2nd year English notes | Determination

complete English notes for 2nd-year students, 12th Class English Study Notes. he following notes are available.

Contents show

2nd year English notes Determination Chapter No 10

My Writing Details
1,643Unique Words
1,502Longest Sentence (words)
11-12thGradeReading Level
16 mins 29secReading Time
25 mins 11secSpeaking Time
6 hrs 25minsHand Writing Time
My Writing Details

Study Questions

Q 1. What two cities John Roebling thought of connecting through the bridge?

John Roebling is a name famous in the world of engineering and innovation. He was the one who put forward the unique idea of building a magnificent suspension bridge that would connect the city of New York with the Long Island (Brooklyn). Later on, the bridge is titled Brooklyn Bridge.

Q 2. What did the bridge-building engineers throughout the world think of Roebling’s plan?

Roebling’s idea of the suspension bridge was the exceptional one as it seems to be an impossible task to be carried on. The bridge-building engineers throughout the world think that Roebling’s idea was not possible to be accomplished and Roebling should forget about it.

Q 3. How did Roebling finally succeed in convincing that the project could be accomplished?

Although Roebling was discouraged by the fellows of his field still he had a vision, he had a dream to achieve. For that purpose, he decided to have someone with him who could understand his idea and ultimately work with him to accomplish it. He discussed his brilliant idea with his son Washington who was also associated with the field of engineering.

Q 4. What happened when the project was underway for only a few months?

As the project seems to be an impossible feat, it proved as it is just in the beginning. Only a few months passed after the bridge’s construction started well, a horrible accident took place at the construction site. It severely affected the construction work of the bridge because the mastermind of the project John Roebling lost his life as well as his son Washington was injured to such an extent that not only was his brain-damaged but he became paralyzed too. The accident made him bed-ridden as he was unable to have any kind of movement or communication with the people around him.

Q 5. What was the response of the people after the accident on the site?

The news spread all over the world like the fire in the jungle that the man with an irrational dream to build a suspension bridge over the river died due to the accident. People responded to this news quite negatively and they started pouring in their pessimistic views about John Roebling, Washington, and their dreams. Some said proudly that they had told John Roebling and his son not to work on their plan as it wouldn’t be a practical one. Some called them crazy men with their crazy dreams. Even some others gave their statement in opposition to the idea of Roebling that it’s quite a foolish act to run after wild visions. There was hardly anyone who could speak in favour of the genius father and son.

Q 6. Unable to speak or write, what method did Washington use to communicate with his wife?

Even after becoming a handicapped person, Washington never ever thought of pushing back the idea of Brooklyn Bridge from his mind. He wanted to execute his father’s dreams. He was able to move only one finger and he made use of that to the fullest. A unique idea clicked in his mind to adopt the method of non-verbal communication. For that purpose, he used to tap his finger on his wife’s arm and give his message.

Q 7. How did Washington communicate with his engineers for 13 long years?

After developing a distinctive code of communication with his wife, Washington started to work on the Brooklyn project once again with full zeal and zest. He tapped on his wife’s arm and gave her a message to call the engineers who were appointed by Joe Roebling for the construction of the bridge. Then he used the same method of non-verbal communication of tapping her arm to tell the engineers what to do and how to complete the project. Although it was a difficult, time-taking task and seemed irrational, the Brooklyn project was completed this way in a long time period of 13 years.


Q 8. Why did John Roebling ignore when other engineers said that it was an impossible ideal, that it could not be done?

John Roebling was a passionate and dedicated engineer who loved to amaze the world with his exceptional work in the field of engineering. When he had any idea, he just wanted to accomplish it by hook or crook. After presenting his idea of constructing a wire suspension bridge, he received a lot of criticism and discouraging comments from the engineers of his time. Made with the soil of self-confidence and determination, John Roebling just ignored the remarks of other engineers who said that it was an impossible idea and simply it could not be done but he knew deep in his heart that yes it could be done. He wanted to turn his dream into reality with determination, courage, effort, intellect, and obsession.

Q 9. Why did Washington not abandon the idea of building the bridge after the accident which left him totally paralysed?

Washington, son of John Roebling was just the reflection of his father in terms of devotion to his profession and passion for his ideas. Even after facing the severe accident that turned him into a paralysed man, it was impossible for Washington to abandon the idea of building the bridge because he wanted to fulfil his father’s dream and make his vision a reality for the world especially the critical engineers to witness and appreciate.

Q 10. The Brooklyn Bridge is called a tribute, a monument by the author. Why?

