2nd year English notes | Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan

Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan Chapter No 16

2nd year English notes | Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan The Notes that contain translation, vocabulary and questions.

What are the most important archaeological sites of Pakistan? What light do they throw on the antiquity in this part of the world?

Pakistan is a country rich with the priceless remains of the past and exquisiteness of the present. Some of the most important archaeological sites of Pakistan include Taxila, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Gandhara, Bhanbore, Lahore and Brahmanabad.

These sites are not only of great importance for their rich culture and civilization but also due to their associations with the great preachers, monarchs or warriors of the past times such as Alexandra, Asoka, Mughals, Buddha, and Mongols. These archaeological sites throw crystal-clear light on the culture-rich lifestyle of the people of the past who used to live in this part of the world some thousand years back with all glory and verve.

What is the importance of Taxila as an archaeological site?

Taxila one of the landmark in the historical and archaeological affluence of Pakistan is situated in the North-West of Rawalpindi some thirty miles away from the city. It is not only a place rich in its culture and civilization but depicts its importance due to the close association and influence of the great personalities of the past including Alexander and Asoka, one of the greatest and most illustrious figures of the sub-continent.

Taxila is also famous because of the exceptional contribution to the world’s artistic fortune i.e. the art of Gandhara which is the fusion of Buddhist art amalgamated with Mediterranean influences. It is something worthy to experience as nothing like this exists anywhere in the entire world.

What is one of the most important aspects of the discovery of Mohenjo-Daro?

Mohenjo-Daro is one of the most significant archaeological sites of Pakistan located about sixty miles from Sukkur in Sind. One of the most important aspects of the discovery of Mohenjo-Daro is its confirmation of the existence of an established civilization in the Indus Valley region before the arrival of Aryan invaders and also the fact that more than on ethnic type was then present.

Where is Bhanbore? What is its archaeological interest?

Bhanbore is a site of great concern and appreciation for the people of Pakistan who have a love for our history and civilization. It is a site on one of the silted channels of the Indus. It is about forty miles from Karachi and is easily accessible to the inhabitants of Karachi and the nearby major cities. It is archaeologically rich and worthy of interest.

It is assumed that it is the site of Debul, where Mohammad bin Qasim landed in 712 A.D. He was the one who spread Islam in the sub-continent against the cruel Hindu rulers of that time at a very young age of 17.

Discuss the importance of the archaeological treasures that belong to the Moghul period.

Moghal period and its remnants have a distinctive sense of charisma that can attract anyone who has the taste for the priceless fortune of the past. The archaeological treasures that belong to the Moghal period are of utmost significance not only for the citizens of Pakistan but for the people of the whole sub-continent too.

It holds magnitude due to its comparative proximity of that dynasty to our own present time. Another reason that makes the archaeological treasures of the Moghal period worthwhile is that their monuments, tombs, and mosques are astonishingly in a much better state as compared to any other treasures of the past time. These sites are easily accessible to everyone and are preserved in an improved condition to be admired and esteemed by all.

Writing Assignment

Visit an archaeological site is like travelling through that period of history. Which period of history represented by one of the archaeological sites mentioned in this essay would you like to visit if you were given a chance to travel through time-and why? Write an essay highlighting your imagined experiences.

Being a history lover, first of all, I would like to invent the machine that transports me into the past period of our majestic Mughals. There are several reasons to justify my desire. The first and the foremost attraction for that period is to experience the rich customs, culture, and tradition associated with Mughal dynasty.

Secondly, the pomp and show of the Mughal emperors must be a worthwhile experience. I would like to cherish the moment of the emperors’ appearance in their royal courts. I want to see and experience the royal courts with my own eyes, where all the couturiers dressed lavishly in their appropriate costumes waiting to hear the fair verdict of the emperor against any case.

That’s not all; I would love to roam around in the well-maintained gardens surrounding the palaces of the Mughals with sparkling water fountains adding into the beauty of the lawns. The cool fresh breeze scented with the fragrance of flowers would make me feel relaxed and blissful.
Being a girl, one of my original attractions would be to observe the royal activities of the queens and princesses of the Mughal era. The way they used to beautify themselves with bedazzling jewellery adorned with precious gems and jewels.

I would like to take pleasure in the delicate dance performances by the well-trained performers in the magnificent courts.
When taking a tour out of the palaces, I would love to see the intricate Mughal architecture in the form of buildings, mosques, and tombs as Mughal art and architecture is famous for their design and form.
Peace, justice, and honour that were the essential part of Mughal era would be witnessed by me as these things are not available nowadays.

The time of Mughals was an awesome period in the history of the sub-continent with all their grandeur and splendour and if given a chance I would love to step into the magnificent era of Mughals.


