Rawalpindi board English 10th Notes Chapter 4

Rawalpindi board English 10th Notes Chapter 4 (First Aid) Include review questions, solved exercises, important board questions, Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, MCQs, and grammar.

Grammar English 10th Notes Chapter 4

Q.1) Place adverbs at appropriate places.

i) l am happy when it is my birthday, (always)
ii)  My brother gets up at six o’clock from Monday to Friday as he goes jogging. (often)
iii) He went to the market, (last night)
iv)  Have you been to Hunza Valley? (ever)
v) The birds were chirping, (beautifully)
vi)  I’m waiting for Khalid to arrive. I have been waiting for over twenty minutes! (still)
vii) He saw a blind beggar, (in the market)
Answer:
i) I am always happy when it is my birthday.
ii) My brother often gets up at six o’clock from Monday to Friday as he goes jogging.
iii) He went to the market last night.
iv) Have you ever been to Hunza Valley?
v) The birds were chirping beautifully.
vi) I’m still waiting for Khalid to arrive. I have been waiting for over twenty minutes!
vii) He saw a blind beggar in the market.

Q.2) Find a suitable adverb to replace each adverb phrase in the following sentences.

i) Our teacher wanted that work to be done without delay.
ii) She iswithout doubt the most caring person I have met
iii) This plant flowers once every year.
iv) You should complete the work in a while.
v) The two old friends met each other by accident.
Answer:
i) Our teacher wanted that work to be done immediately.
ii) She is doubtlessly the most caring person I have met
iii) This plant flowers yearly.
iv) You should complete the work shortly.
v) The two old friends met each other unknowingly.

Q.5) Change the following sentences into the passive voice. Subject in the passive sentences may be skipped.

i) You must put out all smoking materials.
ii) You must fasten the seat belt.
iii) They will demonstrate safety precautions.
iv) You should read the safety instructions.
v) You can store small packages in the overhead compartment.
Answer:
i) All smoking material must be put out.
ii) The seat belt must be fastened.
iii) Safety precautions will be demonstrated by them.
iv) The safety instructions should be read by you.
v) Small packages can be stored by you in the overhead compartment.


Writing Skills

Q.1) Write a paragraph on “How to take care of cuts and scrapes”. Use transitional devices e.g. first, next, then, after that, in the end etc. to join sentences within the paragraph.

Any injury can cause pain by cutting or scraping. It can be safely treated through cleaning and clearing the bruises at home to reduce the infections and speed up healing. Following is the guideline for how to take care of cut and scrape.

Firstly, try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the area with a tissue, gauze pad, or clean cloth. The bleeding should stop after a few minutes. If the blood soaks through the gauze or cloth, add more gauze or another cloth and apply more pressure. Don’t remove the gauze or cloth to check to see if it is still bleeding until you have kept the pressure for several minutes. Next, after you stop bleeding, rinse the cut thoroughly with cool water. You can either hold the wound under running water or pour water from a cup over the wound. After that, apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream to the wound. If the rash appears, stop using the cream. Do not forget to cover the wound to keep scratch safe from bacteria and germs. And change the dressing on daily basis. Lastly and importantly, always keep a check on the signs of infection i.e. wound redness, raising pain, liquid flow etc. In such cases, seek doctor’s assistance.

Q.2) Did you ever get cuts and scrapes? How did you give yourself first aid? Write a paragraph in the past tense. First, make an outline with the help of the mind map given below.

ere

Learning to ride a bicycle for the first time is fun yet, frightening. It was a cloudy beautiful morning in summer. I took my bicycle, newly gifted by my father on my eighth birthday without any assistance. The road of my street is wide and clear. I mounted my bike and started paddling. I stumbled first but then balanced myself and gave my bike some speed which increased gradually. It was quite fun. Suddenly, I heard horn of a car from behind. As I turned my head to the back, I don’t know what happened and when I gained my conscious back, I was in a hole and bike on my side. The hole was not very deep. I couldn’t make sense of the accident from where the hole comes from, in the middle of the road. I stood up, dusted off my clothes and started looking for the bruises I got. At that moment I was feeling pain but not much, since I was scared to death because of the car horn.

I held back my tears, took my bicycle and started running towards my house, stumbling and jittering. I didn’t tell my mother just to avoid her anger, went to my room silently and inspected my bruises. Now I was really feeling pain in my toes and knees. Along with that, I also had scratched my lips which were bleeding. I rinsed my wounds with cold water and covered the bruises with tissue paper. I took some ointment cream, polyfax from my mother’s drawer and spread it over the scratched and cuts. As I felt a little satisfied, I went to the mirror to scrutinize myself. To my horror , I lost my tooth. That gave me a twinge of pain. I started crying louder this time. My mother came to my room and shocked by surprise. After that I faced the music for going outside alone. Riding a bicycle for beginners need high level of precautions. Helmet, knee pads and shoes are mandatory to wear to avoid these loses.


