2nd year English notes | Glory and Hope

Glory and Hope Chapter No 05 2nd year English notes.

Grade -12 English notes pdf downlaod.

Study Questions Recalling

Who are the people Nelson Mandela is addressing and what is the occasion?

Nelson Mandela is addressing to the people of both South African and international community. There were heads of different states and other dignitaries including distinguished guests, comrades, and friends at the auspicious occasion. It was the brightest day in the life of the black people of South Africa who got independence from the white people after a meticulous and extensive struggle. This was the oath-taking ceremony of Nelson Mandela when he was elected democratically as the first President of South Africa on May 10, 1994. facilities in order to live a peaceful life.

What figurative language does Nelson Mandela use to communicate his profound feelings of patriotism and a sense of belonging to his homeland?

Nelson Mandela is a name that can never be forgotten when it comes to the movements that solely fought for the rights of the black people. He was a much-celebrated leader of South Africa. He uses the most beautiful and moving language to express his feelings of patriotism and a sense of belonging to his homeland. His best approach is the use of similes to put forward his objectives and reflects his love for his land.

He says, “Each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria and Mimosa trees of Bushveld”. He says, “Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal”. He was a great orator. It seems that he has full communication power and skills to motivate his people and convince his spectators. for their rights and this will turn into an echo that will be heard clearly in every nook and corner of the American society.

What was the situation like in South Africa before this very celebration of liberty and glory that Nelson Mandela is speaking about?

The situation in South Africa was quite deplorable before this very celebration of liberty and glory that Nelson Mandela is speaking about. One can easily identify absolute discrimination between the communities on the basis of caste and color. No peace and harmony could be seen in the country. Many laws and measures were designed to oppress the rights of black people.

They had no right to live freely. They were oppressed and maltreated. The “Apartheid” was a system of racial segregation in South Africa. The black people were deprived of their citizenship rights. They were no longer citizens of their country. Black people were living in the bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discriminations. There was complete racial, sexual, and ethnic segregation. There was no hope left in the eyes, hearts, minds, and souls of the blacks of South Africa due to the above-mentioned subjugated elements

What emancipation and liberation is Nelson Mandela speaking about?

Nelson Mandela focussed on two major issues in his speech i.e. emancipation and liberation.

Emancipation
Nelson Mandela is speaking about “Political emancipation”, which they have achieved after a long struggle against the apartheid system. He was elected democratically the first black president of South Africa in 1994. In the former political system in South Africa, only white people had full political rights. Black people were forced to live away from white people. Now all the people will enjoy full equal rights in South Africa. All the communities will live together with equal opportunities. He is speaking about emancipation from racism and racial oppression. He along with countrymen is celebrating the victory of justice, peace, and human dignity.

Liberation

Nelson Mandela also gives the guarantee that from now onwards all the people will enjoy complete liberty who were continuously suffering the intense bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination. He is speaking about the liberation movement of black people of South Africa when he became successful in dismantling the country’s apartheid system.

What does Nelson Mandela mean by South Africa being once the “skunk of the world”?

At the end of his speech, Nelson Mandela uses the phrase “skunk of the world”, which means that once the people of South Africa were hated by other communities as skunks are hated by the people. This phrase further throws light on the significant feature that South Africa was once the most despicable and disgusting nation of the world.

The people of South Africa were given no respect or love by the rest of the world because of malicious ideology and practice of racism. All over the world, the people looked at them with scornful eyes and hatred expressions on their faces. Due to the “Apartheid System”, South Africa not only went through poverty, deprivation, racial and gender discrimination but it was rejected with disrespect and thus isolated by the countries of the world.

Interpreting

Q 6. Considering that South Africa was once “the skunk of the world'” why does Nelson Mandela give his speech the title “Glory and Hope”? The glory of what and hope for what?

Answer:
Nelson Mandela considers South Africa as once the skunk of the world but still, his speech rests on the solid foundation of “Glory and Hope” due to the following reasons:
Glory:
In his perspective, there is glory for the peaceful, non-violent freedom from racial subjugation. There is glory for the justice of human dignity, non-sexism, non-racialism, and democracy. He talks about the glorious achievement
Hope:
Coming towards hope, he talks about the hope for prosperity, equality, and lasting justice. He hopes firmly that freedom will reign on the South African land in the years to come. All the communities will live together in harmony and enjoy equal rights and opportunities. There will be no racial oppression and discrimination. There is hope for the building of a society where all human beings have equal social status and both black and white people, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts.

