Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 6 Gender Equity

Sindh Class 9th English Notes Chapter 6 Gender Equity 9th class English notes Sindh Textbook board Education in Karachi solved exercises, MCQs, important questions, grammar, chapter overview,

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Reading Comprehension Exercise 1 Gender Equity

Write the answers to the following questions.

Q.1) How many students were there in Sana’s group? Write their names.

Answer:
There were six students in Sana’s group including Sana. Their names were: Aliya, Ahmad, Sameer, Razia, and Hania.

Q.2) How many famous women of Pakistan are mentioned in the text? Write their names in order of appearance in the text.

Answer:
Famous women of Pakistan that are mentioned in  the text are as follows in order of appearance in the text:
Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz
Professor Anta Ghulam Ali
Bilquis Bano Edhi

Q.3) How many students shared their dreams at the end of the presentations? Write their names.

Answer:
Three students shared their dreams at the end of the presentations. Their names were:
Maryam, Hira, and Daniyal.


Reading Comprehension Exercise 2

Guess the meanings of these words and check them with the glossary.
opinions                 access                        simultaneously               rehearsed
contribution        philanthropist      renowned                           recognition
tireless                    inspired                    enthusiasm

WordsGuessed MeaningActual Meaning from Glossary
opinionsbeliefsthoughts and ideas
accessapproachbe within reach for use
simultaneouslyat the same timeat the same time
rehearsedpractiseto practise privately what one is going to say or do
contributionofferingtime, money, effort given for a cause
philanthropistsomeone who help others by spending moneya person who supports good causes, especially by giving money
renownedfamousfamous
recognitionacknowledgmentofficially recognizing somebody’s ability or achievements, often by giving an award
tirelessdeterminedworking without showing ay signs of being tired
inspiredimpressedto develop a feeling or aim in someone for doing something
enthusiasmpassiona strong feeling of excitement

Reading Comprehension Exercise 4

Read the text and complete the following statements.
I stands for Identity. Here we identify the problem.
D stands for ___________. Here we ____________.
E stands for ___________. Here we ____________.
A stands for ___________. Here we ____________.
L stands for ___________. Here we ____________.

Answer:
I stands forIdentity. Here we identify the problem.
D stands for Define. Here we define the problem.
E stands for Explore. Here we explore as much as we can to solve the problem.
A stands for Action. Here we take the best possible action to try and solve it.
L stands for Look back. Here we look back to see whether the problem has been solved or not.

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Reading Comprehension Exercise 6

Find out two things or achievements about each of the following women. Write the two things/achievements of each of these women.
1. Fatima Jinnah
2. Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
3. Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz
4. Professor Anita Ghulam Ali
5. Bilquis Edhi

Answer:
1. Fatima Jinnah
For 28 years, Fatima Jinnah really struggled hard along with her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah for the establishment of Pakistan. She was titled as ‘Mother of the Nation’ by the nation for her selfless efforts for the creation of Pakistan.

2. Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan

Begum Ra’ana was the one who organized the Muslim voluntary service and also women’s National Guards, comprising of three battalions. She also founded the All Pakistan Women Association (APWA).

3. Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz

Begum Jahan Ara was the one who represented the Muslim women at the three Round Table Conferences. She was also the first woman who was honoured to deliver a speech in London’s Guild Hall.

4. Professor Anita Ghulam Ali

Professor Anita Ghulam Ali served twice as the Sindh Minister of Education. She also served as Minister of Culture, Science and Technology and Youth and Sports. For her sincere and tireless efforts for the promotion of education, she was awarded the Pride of Performance and Sitara-e-Imtiaz.

5. Bilquis Edhi

After the death of her husband, Abdul Sattar  Edhi, she is now the head of Edhi foundation which is providing nationwide support and care to the public, including shelter homes and ambulance services. Bilquis Edhi received Hilal-e-Imtiaz from the Government of Pakistan for her vigorous social work for the welfare and betterment of the society.


Reading Comprehension Exercise 7

Read the text and fill in the following table. First fill in the years of birth and death and then put the chorological order. Finally, write their main contribution.