Determination and loyalty is the key to success. The author called Brooklyn Bridge a tribute, a monument because it was built on the foundation of devotion, the concrete of dedication, wires of enthusiasm and pillars of determination of not only the idea generator John Roebling but his son Washington too. John Roebling’s dream was achieved by the self-confidence of his son, thus Brooklyn Bridge appears as a landmark and tribute by the people of the world to appreciate the efforts of the mentioned personalities.


Q 11. Can you think of an example from any sphere of life in which someone achieved an impossible feat through sheer courage and indomitable spirit against all odds, obstacles and opposition?

The world is full of such personalities who have the potential to excel and fascinate the people with their extraordinary deeds. Such people should get the title as “celebrated people — astonishing deeds.” They are usually categorized into three categories; the first one is those who have achieved the unbelievable just with the stroke of good luck, the second one is those who gained it through sheer courage and determination, last but not the least the third one are those who truly achieved success and fame by just working against all the odds, beating all the obstacles and defeating all the opposition.

Naseem Hameed a name well-recognized in the world of field athletes is the one who falls in the category of achievers who gained it by beating all hurdles and obstacles that stood in her way to get it.

Before throwing light on her earnest efforts and amazing act in women’s games, a little introduction of her is a must over here. She was born on May 1, 1988. She is a Pakistani track and field athlete, who became the fastest woman in South Asia. She received a gold medal in the 100 meters at the 2010 South Asian Games in Dhaka.

Naseem Hameed gave a start to her career from school life. She participated with full zeal and zest in various sports activities and won genuine appreciation, recognition and reward. At the age of almost 12, she met an accident that made her handicap and she was incapable to walk even. The doctor advised her to take complete bed rest and then she started moving with the help of crutches. There was not much hope left for her to become a normal individual without any disability.

That was the moment when depression engulfed her and tears became her best friends. But her parents motivated her and helped her to stand without crutches. Over the bed, she used to watch sports competitions and prayed to Allah with true heart and soul. Allah Almighty listened to her and she got well by gaining strength to move without any support. She then again started participating in different sports. Naseem’s consistent performance earned her a place to represent Pakistan in 2010 SAF Games in Dhaka where she won the Coveted Gold in 100 Meters clocking 11.81 thus gaining the title of “Fastest Women in South Asia” and emerging as the “Queen of the track.”

Naseem Hameed is a name symbolic for true spirit, courage, inspiration, and determination for all especially for the women of Pakistan.

Q 12. “Crazy men and their crazy dreams!” “It’s foolish to chase wild visions.” Is it really foolish to chase wild visions? Isn’t the world that we now have is because of crazy men and their impossible crazy dreams and visions which they realised? Do some research and find examples of deeds or feats which were considered impossible or crazy or foolish but which were finally accomplished.

Yes, there are a number of deeds or feats which were considered impossible or crazy or foolish to attempt but the people driven with passion, determination, courage, and enthusiasm accomplished them by hook or crook.
Following is the shortlist along with the crisp description about such personalities who achieved something that seemed foolish or impossible in the eyes of the world but finally accomplished by them just for the sake of mankind or the betterment of this planet Earth:

  • Albert Einstein: Einstein was one of the greatest of all physicists and his name has become a symbol of genius. When his most famous work, the General Theory of Relativity was proven in 1919, Einstein became the most celebrated scientist in the world and he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.
  • Isaac Newton: Isaac Newton is a personality, who is famous for describing gravity, working out the laws of motion, and being one of the inventors of calculus.
  • Marie Curie: A name renowned in the world of radioactivity. She was a Polish who showed great interest in the field of Physics and Chemistry. She went to Paris to get a higher education. It seemed impossible to work as a scientist by her family but she is enthusiastic in her work and achieved great success by discovering Radium and Polonium with the assistance of her husband Pierre. She received first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 and second one in 1911 in the field of Chemistry. She is also recognized as the X-ray machine inventor in the field of medicine.
  • Helen Keller: After becoming a blind and deaf person in her childhood, it would not be accepted by her parents to see her reading or excelling in the field of education. But Helen Keller showed utmost concern and a keen interest towards education and learning that she became the first deaf-blind person to attain a bachelor’s degree and became an influential campaigner for social, political and disability issues. She not only lived and worked for herself but for a great number of people who suffered from the same disabilities as her.

Writing Skills

The students will be asked to write the ” summary of the lesson ” Determination.”