Q 7. What does Nelson Mandela mean by “a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world”?

Answer:
Being an excellent communicator and having a
full grasp over the usage of figurative language, Nelson Mandela uses an awesome expression by saying “A rainbow nation at peace with itself and world.” In this way, he is comparing his nation with a rainbow. Rainbow nation refers to a multicultural or multiracial country used especially for South Africa in the past apartheid era. Nelson Mandela means that now all the communities, especially white and black people, will live in complete harmony and peace on the land of South Africa. They will also develop cordial and peaceful relations with the world. As the rainbow consists of various colors, so the South African nation consists of communities like black and white people sharing the same land with equal rights and benefits, and in this way, they will set an example for the world of brotherhood and togetherness.

Q 8. What does Mandela mean by “humanity has taken us back into its bosom … who were outlaws not so long ago”?

Answer:
Nelson Mandela wants to appreciate the gracious act of mankind that’s why he says the mentioned expression which means that humanity has shown affection for the black people and brought them under legal protection. He means to say that we have now considered as dignified human beings by the people of the world. We are not isolated from the rest of the world. We were suffering from anarchy a few years ago but now we have achieved a politically accepted status. He says we were isolated from the rest of the world because of pernicious ideology and practice of racism but now the people of South Africa were given respect and love by the rest of the world. He says that this respect and affection must bounce back to humanity from the people of South Africa very soon.

Extending

Q 9. Both Dr. King and Mandela use the word freedom in their speeches. Write an essay in which you compare and contrast King’s and Mandela’s use of the word in an attempt to arrive at each man’s definition of freedom.

Answer:
The inaugural speech of Nelson Mandela and the “I Have a Dream” speech of Martin Luther King have some basis to be compared or have contrast; and that is freedom. In both cases, they talk of the suppression of their people and the need for freedom. They inspire us to look at the issues and feel the needs of their people. The methods in which they deliver these speeches are quite different, however, what they desire to accomplish with their speech is in many ways the same but the situation in which they deliver is quite different.
The word freedom is used by Martin Luther King in his speech in the following statements:

  • a cheque that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
  • This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.
  • Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.
  • …have come to realize that their destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.
  • Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution…
  • …will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
  • With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
  • So let freedom ring from the …
  • Let freedom ring from mighty…
  • Let freedom ring from the heightening…
  • Let freedom ring from…
  • Let freedom ring from the Stone Mountain…
  • When we let freedom ring when we let it ring from every village…

Freedom, King believed, is the ability for all men to think, speak, and act in the public sphere. King’s view of freedom is consistent with that of the Founding Fathers, who wrote,

“all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

According to King’s argument, safeguarding freedom requires that we live up to the promises made in the Declaration of Independence. Freedom is a brotherhood, peace, and racial harmony. Freedom is being judged not “by the color of [one’s] skin but by the content of [one’s] character” (King, “I Have a Dream” 57). To King, freedom is equality. Freedom, King realized, must include justice for all. He warned, however, that “Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.”


On the other hand, Nelson Mandela was also an activist who worked for getting freedom for the people of his nation i.e. South Africa but by adopting a different methodology.
The prime focus of his emancipation rests on political freedom, that the blacks should get equal rights of voting and participation in elections. He also talked about freedom from poverty, racism, racial discrimination, and inequality.


Nelson Mandela does not inspire in his speech quite like Martin Luther King. His words are more fatherly in their feel. Mr. King’s words are much fiercer. Mr. King focused on freedom so much that he used this word more than 15 times in his speech whereas Nelson Mandela used freedom only 4 times in his inaugural speech.

Mr. Mandela wants his people to understand that they are all important to their country, no matter what their origin. Mr. King, in a sense, segregates his people in order to show that they have not been treated fairly. Nelson Mandela’s speech feels more like a prayer while Martin Luther King’s, a rousing sermon.

Q 10. Nelson Mandela also uses another word, liberty in his speech which Dr. King does not. Are they different in meanings or similar?

Answer:
Nelson Mandela was elected as the first black president in South Africa on May 10, 1994; this election was particularly significant because it was the first-ever multi-racial, democratic election in the country.
Nelson Mandela uses the word liberty along with freedom in his inaugural speech.

With freedom, he means “Political emancipation”, which they have achieved after a long struggle against the apartheid system. In the former political system in South Africa, only white people had full political rights. Black people were forced to live away from white people. Now all the people will enjoy full equal rights in South Africa. He is speaking about emancipation from racism and racial oppression.