NameYear of birthYear of death
Fatima Jinnah18931969
Bilquis Bano Edhi1947
Anita Ghulam19342014
Begum Jahan Ara Ali Ara Shahnawaz18961979
Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan19051990
NameChronological Order by Year of Birth
Fatima Jinnah1893
Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz1896
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan1905
Professor Anita Ghulam Ali1934
Bilquis Bano Edhi1947
NameChronological Order by Year of Death
Fatima Jinnah1969
Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz1979
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan1990
Professor Anita Ghulam Ali2014
Bilquis Bano Edhi—–
NameMain Contribution
Fatima JinnahDue to her sincere efforts, and support the Muslim women of the sub-continent were able to interview Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali KhanShe arranged meetings of the Muslim League women with the wife and daughter of Viceroy. She also organized the Muslim voluntary service and the women’s National guards and also founded All Pakistan Women Association.
Begum Jahan Ara ShahnawazShe represented the Muslim women at the three Round Table Conferences held in London. She also explained to the people of other countries, the need for a separate nation for the Muslims of India.
Professor Anita Ghulam AliShe was the founding manager of the Sindh Education Foundation. This foundation played a remarkable role in promoting quality education in rural areas of Sindh. She also wrote several articles and books.
Bilquis Bano EdhiShe is serving the nation by being a social worker. She is heading Edhi Foundation which is providing nationwide support and care to the public.

Reading Comprehension Exercise 8

Complete the following statements by giving reasons.
1. Sana was worried because ________________________________.
2. Aliya suggested that they use the IDEAL tool because _________________________.
3. The Muslim women benefitted from Fatima Jinnah’s support because _____________________.
4. Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan worked as a secretary because ____________________.
5. Begum Jahan Ara could explain Muslims’ point of view to people in many counties because __________________________.
6. Professor Anita Ghulam Ali was awarded the Pride of Performance and Sitara-e-Imtiaz because ___________________________.
7. Bilquis Edhi has received the Hilal-e-Imtiaz award because _____________________________.
8. Maryam said that she wanted to be an educationist because _____________________________.
9.Daniyal said that he wanted to be like Abdul Sattar Edhi because _________________________________.

Answer:
1. Sana was worried because she did not have a computer for gathering information.
2. Aliya suggested that they use the IDEAL tool because it’s a tool for solving all kinds of problems and for planning too.
3. The Muslim women benefitted from Fatima Jinnah’s support because they were able to interview Mohammad Ali Jinnah and seek his guidance.
4. Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan worked as a secretary because at that time the Muslim  League could not afford the salary of a secretary.
5. Begum Jahan Ara could explain Muslims’ point of view to people in many counties because she travelled widely.
6. Professor Anita Ghulam Ali was awarded the Pride of Performance and Sitara-e-Imtiaz because of her tremendous contribution to the cause of education.
7. Bilquis Edhi has received the Hilal-e-Imtiaz award because of her tireless efforts for the betterment of the society.
8. Maryam said that she wanted to be an educationist because she wished to work for the improvement of female education.
9.Daniyal said that he wanted to be like Abdul Sattar Edhi because he would like to help all human beings in trouble .


Language Practice Exercise 3

Four words in the following set of five words are synonyms; one word is different. Circle/Select the word that you think is different. 

a)friendlyagreeablepleasantdecentamicable
b) optionnicechoicepossibilityalternative
c)reasonablerudeimpolitecheekydisrespectful
d)severeseriousharshstablestern
e)hugelargeenormousmammothmany
f)rubbishgarbagegardentrashrefuse
g)politeintelligentsmartcleverbright
h)positionvacancyopeningcleanpost
i)mistakecorrecterrorinaccuracyslip
j)diseaseailmentwoundillnessdisorder

Language Practice Exercise 4

Select any six groups from the table. Next, pick two synonyms from each of the selected group and use both these synonyms in your own sentences.

a)friendlyagreeablepleasantdecentamicable
b) optionnicechoicepossibilityalternative
c)reasonablerudeimpolitecheekydisrespectful
d)severeseriousharshstablestern
e)hugelargeenormousmammothmany
f)rubbishgarbagegardentrashrefuse
g)politeintelligentsmartcleverbright
h)positionvacancyopeningcleanpost
i)mistakecorrecterrorinaccuracyslip
j)diseaseailmentwoundillnessdisorder

Answer:
Selected groups:
a, e, f, g, i, j
Selected Synonyms:
a: friendly, amicable
e: huge, enormous
f: rubbish, garbage
g: intelligent, clever
i: mistake, error
j: disease, illness

No.Selected synonymsSentence
afriendlyamicablyWe had a friendly match with them.
The couple lived together amicably for several years.
ehugeenormousThere was a huge hole in the road.
My uncle earned enormous sums of money.
frubbishgarbageThey throw rubbish in the rivers, too.
The smell of the garbage overpowered me.
gintelligentcleverMy cousin is a vey intelligent boy.
He is as clever as a fox.
imistakeerrorAnyone can make a mistake in his life.
There is an error in your calculation.
jdiseaseillnessMy friend’s mother suffered from a deadly disease.
He is confined to bed by illness.

