2nd year English notes | Once Upon a Time

2nd year English notes Once Upon a Time English notes according to KPK boards syllabus. Contains solved review, stanza 1 to 7, question and exercises 1 to 06. English 12 class notes for kpk boards chapter 18. stanza1, stanza 2 stanza 3, stanza 4, stanza 5, stanza 6 and stanza 7.

KPK Elementary and Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa textbook Board peshawar English book notes

2nd year English notes | Once Upon a Time Chapter No 18 for KPK board

This poem is a beautiful comparison of what used to be like in the old days and what it is like now. The title clearly indicates that it is about the past.

The first three stanzas compare a way of life, a custom, or behaviour from the past with those of the present:

  • The first stanza compares how people laughed in the past and how they laugh now. What is the difference?
  • The second stanza tells us how people shook hands then and how they do now. What is the difference?
  • The third stanza talks about the ever welcoming nature of the people of the past with a less welcoming behaviour of present people.
  • The next two stanzas are about what the poet has learnt:
  • In the fourth stanza, the poet tells us he has learned the ways of the present-day people, that is, to wear different faces on different occasions to deceive others. What does ‘wearing different faces’ mean?
  • In the fifth stanza, the poet says that his greetings don’t mean what they should mean. In the last two stanzas, the poet wishes to be what he used to be:
  • In the sixth stanza, the poet wishes to be what he was like before, once upon a time.
  • In the last stanza, he asks his son to help him become what he used to be, to show him how to laugh, etc.
  • Answer:
  • (Note: It is just a short explanation of the poem stanza by stanza.)

Q 2. Why is the poet addressing his son throughout? What is its significance?

The poet is addressing to his son throughout the poem because he wants to tell him exactly how people use to behave in the past and how their attitudes have changed in the present times.

Basically, he wants to address to all his readers and tell the difference between the past and the present. The poet’s address is significant because he wants to take help from his son in getting back his past joys.

Writing

Now that you have understood the poem, write a paraphrase/explanation of the poem in your own words.

Answer:

The poem written by Gabriel Okara has a common but unique theme in which a sharp contrast is evident between the behaviour, attitude, and activities of the people living in the past time and the one living in the present. It is absolutely thought-provoking poetry in which a father is talking to his son, throwing light on the past and present way of life as well as giving him advice too.

Stanza 1:

In the first stanza of the poem, the poet portraying himself as a father of a son is sorrowfully giving an explanation of how people used to greet one another in the olden days. He thinks that yes, “Old is gold.” He is remembering the time when people used to laugh with their genuine hearts. They reflect true love, respect, and affection towards one another. When they laugh, their eyes used to shine just like sparkling water of the streams or the twinkling stars on a clear sky. Their heart and soul were free from any evil thoughts. But nowadays, people use to laugh with their teeth, meaning that they are no more friendly with one another. They have fake interests and have no desire to treat others based on honesty and truthfulness. He says that people use to glance at each other with ice-block cold eyes reflecting their cold, emotionless, devoid of feelings attitude.

Stanza 2:

The second stanza is again based on the foundation of meeting and greeting. The poet says that when people met each other in the past they used to shake their hands with such tenderness and warmth that it seemed that they were not only shaking their hands but were exchanging their hearts with one another too. With a heavy heart, he says to his son that Ah! Those lovely days are gone and they are no more to be experienced and cherished. Now, people use to shake their hands without their hearts with any genuine intentions to welcome others energetically. They are just focusing more and more on their gains keeping aside the matter of humanity and trust. Everyone is running after his dreams, goals, and desires. The phrase “empty pockets” means that he has been stripped of all genuine happiness and has been left feeling empty and alone.

Stanza 3:

In the next stanza, the poet is talking about the hospitality which people of the past used to show towards one another. They always used to welcome their guests with open arms and wished that their guests would visit them twice or thrice again. But the people of this generation are having a word battle just to show their fake affection. If anyone gives a chance to someone to be his host, that person welcomes him once or twice or thrice and then shuts the door for him as to give a message of “no more visits.” 

