2nd year English notes | The Farewell Sermon

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2nd year English notes Chapter No 1 The Farewell Sermon

Study Questions Recalling

Q 1. When and where did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W)deliver his last sermon?

Answer:
The last prophet of Muslim Ummah Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W) was blessed with the eminence of knowing about the events of the future. That’s why Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) knew well that He might not be among His (S.A.W.W) people next year so He (S.A.W.W) decided to deliver His (S.A.W.W) last sermon for the utmost benefit of the people of Arabia in particular and Muslim Ummah in general. At the end of the Holy Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) first and the last pilgrimage to Makkah, the Ninth Day of Dhulhijjah 10 A.H. (632 CE) Prophet (S.A.W.W) delivered His (S.A.W.W) last sermon. For this purpose, He (S.A.W.W) chose the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat in the holy city of Mecca.

Q 2. Whom did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) ask to repeat the sermon sentence by sentence after him and why?

Answer:
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) owned a humble and soft-spoken personality and set an example for the Muslims to follow. Muhammad (S.A.W.W) led a huge crowd of over 120,000 pilgrims from Makkah towards the Valley of Uranah. He (S.A.W.W) sat on his camel and delivered the sermon. Being a soft-spoken and low voice person, it was not possible for everyone to listen to Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) voice clearly. So He (S.A.W.W) asked Rabi’ah ibn Umayya ibn Khalaf to repeat the sermon after him, sentence by sentence so that everyone could hear.

Q 3. State in your own words what did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) say about the sanctity of the life and property of Muslim Brethren?

Answer:
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) gave utmost stress on such issues which are the building blocks for a civilized society. Life and property are the two most vital things which are a source of either satisfaction or trouble. Nowadays, the life and property of others are the two cheapest things that can easily be snatched from others. That’s why the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) declared it as a holy thing to respect all Muslim brethren so as to avoid any conflict, tension, or to get involved in any criminal offense.

Q 4. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) instruct the people with regard to their women?

Answer:
Holy Prophet (SAW) was a great advocate of human rights. He not only gave importance to human rights but focused on animal rights too. He (SAW) presented a comprehensive description of the rights of everyone including women who were the most neglected and oppressed class of Arab society at His time.

In His last sermon, He declared women as “partners” and “committed helpers” of men. He said that according to Islamic principles women have the benefit of the same rights as of men. He made it obligatory for men to treat their women with kindness and justice. He added that if the wives fulfilled the needs of their men and follow their rules then it is the responsibility of the men to facilitate them by providing good food to eat and the finest clothes to wear.

Q 5. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) say about the superiority of one individual over another? What it depends upon?

Answer:
According to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) all human beings are equal in the eyes of Allah Almighty. He said that there is no question of the superiority of any individual over another individual. He further added that no Arab should feel himself superior over a non-Arab and similarly non-Arab should not consider him a superior being over an Arab. Another example quoted by Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was of black and white people that one should not believe himself superior over the other one. After this, He (S.A.W.W) affirmed that if someone wants to feel superior in front of Allah, the one and the only way which he has to follow is to tread on the path of good deeds and piousness.

Q 6. What did he say about Khatme Nobuwwat?

Answer:
Being a Muslim we have a firm belief in the oneness of Allah, the finality of the Holy Quran, four caliphs, Day of Judgment, and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) as the last prophet of Muslim Ummah. In the last sermon, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) put emphasis on the last aspect which is essentially required for the one who wants to enter into the frame of absolute faith and that was “khatm-e-Nabuwwat.”

This expression means that after the departure of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) from this transitory world, no prophet will ever make his appearance on the land and no new faith will become known for the Muslims to follow. Furthermore, Allah Almighty conveyed all His messages for everyone who is residing on the planet earth through the words of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) therefore, He needs no one to do this job for Him ever again.

Q 7. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) ask the people towards the end of the sermon?

