staff for better performance. He by using his rich knowledge and professional experience creates a comfortable and learning based environment for both the teachers and students.
Our school principal’s name is Mr. Shamshad Ashraf. He is 42 years of age. He is a highly-educated person possessing the degrees of MBA, Masters in Urdu Literature and M.Ed as well. He has wheatish complexion. A slight touch of grey in his short, nicely trimmed black hair speaks of his learned, knowledgeable personality. Mr. Shamshad is tall and smart. He has black eyes and his face is nicely framed with beard and moustache. He wears glasses especially while reading. He is a well-dressed person. He usually wears light colour pant coat and on Fridays he likes wearing shalwar kameez. His shoes are always polished. Mr. Shamshad has a nice collection of watches. He carries a nice leather bag containing important documents.
Mr. Shamshad joins our school two years back. Since then, our school has witnessed many positive changes and is making progress by leaps and bounds. He is a disciplined and punctual person. Our principal is cooperative and gentle but he never compromises on rules and regulations. He wants all the staff and students to be on time. He is dedicated to his work and perform his duties and responsibilities with utmost sincerity. He encourages teachers and students either verbally or by delivering appreciation certificates by the end of each year. This really boosts the morale of teachers and students and gives them new energy to perform better. Apart from maintaining and raising the educational standard of the school, he considers the mental and physical health of students and teaching staff of greatest importance. For that, as per his orders, our school arranges various extra curricular activities every year including debate competition, drama competition, sports gala, fun fair, science and arts exhibitions. Both teachers and students really wait for that as participating in such events helps them to relax and enjoy with full zeal and zest. He also encourages teachers to attend workshops and seminars regarding teaching methodologies and students handling techniques.
Our school principal really works hard for the betterment of the future generation. He is a visionary person who wants to see the school making progress. Students as well as teaching staff are proud of our principal and we wish that we have him for much longer years. It is a fact that with his presence, we are all very happy. He has been the best principal and we all love him. He is gentle, yet strong, and we all pray for his success throughout his life.
4. My Grandfather
A person can learn a lot from the relationships that are essential for knitting a whole family structure. Grandparents are the foundation stone of a family building. My grandfather is one such person who has the most significant and strongest influence in my life. Throughout my childhood years, I have learned countless lessons and values from him. He is the greatest man I have ever known. I must thank to his influential characteristics and to our close relationship, I was shaped into the individual I am today. He is present throughout my physical, emotional, and spiritual growth.
My grandfather’s name is Ashfaque Ahmed. He is the living legend of the whole family. This year, we have celebrated his 80th birthday. Reached this age, still he is quite active and energetic. He was born in Meirut, India in 1940. He is a tall and slim person. His head bears few hair exposing the baldness at the center. The wrinkles of his face and hands have a rich story to tell as they have witnessed both soft and hard times of his life. He has fair complexion and slim face with brown eyes and thin lips. Though he enjoys good heath, sometimes his blood pressure rises really high that worries us, as we are not ready to lose him at any point of our life.
Retired from the rank of Brigadier, he has passed his life in a much disciplined and organized manner. He joined army due to his passion to serve his homeland. He is a very dedicated, committed and honest army officer. He is very fond of reading books and not a single day of his is passed without reading book of his choice. He has a great collection of books on different subjects. He is a strict sort of a person but he really enjoys the company of his grandchildren. While sitting by the fire place on his favourite Victorian chair, he do cracks jokes and tell us the stories of his life and adventures. He wants everyone of us to live a disciplined life as he considers it one of the essential elements for leading a successful life. He likes giving us lectures on various aspects of life and we are the lucky ones to get benefit from his advice and suggestions.
My grandfather is an influential person. I always admire him for his impressive personality and great qualities and abilities. It is my passion to join the army too just being impressed by my grandfather. I always pray to Allah Almighty to bless him with a long, healthy, happy life to live more and more years among us all. Ameen