Stanza 4:

In the fourth stanza, the father admits to his son that he learned quite well how to live a life according to present customs and traditions so to amalgamate with the deceased souls of the time. He further clarifies that people use to wear different masks on their faces according to occasion and need of the hour. He gives names to such masks as a home face, office face, street face, host face etc. Whenever the present people want to smile they smile just like a fixed portrait smile devoid of feelings and emotions to swindle others. He has had to fit in and now he too has the talent to put on various facades, he behaves exactly as he is supposed to act or behave under various circumstances according to the situation and existing scenario.

Stanza 5:

Coming towards the fifth stanza, the father is lamenting on his behaviour that how he was involved in such activities that always irritates him in the past but just to present himself as a dynamic member of the society he has to do all that. He swiftly but reluctantly learned how to use fake expressions and phrases just to trick others and make them smile. He learned well how to laugh only with his teeth and shake hands without heart. He has also learnt how to say goodbye instead of good-riddance. He says that people are used to using such words or phrases that make others glad but in reality they mean the opposite like ‘glad to meet you’, although now people hardly feel real gladness on meeting one another. Similarly, when people have to leave from any gathering, event or party they use to say ‘it’s been nice talking to you’, although they felt quite bored at the occasion. 

Stanza 6:

In the sixth stanza, the poet just wants to have a time-machine that rolls him back into his past when he used to be as innocent as his son. He has a desire to behave in the same truthful, sincere manner as he used to act in olden times. He wants to do a little barter trade with the present times’ hypocrisy from the past days’ innocence and sincerity, love, and devotion, merriness and satisfaction, closeness and warmth in relationships. He strongly wants to relearn all the things that he has forgotten or those washed away by the strong gusts of time to live a simple, contented life again and forever.

Stanza 7:

In the last stanza, the father appeals to his son to tell him the way he is living his life with virtuousness and sincerity. He also wants to express his genuine and true emotions to everyone without the touch of hoax or deception. He wants to laugh and smile the same way as he used to do in the past when he was as naive as his son.

Exercise 1

Name the Verbs in the following sentences, and tell whether they are in the Active or in the Passive Voice.

1) The cat killed the mouse.
2) We compelled the enemy to surrender.
3} The boy was bitten by a dog.
4) The thief was caught.
5) The boy made a kite.
6) The house was burned.
7) The young man made a disturbance at the meeting.
8) The captive was bound to a tree.
9) The bird was killed by a cruel boy.
10) The sudden noise frightened the horse.
11) He is loved by all
12) The exhibition was opened by the Governor.
13) I see a dark cloud.
14) His command was promptly obeyed.
15) Some of the cargo had been damaged by the sea water.
16) Nothing will be gained by hurry.
17) The dog chased the sheep.
18) This letter was posted last night.
19) The field is ploughed.
20) The dog was teased by the boy.
21) The cat drank all the milk.
22) A stone struck me on the head.
23) The old gentleman takes snuff.
24) The money was lost.
25) The letter has just been posted.

Answer:
1) The cat killed the mouse.                                         (Active Voice)
2) We compelled the enemy to surrender.                   (Active Voice)
3) The boy was bitten by a dog.                                    (Passive Voice)
4) The thief was caught.                                               (Passive Voice)
5) The boy made a kite.                                                (Active Voice)
6) The house was burned.                                            (Passive Voice)
7) The young man made a disturbance at the meeting.    (Active Voice)
8) The captive was bound to a tree.                                 (Passive Voice)
9) The bird was killed by a cruel boy.                              (Passive Voice)
10) The sudden noise frightened the horse.                    (Active Voice)
11) He is loved by all.                                                         (Passive Voice)
12) The exhibition was opened by the Governor.             (Passive Voice)
13) I see a dark cloud.                                                        (Active Voice)
14) His command was promptly obeyed.                         (Passive Voice)
15) Some of the cargo had been damaged by the seawater.   (Passive Voice)
16) Nothing will be gained by hurry.                                 (Passive Voice)
17) The dog chased the sheep.                                             (Active Voice)
18) This letter was posted last night.                                  (Passive Voice)
19) The field is ploughed.                                                  (Passive Voice)
20) The dog was teased by the boy.                                  (Passive Voice)
21) The cat drank all the milk.                                            (Active Voice)
22) A stone struck me on the head.                                    (Active Voice)
23) The old gentleman takes snuff.                                      (Active Voice)
24) The money was lost.                                                     (Passive Voice)
25) The letter has just been posted.                                      (Passive Voice)

Exercise 2

Turn the following sentences from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice.
 