By using the word liberty, Nelson Mandela also gives a guarantee that from now onwards all the people will enjoy complete independence who was continuously suffering the extreme oppression of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination.


In my viewpoint, the word ‘liberty’ in Nelson’s speech and the word ‘freedom’ in King’s “I have a dream” are similar in meaning because both the words could be interpreted in a sense of independence from racial discrimination, poverty, inequality, suffering, and deprivation.

Q 11. Both Dr. King and Mandela are advocating emancipation and freedom for the Black people of their countries, fourteen hundred years after the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in his “Farewell Sermon” granting freedom and equality to all humanity, declared: “a white has no superiority over a black nor does a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good actions.” Discuss.

Answer:
Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) is not only a role model for the Muslim Ummah but for the whole of humanity. It is a universal truth that in Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) time, not only Muslims but the non-Muslims had a firm belief in the honesty and truthfulness of our beloved Prophet (P.B.U.H). Even after 1400 years, the time when Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) delivered his last exemplary sermon at Mount Arafat, Muslims, as well as non-Muslims, are following him for finding answers to their questions related to day-to-day business, issues, problems, justice, equality, human rights, freedom, etc.

No doubt one can easily see and feel the adoption of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) teachings and saying mentioned in the speeches of non- Muslims who do not consider Prophet (P.B.U.H) as the last messenger of Allah but for an excellent example for all mankind


Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) said quite clearly about equality and brotherhood in his last sermon in these words

“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor does a black have any superiority over a white except by piety or good actions.”


Dr. King and Nelson Mandela made the above-mentioned order of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the foundation for their freedom movements due to extreme inspiration. That’s why they also talked about equality, justice, freedom, and brotherhood. As Martin Luther King said while delivering his most prominent speech “I have a dream” that ‘I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.’

Writing

The students will be directed to pen down their views about Nelson Mandela.

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

(Nelson Mandela)

The name Nelson Mandela is the best synonym for the great leader, a staunch supporter of equality and justice. He was a leader who put all his efforts for the rights and freedom of his people i.e. the black people of South Africa. Mandela has inspired people around the world to work non-violently for a better life. This great leader of the 20th century was born on January 18, 1918, in Mvezo, Transkei, in the southeast of South Africa. He was a fearless and dedicated person since his adulthood.

He loved to work for the betterment of his people. By 1942, Mandela vigorously involved himself in political causes. He began attending meetings of the African National Congress (ANC), a revolutionary group whose aim was to fight apartheid for which he became famous.
Due to his firm determination, Mandela was able to form the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in 1944. He successfully organized boycotts and strikes to fight for voting rights and equality for black South Africans. In 1964, Mandela suffered hardship as he was sentenced to life in prison for fighting apartheid.

After spending 27 years in prison, he was released in 1990. From then onwards, he fought valiantly for the rights of black South Africans, and for that, he was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He was selected as president of South Africa in 1994. Mandela championed reconciliation, the peaceful resolution of grievances after decades of repressive laws against black South Africans. He will always be remembered as one of the greatest peace-makers and statesmen of all time.

Freedom is a gift of God” write your ideas about the blessing of freedom.

Answer:
It is quite difficult to count the blessings of Allah which He granted to human beings. Among them, one is freedom. The concept of freedom as a blessing can be strengthened by the saying of Imam Amir-ul-Mo’meneen Ali Ibn Abi Talib:


‘Do not be a slave to another when Allah has made you free.’
Islam has given the freedom to mankind in different aspects such as freedom of thought; freedom of speech and freedom of action are the most general ones. Whatever freedom a person exercises must be within a correct and reasonable framework meaning that the action, speech, or thought should not harm oneself or the others in any case.


Coming towards freedom as a blessing, in my opinion, can be much felt by those who are in any form of captivity. For example, if a person is a Muslim but born in an un-Islamic country where he is not allowed to go for prayer or the females of his family are not allowed to wear hijab. Under such circumstances, he/she must want to move to an Islamic state where they can easily and freely practice their religion and can have freedom of action and speech.


The same is the case of any frail nation that is under the control of foreign forces. They must not be allowed either to move freely or live their lives according to their own will. For them, freedom is the most important thing in their lives.


Freedom is a blessing not only for mankind but for other creatures as well such as animals or birds. If one keeps a flying bird in a cage for no specific reason just as a hobby, for sure he has to be answerable in front of Allah for seizing the freedom of a bird intentionally.


Therefore, it is important not only to enjoy freedom yourself but one should think about other creatures’ freedom as well so as to be a civilized citizen and a follower of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) in a true sense.

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