Language Practice Exercise 5

Use ‘since’ or ‘for’ in the blanks.
My father is a remarkable man. He has been working _________ he was 15 years old. He has been working ________ he was at school. He used to work _______ four hours every day and on weekends. He has now worked in the same factory ______ 25 years. __________ he started working at the factory, he has been promoted many times. He was initially hired ________ a period of three months but he has been working there ever ________. He was hired as a peon with the responsibility of making tea and delivering parcels and documents as required. He started working ________ Rs. 25/- a day. If he fell ill or if he was absent he did not get paid ________ that day. But my father was a good and committed worker. He only took off ________ serious emergencies, like illness and death. In fact, there were periods when he didn’t take a single holiday ___________ many months at a time. He soon earned the respect of his co-workers and boss, and _________ then, he has risen higher and higher.  He has now worked for the same factory ________ 25 years. He was offered retirement when he completed 25 years, but he said that he would like to work ________ a few more years. He hopes he will save enough to start a small manufacturing unit of his own, in a few years’ time.

Answer:
My father is a remarkable man. He has been working since he was 15 years old. He has been working since he was at school. He used to work for four hours every day and on weekends. He has now worked in the same factory for 25 years. Since he started working at the factory, he has been promoted many times. He was initially hired for a period of three months but he has been working there ever since. He was hired as a peon with the responsibility of making tea and delivering parcels and documents as required. He started working for Rs. 25/- a day. If he fell ill or if he was absent he did not get paid for that day. But my father was a good and committed worker. He only took off for serious emergencies, like illness and death. In fact, there were periods when he didn’t take a single holiday for many months at a time. He soon earned the respect of his co-workers and boss, and since then, he has risen higher and higher. He has now worked for the same factory for 25 years. He was offered retirement when he completed 25 years, but he said that he would like to work for a few more years. He hopes he will save enough to start a small manufacturing unit of his own, in a few years’ time.


Language Practice Exercise 6

Write a paragraph explaining what your three favourite hobbies or free time activities are/were. Use ‘for’ and ‘since’ in your sentences.

Answer:
Since my childhood, I am interested in calligraphy. One of the major reasons for my interest in calligraphy is that my father is an awesome calligrapher, too. I am doing calligraphy for the last eight years. For the past two years, I have been taking professional calligraphy classes. I hope I can continue my this hobby for the rest of my life as it relaxes me and gives me pleasure too. Apart from calligraphy, my second hobby that I love to do is reading books. I have been reading books since I was six years old. I like to read books both in Urdu and English. Whenever I get some free time, I still prefer reading books. Last but not least, my third hobby is gardening. I became passionate for gardening since we moved to our own home. We have a big garden, where my mother and grandmother used to grow plants, and vegetables. Now, I am in so much love with my plants in the garden that I can carry on this activity for my whole life.


Writing Exercise 1

Write a narrative essay, imagine you are reporters for a newspaper. An important event has taken place in your area and you have to write a report and submit it for publication.

Answer:
On December 23, at 10:30 p.m., it was reported that people of Gulistan-e-Jouhar, Scheme VI, have heard a loud noise. No one exactly knew what had happened so all the people came out in the street and quickly rushed towards the house that was on fire. A huge crowd gathered outside the house and some of them were shouting ‘Fire! Fire!’.

Rather than waiting for fire brigade or rescue teams to arrive at the spot, people started extinguishing the fire on self-help basis. The people tried their best to help those who were trapped in the house by throwing water, sand and dust. Pails of water and sand were thrown on the fire but all in vain as the flames were getting higher and higher. The red hot flames were creating a terrible scene to witness.