1) The cat killed the mouse.
2) The man cut down the tree.
3) Columbus discovered America.
4) His teacher praised him.
5) The boy teased the dog.
6) The syce feeds the horse every day.
7) The police arrested him.
8) Rana was making a kite.
9) The boy caught the ball.
10) My father will write a letter.
11) I will conquer him.
12) He kept me waiting.
13) The hunter shot the lion.
14) Haris opened the door.
15) A policeman caught the thief.
16) Sohrab threw the ball.
17) He scored twenty runs.
18) Your behaviour vexes me.
19) Manners reveal character.
20) He made a very remarkable discovery.
21) Little strokes tell great oaks.
22) David will bring the pony.
23) Everyone loves him.
24) My cousin has drawn this picture.
25) We  expect good news.
26) The farmer gathers the harvest.
27) His own brother swindled him.
28) The recitation pleased the inspector.
29) Somebody has put out the light.
30) The enemy has defeated our army.
31) They sell radios here.
32) I have sold my bicycle.
33) People will soon forget it.
34) He opened the theatre only last month.
35) We prohibit smoking.

Answer:
1) The mouse was killed by the cat.
2) The tree was cut down by the man.
3) America was discovered by Columbus.
4) He was praised by his teacher.
5) The dog was teased by the boy.
6) Every day the horse is fed by the syce.
7) He was arrested by the police.
8) A kite was made by Rana.
9) The ball was caught by the boy.
10) A letter was written by my father.
11) He will be conquered by me.
12) He kept me waiting.
13) The lion was shot by the hunter.
14) The door was opened by Harris.
15) The thief was caught by the policeman.
16) The ball was thrown by Sohrab.
17) Twenty runs were scored by him.
18) I am vexed by your behaviour.
19) Character is revealed by manners.
20) A very remarkable discovery was made by him.
21) Great oaks are told by little strokes.
22) The pony will be brought by David.
23) He is loved by everyone.
24) This picture has been drawn by my cousin.
25) Good news was expected by us.
26) The harvest was gathered by the farmer.
27) He was swindled by his own brothers.
28) The inspector was pleased by the recitation.
29) The light was put out by somebody.
30) Our army was defeated by the enemy.
31) Here the radios are sold by them.
32) My bicycle has been sold by me.
33) It will soon be forgotten by the people.
34) Only last month the theatre was opened by him.
35) Smoking is prohibited by us.

Exercise 3

Change the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Passive Voice.

1) We saw you and him.
2) They asked me my name.
3) We refuse them admission.
4) I bought the baby a doll.
5) They found him guilty of murder.
6) A thunderstorm often turns milk sour.
7) You cannot pump the ocean dry.
8) They saw the storm approaching.
9) He keeps me waiting.
10) They painted the house red.
11) He told me to leave the room.
12) He promised me a present.
13) I shall order the carriage.
14) The boy is climbing the cliff.
15) One may accomplish many things by a little effort.
16) I am watching you very carefully. 

Answer:
1) You and he were seen by us.
2) I was asked by them for my name.
3) They were refused admission.
4) A doll was bought to the baby.
5) He was found guilty of murder by them.
6) Milk is often turned turn sour by a thunderstorm.
7) The ocean cannot be pumped dry.
8) The storm was seen by them approaching.
9) I am kept waiting by him.
10) The house was painted red by them.
11) I was told to leave the room by him.
12) I was promised a present by him.
13) The carriage shall be ordered by me.
14) The cliff is being climbed up by the boy.
15) Many things may be accomplished by a little effort.
16) You are being watched by me very carefully.