Answer:
After conveying all the important instructions to the people who were present at Mount Arafat listening attentively to Holy Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) sermon, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) asked them to transfer His words to them who were not present there and pass His words sentence by sentence so the last man on this earth should know exactly whatever I have said to you. He further said that all the people who have listened to His sermon should be His witness on the Day of Judgment and should give confirmation to Allah that He (S.A.W.W) has conveyed Allah’s messages to the people as per His aspiration.

Interpreting

Q 8. What was the significance of the verses recited by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W)? One tradition has it that Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A) cried when he heard these verses. Why? And why did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) say that he may not be amongst his people the year after?

Answer:
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was a staunch supporter of human rights, peace, equality, and justice. The verses recited by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) were of great importance for the Muslim Ummah because they provide a definite outline to the people about how to live a life according to the principles of Islam and what should be done and whatnot. He (S.A.W.W) put great emphasis on human rights including women and servants.
Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (RA) was one of the best acquaintances of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W).

He lived with the Prophet (S.A.W.W) for almost 25 years. To spend such a long period of time with someone definitely gives an insight into the lifestyle, manner, speech, etc of that person. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) recited the verses and gave all the instructions to a huge crowd, at the end He (S.A.W.W) asked the people that had he conveyed Allah’s message to them wholly?

This statement gave a clue to Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) that might be next year at this time Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) would not be with him. He started crying just at the moment he gets the hint.
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) has the quality to know the things that would take place in the time to come. He (S.A.W.W) knew it very well that he may not get a chance to be among his people so He (S.A.W.W) decided to convey Allah’s message to his people at the time of Hajj.

Extending

Q 9. There is only one clause about worshipping Allah. The rest are all about the rights of men and women and how they should live in the society and their obligations with regard to one another. Why is there more emphasis on man in society?

Answer:
Allah has created the whole universe just for mankind. He granted him the countable blessings but only demanded to follow His path and to fulfill all the duties and responsibilities of the other people around him called “Haqooq-ul-Ibaad.” This is one of the greatest reasons why the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) put more emphasis on the rights of human begins as compared to worshipping Allah Almighty.


Haqooq-ul-Allah and Haqooq-ul-Ibaad are the two most important aspects in the life of a Muslim to complete his faith.
Haqooq-ul-Ibaad is the duty we owe to mankind, the rights of every Muslim on the other Muslim. A Muslim who fulfills the “Haqooq-ul-Allah” will also fulfill the “Haqooq-ul-Ibaad” these are two different things but still intertwined
In the authentic hadith of Bukhari, Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: Messenger of Allah (SAW) said,

“Every Muslim has five rights over another Muslim (i.e., he has to perform five duties for another Muslim): to return the greetings, to visit the sick, to accompany funeral processions, to accept an invitation, to respond to the sneezer [i.e., to say: `Yarhamuk-Allah (may Allah bestow His Mercy on you),’ when the sneezer praises Allah.” (Sahih Bukhari)

(Sahih Bukhari)

There is a hadith of when Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W) was asked,

“Who is the best Muslim?” He replied, “He is the one from whose hand and tongue all Muslims are safe.” (Sahih Bukhari)

(Sahih Bukhari)

What a beautiful lesson taught to us, If we all sincerely follow this I think we would have not been in a situation where we stand now, where there is injustice, backbiting, slandering, hatred, bloodshed, etc. Today humanity needs to revive these lessons. In another Hadith Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W) said:

“None of you truly believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” (Sahih Bukhari)

(Sahih Bukhari)

If only we followed all this, we can be a true momin and make our self-way to Heaven.
On the Day of Judgment, there will be no wealth, the only wealth that exists is good deeds. Whatever has been done to any of humanity (Allah’s Creations), we are answerable on the Day of Judgment and Allah will not forgive us unless the person who we hurt or did injustice to forgives us. We have to live our life in accordance with the guidelines of Islam.