The lesson “determination” is solely devoted to the passion and commitment of one of the renowned engineers of his time named John Roebling. It was almost the end of the 19th century when a creative engineer John put forward his exceptional idea to build a wire suspension bridge that would connect the city of New York to the Long Island (Brooklyn). All over the world, the bridge-building engineers were of the opinion that his idea could not be functional and it couldn’t be done. But he was so obsessed with his dream that he discussed it with his son Washington, who too was an engineer. Both of them started the project with full enthusiasm and fervour. Few months passed when a catastrophic accident happened at the construction site that not only took the life of the mastermind of the project but made his son paralyzed to such an extent that he was unable to walk, talk or move.

After the incident, people remarked to them as crazy. Even after getting such remarks, Washington didn’t stop dreaming about the project. One day as he was lying on the bed, the curtain parted and he saw the sky and tops of the trees and that gave him new inspiration. He was able to move only one finger and with that, he developed a code of communication with his wife by tapping a finger on her arm and giving her the messages. With that non-verbal communication, he appointed engineers to complete the project successfully over a period of 13 years. Finally, the Brooklyn Bridge becomes a tribute and monument for the efforts of the engineers and the love and devotion of Washington’s wife who unwittingly decode the messages.

Write a paragraph to illustrate the moral ” Labour and determination conquer all.”

Labour and determination is the success of mankind. Without these, it’s impossible to achieve the desired goal in any sphere of life. Let’s take a simple example of a student: if he is determined to get a good score in his exams, he needs to work hard day and night to achieve it. Whereas if there is a student who always runs away from studies, definitely has no desire to get good marks and for sure has no determination towards studies. Therefore, one can say that labour and determination are just like a clap of hands as it’s not possible to clap with a single hand. So, if one is determined about something only then he would know the importance of labour in achieving his objectives and making him stand out from the rest of his fellows.

Exercise 1

Pick out all the Adjectives in the following sentences, and say to which class each of them belongs:

1. The ship sustained heavy damage.
2. I have called several times.
3. Every dog has his day.
4. A live ass is better than a dead lion
5. Every man has his duties.
6. Say the same thing twice over.
7. Several persons were present at the time.
8. He is a man of few words.
9. Neither party is quite in the right.
10. What time is it?
11. Which pen do you prefer?
12. The way was long, the wind was cold, the minister was infirm and old.
13. He comes here every day.
14. I have not seen him for several days.
15. There should not be much talk and little work

1. heavy (Descriptive Adjective)
2. several (Indefinite Numeral Adjective)
3. Every (Distributive Numeral Adjective)
4. live, dead (Descriptive Adjective)
5. Every (Distributive Numeral Adjective)
6. twice (Definite Numeral Adjective)
7. several (Indefinite Numeral Adjective)
8. few (Indefinite Numeral Adjective)
9. neither (Distributive Numeral Adjective)
10. What (Interrogative Adjective)
11. Which (Interrogative Adjective)
12. long, cold, infirm, old (Descriptive Adjective)
13. every (Distributive Numeral Adjective)
14. several (Indefinite Numeral Adjective)
15. much, little (Adjectives of Quantity)

Exercise 3

From Adjectives from the following Nouns:
[Attach each Adjective to a suitable noun]

Ease, pity, time, heaven, health, wealth, love, hill, need, green, room, cost, pain, doubt, wonder, peace, child, prince, mountain, ridicule, picture, labour, wood, pomp, artist, progress, slave, contempt, tempest, sense, quarrel, thought, hope, friend.


Sr. No.NounsAdjectivesAdjective with a Noun
1.easeeasyeasy task
2.pitypitifulpitiful boy
3.timetimelytimely decision
4.heavenheavenlyheavenly creature
5.healthhealthyhealthy child
6.wealthwealthywealthy man
7.lovelovely, lovablelovely gift
8.hillhillyhilly area
9.needneedyneedy woman
10.greengreenerygreenery surrounding
11roomroomedroomed hotel
12.costcostlycostly watch
13.painpainfulpainful surgery
14doubtdoubtfuldoubtful origin
15.wonderwonderfulwonderful dream
16.peacepeacefulpeaceful nation
17.childchildishchildish wish
18.princeprincelyprincely state
19.mountainmountainousmountainous region
20.ridiculeridiculousridiculous joke
21.picturepicturesquepicturesque village
22.laborlaboriouslaborious training
23.woodwoody, woodenwooden floor
24.pomppompouspompous show
25.artistartisticartistic mind
26.progressprogressiveprogressive kingdom
27.slaveslavelessslaveless realm
28.contemptcontemptuouscontemptuous effort
29.tempesttempestuoustempestuous wind
20.sensesensiblesensible decision
31.quarrelquarrelsomequarrelsome man
32.thoughtthoughtfulthoughtful poetry
33.hopehopeful, hopelesshopeless case
34.friendfriendlyfriendly nature

Exercise 4

Use each of the following Adjectives in a sentence:

[Models.A soft answer turned away wrath.
His polite manners have endeared him to all.
Swimming is a healthy exercise.’
A certain man fell among thieves].