Exercise 4

Rewrite the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Active Voice.

1) He was praised by his father.
2) The first railway was built by- George Stephenson.
3) The horse was frightened by the noise.
4) Not a word was spoken by Latif.
5) The teacher was pleased with the boy’ s work.
6) He was taken to the hospital by his friend.
7) The town was destroyed by an earthquake.
8) The road was lined with people.
9) The president was welcomed by the people.
10) Shakuntala was written by Kalidas.
11) The building was damaged by the fire.
12) I was struck by his singular appearance.
13) The French fleet was defeated by Nelson.
14) The streets were thronged with spectators.
15) The trees were blown down by the wind.
16) We shall be blamed by everyone.
17) The child was knocked down by a car.
18) Alice was not much surprised at this.
19) He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen.

Answer:
1) His father praised him.
2) George Stephenson built the first railway.
3) The noise frightened the horse.
4) Latif didn’t speak a word.
5) The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
6) His friend took him to the hospital.
7) An earthquake destroyed the town.
8) The people lined by the road.
9) The people welcomed the president.
10) Kalidas wrote Shakuntala.
11) The fire damaged the building.
12) His singular appearance struck me.
13) Nelson defeated the French fleet.
14) Spectators thronged the streets.
15) The wind blew down the trees.
16) Everyone blamed us.
17) A car knocked down the child.
18) This didn’t surprise Alice.
19) His selection will make him greatly surprised.

Exercise 5

Write three sentences with the Verbs in the Active Voice, and rewrite them with the Verb in the Passive Voice.

Answer:
1) The hunter killed the tiger. (Active)
    The tiger was killed by the hunter. (Passive)
2) We are going to watch a movie tonight. (Active)
     A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (Passive)
3) Who ate the last biscuit? (Active)
    By whom was the last biscuit eaten? (Passive)

Exercise 6

In the following sentences change the Voice.

1) We elected Balu captain.
2) I saw him opening the box.
3) We must listen to his word.
4) Shall I ever forget those happy days?
5) By whom was this jug broken?
6) His subordinates accused him of various offenses.
7) One cannot gather grapes from thistles.
8) The telegraph wires have been cut.
9) Alas! We shall hear his voice no more.
10) The French surrendered Quebec to the English in 1759.
11) Without effort nothing can be gained.
12) Do not insult the weak.
13) All desire wealth and some acquire it.
14) Why should I be suspected by you?
15) Subject him to a severe examination.
16) The legend tells us how the castle received its name.
17) My watch was lost.
18) Why did he defraud you or your earning?
19) The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
20) He made his wife do the work.
21) The master appointed him monitor.
22) The doctor despaired of his recovery.
23) He was refused admittance.
24) They laughed at his warnings and objected to all his proposals.
25) The people regarded him as an impostor and called him a villain.

Answer:
1) Balu captain was elected by us.
2) The box was opened by him and seen by me.
3) His word must be listened to by us.
4) Shall those happy days ever be forgotten by me?                  
5) Who broke this jug.
6) He was accused of various offenses.
7) Grapes cannot be gathered by someone from thistles.
8) Someone has cut telegraph lines.
9) Alas! His voice will never be listened by us anymore.
10) Quebec was surrendered by the French to the English in 1759.
11) One can gain nothing without effort.
12) Let the weak not be insulted.
13) Wealth is desired by all and it is acquired by some.
14) Why should you suspect me?
15) Let he be subjected to severe examination.
16) We are told by the legends how its name was received by the castle.
17) I lost my watch.
18) Why were you or your earning were defrauded by him?
19) It will be learnt by the public with astonishment that war is imminent.
20) His wife was made to do the work by him.
21) He was appointed as monitor by the master.
22) His recovery was despaired off the doctor.
23) Admittance was refused to him.
24) His warnings were laughed at by them and his proposals were objected.
25) He was regarded as an imposter and villain by the people.

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