Q.2) Answer the following questions.

i) Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ is a perfect model and example for all mankind. Explain.
Answer:
Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ is a perfect model for all humankind. He is the best epitome of justice, equity and fair dealing. He never favored unjustly, that even his worst enemies used to bring their suits for justice. He followed the rules according to the rules given by Allah.
ii) Write a note on Chinese New Year celebrations.

Answer:
Chinese New Year celebration starts from January 21st till February 20th. Families visit each other, devouring heavy feasts typically made for the event. Doors and wall are decorated with red wall hangings and frames, inscribed with the word fu. Red color is customary to wear. Even the envelopes given to children are red in color. It symbolizes good spirits. Thorough cleaning of houses is customary before the New Year event starts. That wards off bad spirits from the houses. Henceforth, Chinese New year celebration is associated with welcoming of good spirits that keeps bad luck and troubles away for the year.
iii) Why is trying again important in life?
Answer:
iv) Write the First Aid Process of cuts and scrapes.
Answer:
1. Trying again is important in life as it gives courage to face the challenges and never losing hope when you are on the way of success. As failure is a stepping stone in the process of succeeding. Trying hard keeping you persistent and build up your courage to embrace success.
2. Any injury can cause pain by cutting or scraping. It can be safely treated through cleaning and clearing the bruises at home to reduce the infections and speed up healing. Following is the guideline for how to take care of cut and scrape.
Firstly, try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the area with a tissue, gauze pad, or clean cloth. The bleeding should stop after a few minutes. If the blood soaks through the gauze or cloth, add more gauze or another cloth and apply more pressure. Don’t remove the gauze or cloth to check to see if it is still bleeding until you have kept the pressure for several minutes. Next, after you stop bleeding, rinse the cut thoroughly with cool water. You can either hold the wound under running water or pour water from a cup over the wound. After that, apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream to the wound. If the rash appears, stop using the cream. Do not forget to cover the wound to keep scratch safe from bacteria and germs. And change the dressing on daily basis. Lastly and importantly, always keep a check on the signs of infection i.e. wound redness, raising pain, liquid flow etc. In such cases, consult the doctor.

Q.3) Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Since the advent of the Internet, there have been profound changes in the way we live, work or play. Firstly, the Internet has brought e-mail to the masses, which made it possible to send messages, digital photos, music, and videos to anywhere in the world instantly. Gone are the days when it took about fifteen days for a letter from Lahore to reach San Francisco. Besides e-mail, further innovations like instant messaging has also become the norm. With a web camera, users can actually see each other on the computer monitor and speak to each other through a microphone at no extra cost. In the past, this convenience was only available to companies that could afford highly expensive video conferencing equipment at exorbitant charges. The effect of this technological development is thai people are able to stay in close touch with each other even though they are thousands of kilometres apart. Not iong ago, this was only possible in science fiction movies and our fantasies, internet has also changed the way we access information. In the past, one had to search books, magazines and libraries if one needed to know something. Now, search engines e.g. Google and Yahoo give us a list of websites that provide the information that we need. There are even free online dictionaries, encyclopedias and maps. As technology advances, the impact of the Internet will be even more profound in the future. Now It is up to us to use its power to serve mankind in a positive way.
Questions
1.    What is the first change that internet has brought in our lives?
2.    How have search engines revolutionized access to information?
3.    Internet has brought people closer. How?
4.    Find words from the passage that mean the same as phrases given below.
        a.  far greater or higher than is reasonable
        b.   the quality of being or making things easy
 5. Write a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable title for it.
Answer:
1. Internet has changed our way of living, completely.  Through emails, we can easily send instant messages, photos, and videos anywhere around the world. Beside a camera, user can see each other from far distant area at a very cheap cost. Any information can be searched through the search engines with a single click.
2. Search engines have revolutionized the search, as it provides us lists of information related to any field of life with a single click that is accessible to everyone. We do not have to spend hours in libraries to search a book or piece of journal.
3. Internet is accessible to everyone, everywhere with cheap cost. People can communicate with each other, sitting miles apart and send instant messages and do video chats. Hence, it has brought people more closely.
4. (a) Line no. 5: equipment at exorbitant charges can be replaced by far greater or higher than reasonable.                                                                                                              (b) Line no.9;”even more profound in future” can be replaced by the quality of being or making things easy.
5. Internet has revolutionized the world through changing the lifestyle by introducing. Emails, instant messages, videos and picture on a single click. It has revolutionized the search by introducing search engines, like Google, yahoo etc. which take a split of second to provide ample of information regarding any subject hence, saves us from wasting our time by inducing our heads in book shelves in libraries. Everything is available at the cheapest cost which was beyond imagination before. Now it depends on us how we take it.
            Title: “Internet -a bliss for Mankind”

