Class 12 English Notes Chapter 15 Mustafa Kamal

Class 12 English Notes Chapter 15 Mustafa Kamal Punjab all boards Grade 12 FSc Pre Engineering include solved exercises, review questions, MCQs, and chapter overview.

Mustafa Kamal Class 12 English Notes Chapter 15

Q 1. What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World War I?

The attitude of the Turkish government was slavish towards the Allies. A government formed from the old Liberals was in power in Istanbul. Its members and Padishah himself were eager to cooperate with the Allies. However, they believed that the best interest of the nation was in showing loyalty to the Armistice and co-operation with the occupying forces of the conquerors.

Q 2. Why  was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?

Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to control the increasing number of the little encounters in the streets of Anatolia from Kiyazim Karabekar along with the undefeated personnel of the Ottoman Army against the Allied control officers. These encounters were causing great fear among the Allies and the people of Istanbul. Being a capable soldier, Mustafa Kamal was the most suitable man to be sent as the representative of Padishah and deal with the situation on spot.

Q 3. What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?

The Turkish patriots were infuriated by the intention of the Allies to partition of the Ottoman Empire. All of them were enraged by this foreign occupation of the richest and most essentially Turkish of their provinces. Turkish patriotism got a new direction, so a flame of indignation started burning in their hearts.

Q 4. Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia.

During his stay in Anatolia, Mustafa Kamal met Ali Faut who was the commander of small army corps in Ankara. At a secret meeting of patriots, he made a plan to fight against the Greeks and the Allies. They planned that first of all guerilla bands would hold up Greeks. Meanwhile, the Patriots would build up the National Army without any assistance from the government. Later, Mustafa Kamal set out to tour villages. He asked people to fight against the foreign occupation and appointed representatives in every place to form centres of patriotic revolts.

Q 5. Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?

When Mehmet heard of Mustafa Kamal’s activities, he felt that he was working against his government. Therefore, after he realised that he was a threat to his throne, Mehmet ordered Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople as soon as possible.

Q 6. What  was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?

Mustafa Kamal replied to Mehmet by sending him a personal telegram. He urged him to join him in Anatolia and take lead to fight against the Greeks and all foreign enemies himself in order to save his throne. In response to Mehmet’s order, he said that he was determined to stay in Anatolia until the nation won independence.

Q 7. How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?

Mehmet tried to regain Anatolia for himself by tact. He did not want the patriots to continue their activities against the Allies, so he called for a government pleasing to them. He asked them to put Mustafa Kamal’s ideas into practice and not to stand in opposition to the Padishah at the same time. They could not imagine their state without a Sultan, whom they considered the shadow of God. All of them agreed to the offer and Mustafa Kamal was left alone.

Q 8. Why did his plan fail?

In spite of being abandoned by the patriots, Mustafa Kamal kept fighting for the parliament in Anatolia himself. Mehmet suggested that it should sit in the upland town of Ankara, where it could be centrally situated, well protected, free, and independent of Turkish Allies. However, the Sultan’s plan failed and Mustafa Kamal defeated him.

Q 9. What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?

The terms offered to Turkey by the Allies were those of making peace with Mehmet IV. A small and helpless Ottoman Empire was to be entirely under the supervision of the Allied powers. All the Arab provinces were to become Mandated Territories. Entire Eastern Anatolia was to become a part of the state of Armenia around Izmir, which was to be a large Greek district. Cecilia was to go to the French. The Ottoman capital was to be an international centre under the control of Britain, France, and Italy. Under these terms, only the surroundings of Istanbul were to remain a part of the once extensive “Turkey in Europe”.

Q 10. Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat.

On the 21st August 1921, Greeks attacked the Ottoman Empire. The two brave people confronted each other and fought almost man to man for fourteen days under the burning heat of the sun. Mustafa Kamal was the commander-in-chief of Turks, who dominated the Greeks. By the 4thof September, the Greeks were at the end of their strength. On 12th, they crossed Sakarya and began to withdraw and until the end of August 1922, they were clearly defeated. So, Mustafa Kamal and his army moved forward toward the Mediterranean.   

Q 11. Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul.

The departure of Mehmet from Istanbul took place on November 17, 1922, when a British motor ambulance which stopped by at the side-door of the palace where Mehmet was staying. The luggage was brought out of the palace and placed in the car. Mehmet appeared as an elderly man and a British Officer took his umbrella as he entered the vehicle. The door was then closed and the ambulance drove away. This is how the last of Sultans, Mehmet went on his way to exile. 

Q 12. Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to:

  • (i) the position of women, 
  • (ii) removal of illiteracy, 
  • (iii) change in dresses, 
  • (iv) adoption of the Roman script and 
  • (v) the industrial and economic development.

After gaining power, numerous reforms were introduced by Mustafa Kamal for the Turkish nation. With reference to the position of women, Mustafa Kamal abolished veil in 1925 because he believed that veil hindered the education of women. He stressed upon the rights of women in terms of higher education at par with men. As for the change in dresses, the old national headdress called Fez was replaced by the hats. Wearing of hats was made compulsory for men. Mustafa Kamal abolished the old script, declared the adoption of the Roman script and demonstrated the new script himself. His educational reforms for women and demonstration and implementation of the new reforms led to the removal of illiteracy. As far as industrial and economic development is concerned, he initiated the construction schemes for railways and motor road. He also encouraged the expansion of heavy industry and organization of banking system.

Q 13. Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation builder.

The work of Mustafa Kamal as a nation builder is praiseworthy. He brought changes to all branches of Turkish life. During his time, the mental and political development of the Turkish nation was on the same level as that of Western Europe in the mid-eighteenth century. Within a few years, they reached the height of success achieved by Europe over a long span of one hundred and fifty years. Thus, the Turkish nation owes its democratization, awakening of their spirit and liberation of their power to Mustafa Kamal.

Read more: Class 12 English Notes Chapter 9 Hunger and Population Explosion

Leave a Reply