Name the various figures of speech in the following:

1) The more haste, the less speed.
2) I must be taught my duty, and by you!
3) Plead, Sleep, my cause and make her soft like thee.
4) Charity suffered long and is kind.
5) He makes no friend who never made a foe.
6) He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?
7) Let not ambition mock their useful toil.
8) To gossip is a fault, to libel, a crime; to slander, a sin.
9) Oh! What a noble mind is here overthrown.
10) Excess of ceremony shows want of breeding.
11) Why all this toil for triumphs of an hour?
12) Fools who came to scoff, remained to pray.
13) The Puritan had been rescued by a no common deliverer from the grasp of no common foe.
14) The cup that cheers but not inebriates.
15) You are a pretty fellow.
16) Hasten slowly.
17) Hail! Smiling morn.
18) Can two walk together, except they are agreed?
19) Curses are like chickens, they come home to roost.
20) A thousand years are as yesterday when it is past.
21) The prisoner was brought to the dock in irons.
22) We had nothing to do, and we did it very well.
23) Boys will be boys.
24) The cloister oped her pitying gage.
25) Lowliness is young Ambition’s ladder.
26) Language is the art of concealing thought.
27) Must I stand and crouch Under your testy humour?
28) Exult, 0 shores, and ring, 0 bells!
29) He followed the letter but not the spirit of the law.
30) One truth is clear: whatever is, is right.
31) I came, I saw, I conquered.
32) Labour, wide as the earth, has its summit in heaven.
33) Just for a handful of silver, he left us.
34) They were swifter than eagles: they were stronger than lions.
35) Swiftly flies the feathered death.
36) It is a wise father that knows his child.
37) Brave Macbeth, with his brandished steel, carved out his passage.
38) Sweet Thames! Run softly, till I end my song.
39) There is only one cure for the evils which newly acquired freedom produces and that cure is freedom.
40) Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain.
Where health and plenty cheered the labouring swain.
41) So spake the seraph abdiel faithful found.
Amongthefaithlessfaithful only he.
42) Youth is full of pleasure,
Age is full of care.
43) Like the dew on the mountain,
Like the foam on the river,
Like the bubble on the fountain,
Thou art is gone and forever.
44) Can Honour’s voice provoke the silent dust,
Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?
45) Golden lads and girls all must,
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust
46) Sweet are the uses of adversity,
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous Wears still a precious jewel in its head.
47) The naked every day he clad When he put on his clothes.
48) 0 mischief, thou art swift
To enter in the thoughts of desperate men
49) Knowledge is proud that it knows so much Wisdom is humble that it knows no more
50) At once they rush’d
Together, like two eagles on one prey Come rushing down from the clouds, One from the east, one from the west.
51) Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow,
He who would search for pearls must dive below.
52) The best way to learn a language is to speak it.
53) Scepter and crown Must tumble down
And in the dust be equal made
With the poor crooked scythe and spade
54) O! Solitude! Where are the charms That sages have seen in thy face?
55) I thought ten thousand swords must have leapt from their scabbards to avenge a look that threatened her with insult.
56) The soldier fights for glory, and a shilling a day.
57) His honour rooted in dishonour stood,
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.
58) They speak like saints and act like devils.
59) He was a learned man among lords and a lord among learned men.


1) Antithesis
2) Exclamation
3) Climax
4) Transferred epithet
5) Oxymoron
6) Interrogation
7) Euphemism
8) Hyperbole
9) Exclamation
10) Oxymoron
11) Interrogation
12) Transferred epithet
13) Hyperbole
14) Oxymoron
15) Litotes
16) Apostrophe
17) Hyperbole
18) Irony
19) Hyperbole
20) Euphemism
21) Hyperbole
22) Litotes
23) Synecdoche
24) Oxymoron
25) Anticlimax
26) Interrogation
27) Climax
28) Hyperbole
29) Antithesis
30) Climax
31) Hyperbole
32) Synecdoche
33) Hyperbole
34) Litotes
35) Oxymoron
36) Climax
37) Apostrophe
38) Hyperbole
39) Irony
40) Apostrophe
41) Oxymoron
42) Irony
43) Interrogation
44) Synecdoche
45) Metonymy
46) Oxymoron
47) Anticlimax
48) Hyperbole
49) Synecdoche
50) Hyperbole
51) Climax
52) Litotes
53) Irony
54) Apostrophe
55) Hyperbole
56) Transferred epithet
57) Hyperbole
58) Climax
59) Oxymoron

Indus Valley region1
Aryan invaders1
Mohammad bin Qasim1

khyber pakhtunkhwa textbook board peshawar english book notes — class 12

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