Q.4) Write a paragraph on any ONE of the following topics.

i)  Land Pollution
ii) The subject I like the most in school

Answer:
                                                   Land Pollution
What is beneath your feet? A floor, made up of bricks. What comes next?  Underground pipelines. Beneath that, we have soil, sand, rocks, etc that form the earth. We imagine these basic foundations of our planet to be a kind of pristine, internal wilderness but that is not the case. We are the ones that cause changes to the world, negatively. We can see many of the changes we’ve made to the world, some of our impacts are virtually invisible, and land pollution is a good example. Factories are causing smoke that pollutes air and water as well through the oil drifting over the ocean, but the poisons that seep from underground mines, the garbage tipped into landfills by the truckload, or the way the very soil that feeds us is turning to dust. Land pollution, in short, is a much bigger and more subtle problem than it might appear. The land pollution is caused by solid wastes and chemicals. One of the major pollution problems of large cities is disposal of solid waste material including farm and animal manure, crop resi­dues (agricultural wastes), industrial wastes including solid fuels, garbage, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, cons­truction rubbish, brick, sand, metal and glass resulting from demo­lition of buildings, dead animals like dogs, cats and birds. Huge quantities of unwanted material cause serious disposal problems. Further, many of the chemicals emitted into the air such as radioactive minerals, sulphur, and lead, eventually come to earth to pollute the soil. Many pesticides and herbicides are harming the soil causing loss of fertility. In forest ecosystems, these chemical pollutants may inhibit processes of soil formation, and reduce the capacity of the forest to maintain fertility of the soil that eventually will cause shortage of vegetation as well as wood and other useful things. To save the earth from destruction, we need to introduce “recycling” of waste materials.  We also have to introduce organic food and organic farming that could lessen the use of artificial pesticides. Technologies, such as bioremediation can help in clearing out pollutants from land need to be used. Phytoremediation is a similar concept but involves using plants, such as willow trees, to pull contaminants from the soil. These will facilitate in cleaning environment. It realizes us that earth is a limited and precious resource.

                                      The subject I like the most in school 
Out of six subjects at school, Mathematics is my most favorite subject. No doubt some people find it difficult, dull and colorless but for me it has worth.  It gives me a level of satisfaction and interest while studying. I can solve problems related to mathematics for hours without getting bored. My aim in life is to become a mathematics professor or mathematician someday. The major reason why I like mathematics is that I do not have to memorize everything like a parrot the way I have to do in other subjects. To acquire good marks in mathematics you just need to have sufficient mental logic for the subject. This subject is also demanding in various education fields. This is the only subject in which you can score full marks and raise your overall percentage. The most amazing part of this subject is that you just have to remember some formulas to solve the problems. It is needless to say that mathematics is a very logical subject and does not require any kind of boring memory work like other subjects. For me remembering facts and dates is very difficult while mathematical reasoning is quite easy. Some of my friends find this subject very difficult. I wonder why. In my spare time, I help my friends to solve mathematical problems. As far as mathematics is concerned, homework and tests are easy to achieve. I really get surprised to see my classmates getting punished for not completing the mathematics homework. However, every individual on this earth has his/ her own kind of likes and dislikes.

Q.5) Write a general essay on any ONE of the following topics.

i) Traffic Problems of a Big City
ii) School Discipline
Answer:
                                       Traffic problems of a big city
Big cities have bigger problems.
Traffic is one of the major concerns of big cities. Authorities remodel streets and roads to avoid traffic. But does it solve the problem?
Traffic control in the big city, like Rawalpindi, is challenging. Increase in the number of vehicle day by day is causing troubles for pedestrians, and residents of the city. What is the reason behind the increase? People from rural areas are rushing towards metropolis of cities to make bright future. Banks are offering loans for cars. And lack of responsibility to follow the rules, among the drivers


Big cities are bloodlines for a country’s economy. These centers generate great amounts of revenue through business activity and industrial estates. The facilitated lifestyle in big cities attracts more and more village dwellers to migrate to the cities. The rapid expansion of urban cities in Pakistan has generated many problems for its residents that contaminate the cities. As many dwellers set in cities as much land is required to live. For which trees are cut down, and forest are cleared off. This creates an imbalance in nature as well.