Happy, industrious, lazy, big, small, soft, harsh, hard, polite, rude, wise, foolish, rich, poor, young, new, old, long, short, quick, slow, strong, weak, handsome, ugly, clever, dull, kind, cruel, healthy, dutiful, distant, certain

happy: I am very happy because I have learned many good things today.
sad: His face was sad and red when he heard the news of his friend.
industrious: The soil is extremely fertile that’s why it attracts an industrious population.
lazy: She was too lazy to make herself a sandwich and salad, and decided to just have some instant soup.
big: One should think big to achieve big.
small: There is a small lawn in the backyard of the house.
soft: The renowned political leader addressed his audience in a soft but influential voice.
harsh: Don’t talk to kids in a harsh and aggressive tone.
hard: I don’t like to sleep on a hard, uncomfortable bed.
polite: My teacher is a soft-natured person and she always talks in a polite manner.
rude: His rude behaviour in front of the guests made his mother quite upset.
wise: A wise man profits from his mistakes.
foolish: One should not waste his precious time reading foolish, nonsense stuff.
rich: The rich man living next door to mine seems to be a smuggler.
poor: We should always try to help the poor and needy ones of society.
young: Young people are always quite enthusiastic and fiery in making abrupt decisions.
new: Saima wants to buy a new dress for her friend’s wedding ceremony.
old: Although he is not that much old all his hair turns white before time.
long: The long, crooked road leads to my village down into the valley.
short: One should never try to go for shortcuts to get fame or fortune.
quick: Everyone was impressed with his quick and witty answers.
slow: Slow and steady wins the race.
strong: One should be strong enough to face the challenges of life with a big smile.
weak: He was feeling weak due to loss of blood.
handsome: Quaid-e-Azam was not only handsome but intelligent too.
ugly: He looks quite ugly due to a scar on his face as a result of a severe accident.
clever: She always pretends to be a clever fellow although she is not at all.
dull: The dull and gloomy weather has the quality of making a person’s mood miserable.
kind: My mother is a kind woman and she likes to help others.
cruel: The cruel king gave an order to his soldiers to kill the innocent people of his kingdom.
healthy: We should eat a balanced, nutritious diet to stay fit and healthy.
dutiful: A dutiful son should take good care of his old parents.
distant: She forced herself to breathe deeply and continued towards the distant road.
certain: I am certain that he will quit his job after harsh arguments with the boss.

Exercise 5

Use a suitable Adjective with each of the following Nouns:

Models. A violent storm
•        A long siege.
•        A decisive victory.
•        A populous city.
•        A devoted husband

Storm, siege, sleep, victory, advice, blow, silence, hands, water, servant, flower, city, artist, dealer, voice, husband, subject, Child, king, dog.


  • storm: a wild storm
  • siege: a dreadful siege
  • sleep: a sound sleep
  • victory: a consecutive victory
  • advice: dry advice
  • blow: a real blow
  • silence: a deadly silence
  • hands: bare hands
  • water: sparkling water
  • servant: a loyal servant
  • flower: an enchanting flower
  • city: an ancient city
  • artist: a skillful artist
  • dealer: a wholesale dealer
  • voice: a hoarse voice
  • husband: a handsome husband
  • subject: a complicated subject
  • child: a talented child
  • king: a wise king
  • dog: a gentle dog

Exercise 6

Use as many suitable Adjectives as you can with each of the following Nouns:

[Models. A narrow street, a wide street, a crooked street, a dirty street, a clean streets A deliberate lie, a black lie, a white lie].
Fortune, man, news, storm, health, novel, progress, room, incident

an ample fortune, a bad fortune, an extraordinary fortune, a good fortune, a national fortune, a huge fortune, a personal fortune, a royal fortune, a princely fortune, a rapid fortune, a splendid fortune, a sudden fortune, a wrecked fortune

a tall man, a short man, a thin man, a stout man, an old man, a middle-aged man, a bald man, a strong man, a weak man, a handsome man, a big man, a rough man, a powerful man, an arrogant man, an aggressive man, a reliable man, a helpful man, a robust man, a hard-working man, a loyal man, a tough man, a good man, a bad man, a broad man

good news, bad news, happy news, tragic news, sad news, lengthy news, short news, interesting news, amazing news, superb news, fake news, wonderful news