After much struggle, people of the area were quite successful in saving three individuals except a little 4 years old child who was left behind in the house. Someone told that the life of that child was saved by a young boy who bravely jumped into the flames without thinking about threat to his own life. People who were present there, all praised the courageous act of that young boy. Someone might have called a fire brigade that arrived there after 10 minutes. The fire fighters valiantly fought with the rising flames. They threw water on the house through large hose and were able to control the fire after a long-tiring effort of two and a half hours. The whole house turned into ashes including the walls and furniture but fortunately there was no loss of life.

When investigation was carried out, it came out that it all happened when the 4 year kid threw few papers in the heater being attached to a cylinder. That caused the cylinder to burst with a loud bang. Just in few seconds time, the whole house caught horrible fire. From the incident, we all should learn a lesson that we should not let little children come near such dangerous, life-threatening cylinders. People should also avoid using cylinder heaters as they can cause huge damage to life and property.


Writing Exercise 3

Write the summary of the passage Helen Keller.

Answer:
Summary:
Most people are very lucky as they can see all things around them. But some people cannot see or hear. However, there are also those unfortunate ones who could once see and hear but are now blind and deaf. Some such people are brave and they take this as a challenge. One such person was Helen Keller.

In 1880, Helen Keller was born in the United States of America. She was a perfect baby till the age of two, but later in February 1882, she became sick and that disease turned her blind and deaf. Her parents became worried, but never lost heart.

At the age of seven, Helen’s father found a teacher for her, named Miss Sullivan. Once, she became blind but was fortunate enough to regain her sight. In order to show her gratitude towards God, she decided to help other blind people. On Helen’s father request, she agreed to teach her.

Miss Sullivan asked Helen to write water in the sand. By repeating that activity many times, Helen learnt to spell the word water. That brought a ray of hope in Helen’s life. The whole process of learning was steady and tough, but with the help of Miss Sullivan Helen not only learnt about mountains, rivers, history and geography, but also counting and solving mathematical calculations.

Helen attended the school for blind children at the age of eight. She knew how to speak but she forgot that all. Her teacher put extra efforts to let Helen speak again. After doing several exercises, Helen was able to speak again at the age of ten.

Helen started reading books with the help of special language books printed for blind people i.e. Braille. In that system, the words were not printed rather they were written with raised points, Helen read by touching them. Helen passed all the examinations without much effort, attended college, and graduated from the Harvard University. She proved to be a brilliant student, much better than others.

Helen Keller made a visit to Pakistan in 1956. At the age of seventy six, she was quite energetic. She came to help other deaf and blind people in Pakistan. In Karachi, she visited a school for deaf, dumb, and blind. She encouraged them and said that they should be joyful and must never lose hope. She motivated them by saying that they can do everything. She also appreciated the volunteers for their enthusiasm.

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Study Skills Exercise 1

Write an essay about K2 by following the steps given in the textbook.

Answer:
Pakistan is a country, which has a rich cultural heritage and natural beauty. Pakistan is a land of beauty with exotic resorts for excursion and sightseeing. From beautiful green valleys to the snow-covered highest peaks of the world and four seasons a year, the different regions of Pakistan offer natural beauty, making it a great traveling destination for the tourists. It is a land of five major deserts and rivers i.e. Thar desert, Kharan desert, Katpana desert, Thal desert and Cholistan Desert, five rivers are named as Indus, Ravi, Jhelum, Chenab, and Sutlej. Gilgit is filled with the wealth of natural scenery and other places include Parachinar, Dir, Kaghan, Swat, Kalam, Malamjabba, and lakes, such as Saif-ul-Malook, Lalusar, etc. The K-2 peak is one of the major attractions for the mountaineers who visit Pakistan almost every year to climb K-2.

K-2 is located on Pakistan-China border, between Gilgit, in Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) and the Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous Country of Xinjiang (China). It enjoys the height of 28,253 feet (8, 612 meters). K-2 lies in the mountain range of Karakorum. With respect to world ranking, it is the second highest mountain in the world. Whereas, it is the highest in Pakistan.