Allah created us as Ashraf-ul- Makhlooq and as Muslims, we belong to the best Ummat. Indeed we have been given so many favors and it’s our responsibility to give back to Allah by loving him and being grateful to him, Our Prophet (SAW), and also mankind (All the creations of Allah).
May Allah guide us on the right path in fulfilling the Haqooq-ul-Ibaad and make us strong in our faith. (Ameen)

Q 10. What do the religious scholars of today emphasize most often upon? What has it resulted in?

Answer:
Everyone who is wearing a beard on his face and dressed his head in a cap or turban is considered a mullah or religious scholar nowadays in Pakistan. And some consider them as terrorists too. It is a tradition to blindly follow the statements put forward by such religious scholars, most often by the villagers or the people who own weak faith or belief in Allah.

No doubt, we have few learned religious scholars around us but unfortunately, most of them are wasting their energies in blazing the difference among various sects as per their vicious desires. They just want to rule the people according to their own thoughts, opinions, and beliefs away from the true principles of Islam.

They are underestimating the people belonging to other sects; having a different opinion from them. This is the task of today’s religious scholars which no doubt they are performing quite well by giving their quality time to it.


The outcome of this very active performance by religious scholars is quite detrimental. It is a definite source of creating chaos, disturbance, killings, murders etc among minorities or different sects sharing the land of Pakistan. Let’s have some vivid examples from the past which happened just due to the drama created by the religious scholars cum superb actors.

  1. On 15 March 2015, two blasts took place at Roman Catholic Church and Christ Church during Sunday service at Youhanabad town of Lahore. At least 15 people were killed and seventy were wounded in the attacks
  2. On 22 September 2013, a twin suicide bomb attack took place at All Saints Church in Peshawar, Pakistan, in which 127 people were killed and over 250 injured.
  3. In 2012, Jundallah militants stopped buses and massacred 18 men traveling on buses.
  4. In 2011, religious intolerance was reported to be at its height, hundreds of minorities, women, journalists, and liberals were being killed by Islamist fundamentalist extremists,
  5. The July 2010 Lahore bombings killed 50 people and wounded 200 others in two suicide bombings on the Sufi shrine, Data Durbar Complex in Lahore.
  6. The May 2010 Lahore attacks left 94 dead and more than 120 injured in nearly simultaneous attacks against two mosques of the minority Ahmadiyya community and Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.


This is not the end; our history is full of a list of such horrible incidents. One reason for our downfall is the negligence in observing Islamic principles in our life especially with respect to equality, brotherhood, and no question of superiority over one another.

Secondly, we have just forgotten the auspicious vision of our Quaid who demanded a nation where there is no discrimination to be followed on the basis of caste, color, or religion.


In the end, I want to make a humble request to our religious scholars to play their positive role as they have shouldered the responsibility of leading the people towards the path of righteousness not to the path of killings, mass murder, or riots just on the basis of observing and following their own beliefs.

Writing Skills

Q 1. The Last Sermon is in direct narration. Change the following paragraphs to indirect speech.

“O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest…”

Answer:
Just as we regard that month, that day, that city as sacred, so we should regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. We should return the goods entrusted to us to their rightful owners. We should not hurt anyone so no one might hurt us. We should remember that we would indeed meet our LORD and that HE would indeed reckon our deeds. ALLAH has forbidden us to take usury (interest); therefore all interest obligations should henceforth be waived. Our capital, however, is ours to keep. We would neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there should be no interest.

Q 2. “Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.”

Answer:
We should be cautious of Satan, for the safety of our religion. He had lost all hope that he would ever be able to lead us astray in big things, so we should beware of following him in small things.

Q 3. “0 People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.”

Answer:
It is true that we have certain rights with regard to our women, but they also have rights over us. We should remember that we have taken them as our wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by our right then to us belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. We should treat our women well and be kind to them for they are our partners and committed helpers. And it is our right that we should not make friends with anyone of whom we should not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

Q 4. “All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non- Arab. nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor does a black have any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every other Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.”