a wet storm, a windy storm, a breezy storm, a gusty storm, a blustery storm, a pouring storm, a heavy storm, a foggy storm, a misty storm, a snowy storm, a damp storm, a dark storm, a cloudy storm, a grey storm, a wild storm, a fierce storm, a cold storm, a chilly storm, a frosty storm, a freezing storm, a gloomy storm, a drizzly storm, an icy storm, a raging storm, a destructive storm, a loud storm, a dreary storm, an electrifying storm, a dark storm

good health, bad health, poor health, perfect health, robust health, rude health, excellent health

an acclaimed novel, a good novel, an interesting novel, an amusing novel, a classic novel, a cheap novel, a contemporary novel, a delightful novel, a famous novel, a fiction novel, an exotic novel, a comic novel, a great novel, a fine novel, a lengthy novel, a literary novel, a thought-provoking novel, a hilarious novel, an adventure novel, a catchy novel, a celebrated novel, an original novel, an old novel, a sensational novel, a serious novel, short novel, a philosophical novel, a wonderful novel, a silly novel, a realistic novel

slow progress, advanced progress, leading progress, ongoing progress, elapsing progress, marvellous progress, outstanding progress

an adjacent room, an airy room, an ancient room, a big room, a small room, a vacant room, a carpeted room, a bright room, a sunny room, a clean room, a dirty room, a cheap room, a cosy room, a crowded room, a dark room, a damp room, a decorated room, a furnished room, a deluxe room, a dressing room, a cramped room, a dreary room, a filthy room, a fine room, a huge room, an inhabited room, a large room, a lofty room, a neat room, a modern room, a nice room, an occupied room, a private room, a spacious room, a stuffy room, a tidy room

an awful incident, an amusing incident, a bad incident, a bloody incident, a casual incident, a criminal incident, a delightful incident, a disastrous incident, a distressing incident, a terrible incident, a wonderful incident, a dreadful incident, an exciting incident, a horrible incident, a major incident, a miraculous incident, a pathetic incident, a remarkable incident, a scary incident, a strange incident, a sad incident, a tragic incident, an unexpected incident, the worst incident, an unusual incident.

Exercise 1 (Page 138)

Compare the following Adjectives:

Black, excellent, ill, gloomy, mad, safe, bad, unjust, gay, able, dry, timid, ugly, true, severe, exact, agreeable, difficult, little, few, numerous, merry.
Later, latter; latest, last. Later and latest refer to time; latter and last refer to position.

Sr. No.PositiveComparativeSuperlative
8.unjustmore unjustmost unjust
12.timidmore timidmost timid
15.severemore severemost severe
17.agreeablemore agreeablemost agreeable
18.difficultmore difficultmost difficult
21.numerousmore numerousmost numerous

Exercise 3 (Page 141)

Point out the  Adjectives and name the Degree of Comparison of each:-

1. The poor woman had seen happier days.
2. Do not talk such nonsense.
3.  Make less noise.
4. That child has a slight cold.
5. A live ass is stronger than a dead lion.
6. Say the same thing twice over.
7. Soloman was one of the wisest men.
8. Hunger is the best sauce.
9. His simple word is as good as an oath.
10. There was not the slightest excuse for it.
11. My knife is sharper than yours.
12. Small people love to talk of great men.
13. Of two evils choose the less.
14. I  hope the matter will be cleared up someday.
15. Your son makes no progress in his studies.
16. Open rebuke is better than secret love.
17. We never had such sport.
18. I have other things to attend to.
19. Haris is the idlest boy in the class.
20. I promise you a fair hearing.

1. poor (positive), happier (comparative)
2. such (positive)
3. less (comparative)
4. slight (positive)
5. live (positive), stronger (comparative), dead (positive)
6. twice (positive)
7. wisest (superlative)
8. best (superlative)
9. good (positive)
10. slightest (superlative)
11. sharper (comparative)
12. small, great (positive)
13. less (comparative)
14. some (positive)
15. progress (positive)
16. open, secret (positive), better (comparative)
17. such (positive)
18. other (positive)
19. idlest (superlative)
20. fair (positive)

Exercise 6 (Page 143)

Change the following sentences by using less or least without changing the meaning.

1. The mango is sweeter than the pineapple.
2. Silver is more plentiful than gold.
3. This is the most useless of all my books.
4. Wolfram is one of the rarest minerals.
5. The wild-apple is the sourest of all fruits.
6. Iron is more useful than copper.

1. The pineapple is less sweet than mango.
2. Gold is less plentiful than silver.
3. This is the least useful of all my books.
4. Wolfram is one of the least common minerals.
5. All the fruits are less sour than the wild-apple.
6. Copper is less useful than iron.

2nd-year English notes determination pdf


Leave a Reply