K-2 has many different names. It is being named by British surveyor T.G. Montgomerie, in 1852. The reason for giving this name is that “K” stands for Karakoram Range and “2” for being the second highest peak in the world. It gets another famous name Mount Godwin-Austen, after Haversham Godwin-Austen, who was a British surveyor and explorer. Apart from these two popular names, its local name is Chogori, driven from Balti words chhogori, which means “large mountain”. Due to its location on Pakistan-China border, it has its Chinese name as well i.e. Qogir which means “Great Mountain” with a local name of Kechu. Just like humans, it too has a nickname i.e. “Savage Mountain” due to its severe weather and high death rate.

Being the well-known and highest mountain peak of the world, various attempts have been made by a number of climbers belonging to different countries to climb K-2. The first ever attempt was being made in 1902, by two British climbers Aleister Crowley and Oscar Eeckenstein. They were successful in reaching the height of 18600 feet (5,670 meters). K-2 was first ascended by two Italian climbers named AchilleCompagnoni and LinoLacedelli, on July 31, 1954. Pakistani climbers, too have made several attempts to climb K-2. Ashraf Aman was the first Pakistani climber who reached K-2 on August 9, 1977. Later, on July 26, 2014, first team of Pakistani climbers became successful in reaching the summit of K-2.

K-2 remains snow-capped almost the whole year. Due to its severe weather conditions, not a single attempt is ever being made by the climbers in winter season. Therefore, the best time for climbing K-2 is June, July, or August. It has been recorded that till 2014, over 335 climbers reached K-2 ‘s summit. 82 have lost their lives during the attempt. Hence, the death rate is 27%.

Pakistan is a blessed nation with K-2 as the highest mountain peak. It is a great attraction for foreign as well as local climbers. It’s weather condition is quite severe that takes the lives of many climbers during the attempt. It has been climbed by many climbers since the first attempt being made in 1902. It has received many names in different languages and has a nickname as well. If anyone has a desire to climb K-2 then the best months for climbing are June, July and August, so one should try to make attempt only in these months.


Study Skills Exercise 2

Write an essay on Nanga Parbat. 

Answer:
Pakistan is one of the beautiful countries of the world. It is blessed with all the natural beauty and natural resources are available in bulk in the country. It has snow-capped mountain peaks, sparkling rivers, scorching deserts, radiant seas and oceans, and freshwater lakes. Every province of the country has its beauty to cherish such as Northern areas are famous for mountain, forests, waterfalls and lakes. On the other hand, Punjab is famous for its rivers and deserts, Sindh for Arabian Sea and Baluchistan for stunning coastline, Gadani i.e. famous for its ship-breaking industry and Sonmiani, a white sand beach which has excellent bird-watching facilities. Hence, one cannot deny that Pakistan is a land enjoying all the natural beauty with four seasons, rich culture and heritage. It is also famous for its mountain ranges and peaks such as K-2 and Nanga Parbat. Nanga Parbat is not much explored or climbed beauty of the country.

Nanga Parbat is located in the Northern areas of Pakistan, between Chillas and Astore in Diamer. It is 8,126 meters (26, 660 feet) in height. It lies in Himalayas mountain range. According to world ranking, it is the ninth highest mountain in the world, and in Pakistan it is the second one after K-2.

Nanga Parbat’s literal meaning is “Naked Mountain.” It, too has local name Diamer or Deo Mir, that means “Huge Mountain.” Just like K-2, it has a nickname as well i.e. “Killer Mountain.” It gets this name because 31 people died trying to climb it before its first ascent.

Various attempts have been made by climbers to climb Nanga Parbat. The first attempt was made by Albert F. Mummery and team in 1895, reaching almost 6,100 meters (20,000 feet) of Nanga Parbat. It was first ascended by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl on July 3, 1953. With respect to Pakistani climbers, not a single name is known who has tried to climb Nanga Parbat till today.

In comparison to K-2, Nanga Parbat is suitable for climbing both in summer and winter. The first successful attempt made in winter was by Ali Sadpara, Alex Txikon, and Simone Moro on February 26, 2016. It has been observed and recorded that till 2012, at least 68 climbers died, with the death rate of 22.3%.

Nanga Parbat being the ninth highest mountain peak is climbed by many climbers from different countries. It has common name and nickname, too. It was first ascended by Austrian climber in 1953. It invites climbers in summer as well in winter. During attempts, 68 people have lost their lives. Both K-2 and Nanga Parbat are the treasures of Pakistan. Hence, the government should provide maximum facilities to climbers who wish to climb these highest mountain peaks.

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