Answer:
We all are from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor does a black have any superiority over a white except action. We should learn that every one of us is a brother to every other Muslim and that we all constitute one brotherhood. Nothing should be legitimate to any Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Therefore, we should not do injustice to ourselves.

Language Study Exercise 1

Name the part of speech of each italicized word in the following sentences, giving in each case your reason for the classification:

  • Still waters run deep.
  • He still lives in the house.
  • After the storm comes the calm.
  • The after effects of the drug are bad
  • The up train is late.
  • It weighs about a pound.
  • He told us all about the battle.
  • He was only a yard off me.
  • Suddenly one of the wheels came off.
  • Mohammedans fast in the month of Ramzan.
  • He kept the fast for a week.
  • He is on the committee.
  • Let us move on.
  • Sit down and rest a while.
  • I will watch while you sleep.
  • They while away their evenings with books and games

Answer:

  • It is an adjective as it adds something to the meaning of the noun ‘waters’.
  • It is an adverb as it adds something to the meaning of the verb ‘lives.’
  • It is a proposition as it shows the relation between ‘storm’ and ‘comes’.
  • It is an adjective as it adds something to the meaning of the noun ‘effects’.
  • It is an adjective as it adds something to the meaning of the noun ‘train’.
  • It is an adverb as it adds something to the meaning of the verb ‘weigh’
  • It is a proposition as it shows the relation between ‘all’ and ‘battle.’
  • It is a proposition as it shows the relation between ‘yard’ and ‘me.’
  • It is an adverb as it adds something to the meaning of the verb ‘came’
  • It is a verb as it says something about ‘Mohammedans.’
  • It is a noun as it is the name of something.
  • It is a proposition as it shows the relation between ‘is’ and ‘committee.’
  • It is an adverb as it adds something to the meaning of the verb ‘move.’
  • It is a noun as it is the name of something.
  • It is conjunction as it joins the two parts ‘I will watch’ and ‘you sleep.’
  • It is used as a verb as it says something about ‘they.’

Language Study Exercise 2

Point out Nouns in the following sentences and say whether they are Common, Proper, Collective or Abstract:

  1. The crowd was very big.
  2. Always speak the truth.
  3. We all love honesty.
  4. Our class consists of twenty pupils.
  5. The elephant has great strength.
  6. Solomon was famous for his wisdom.
  7. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
  8. We saw a fleet of ships in the harbour.
  9. The class is studying grammar.
  10. The Nile overflows its banks every year.
  11. A committee of five was appointed.
  12. Nelson is famous for his victory at Trafalgar.
  13. The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
  14. Without health, there is no happiness.
  15. He gave me a bunch of grapes.
  16. I recognized your voice at once.
  17. Our team is better than theirs.
  18. Never tell a lie.
  19. Wisdom is better than strength.
  20. He sets a high value on his time.
  21. I believe in his innocence.
  22. This room is thirty feet in length.
  23. I often think of the happy days of childhood.
  24. The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness.
  25. What is your verdict, gentlemen of the jury?

Answer:

  1. crowd (collective)
  2. truth (abstract)
  3. honesty (abstract)
  4. class, pupils (common)
  5. elephant (common), strength (abstract)
  6. Solomon (proper), wisdom (abstract)
  7. Cleanliness (abstract), godliness (abstract)
  8. fleet (collective), ships, harbour (common)
  9. class (common)
  10. Nile (proper)
  11. committee (collective)
  12. Nelson, Trafalgar (proper), victory (abstract)
  13. soldiers (common), bravery (abstract)
  14. health, happiness (abstract)
  15. bunch (collective), grapes (common)
  16. voice (abstract)
  17. team (collective)
  18. lie (abstract)
  19. Wisdom, strength (abstract)
  20. value, time (abstract)
  21. innocence (abstract)
  22. room (common)
  23. days (common), childhood (abstract)
  24. streets, cities (common), crookedness (abstract)
  25. verdict (abstract), gentlemen (common), jury (collective)

2nd year english notes pdf download

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English notes for class 11

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