Furthermore, an easy access to cars through bank loans has increased the number of vehicles on roads. The city roads are always crowded by trucks, buses, motor cars, scooters, and cycles which create chaos on the main roads of the city. People are attracted to the offer due to lack of public transport. The irregular expansion has caused a disrupted road network in the cities. This expansion in vehicles consumes a large portion of fuel, which release in the air causing air pollution.


Last but not least, expanding traffic network arises the next challenge of implementing traffic rules. The traffic sergeants are at every signal but the people disregard their signs either deliberately or unknowingly. A lot of people driving on the roads are unaware of these rules and eventually causes loss of many precious souls.
The government needs to take immediate steps toward this issue. The city was expanded irregularly on one side and the absence of facilities in the newly found towns draws its residents to drive to other parts of the city to shop for their necessities. Lack of proper public transports pushes everyone to keep his own vehicle. And with the ongoing construction projects and absence of proper alternative routes, the traffic jams have added to the woes of people.
To wrap it up, I would suggest that in future all the big cities should be planned, keeping in mind the next 60 years expansion. The road networks must be built at the very beginning to ensure a proper access. New projects for public transport will also decrease the number of cars. Above all the traffic rules must be strictly implemented and followed. There must also be the media campaigns which highlight the hazards of fast and drunk driving. With these solutions, we can improve the situation of traffic in a big city.

                                                             School Discipline
Attention, Stand Straight, March Past!
Students start marching towards classes in proper rows, neatly dressed uniform and polished shoes.
Discipline can be defined as control over one’s desires and obedient’ to codes of behavior. In school, discipline is very necessary to be practiced which is the backbone of national unity. If everything goes on in a definite routine and the discipline is maintained then there would not be any chaos. It is very important for a civilized life. If there is no discipline, there is confusion everywhere. Discipline is of great importance in school. Those schools which give importance to implementing discipline always produce good students and best results.  If there is no discipline in schools, it is not possible to import education effectively. It is necessary to maintain law and order in society as well as schools. Students must be taught self-control. Parents themselves should keep discipline. Children should be taught the value of discipline in childhood. A well-disciplined student can only achieve success.


A well-disciplined student needs to be very punctual to his routine. He should be very regular and sincere to his studies. He should be hardworking. He should always be ready and active in various other extracurricular activities. He should remain active and smart. He should learn how to face difficult situations and how to win over them. A student is the future of the country. It is he who has to take the responsibility of the country. A student should always be in good health and fitness. For this, he should get up early in the morning. He should take exercise daily. He should play a game of his choice daily. It is well known that a healthy body has a healthy mind. He is mind will be strong and sharp only when he is physically strong, fit and healthy. The biggest task of a student is to study. A student should be very devoted and sincere to his studies. He should be very punctual.


A country cannot face its enemies if its armed forces are not disciplined. Likewise, a school will not progress if their student is not disciplined. Unfortunately, there is not much discipline today in schools and colleges. And that is the reason why there is a lack of unity and integrity among the nation.  Discipline is one of the basic requirements of a civilized life. The absence of discipline may lead to failure and backwardness of the nation. But one can overcome these problems if everyone follows a personal code of conduct and maintain self-discipline for the prosperity of the nation.

Q.6) Write a narrative essay on any ONE of the following topics.

i) On a Rainy Day
ii) Most Memorable Trip
Answer:
                                                                On a Rainy Day
Rain Rain Go away,
Rain is blessing. Rain is a curse. It would have been a blessing if we could control rains and bring them on wherever we are in need or keep them off as long as we desire them. But rains are natural phenomena and not under human control sometimes not to our liking. There was a day when it rained and ruined all the fun of the day.
My friends and I planned to enjoy our holiday. We decided to go to Muree. It was a fine day. We started our journey, early in the morning so that we could reach home early. We decided to gather at one spot, and it was decided to be mine. It was summer morning. So we didn’t mind to take any jacket. We started from our home.


    We were hoping, to have the maximum fun, oblivious of the fact that clouds were already gray and dark. As we reached our destination, all of the sudden, rain started with heavy thunder and lightning. And rain started pouring like streams on a hilltop. First, we decided to make fun in rain, but as the magnitude started getting higher, our motivation gradually decreased. We stated looking for safe shelter. But nothing was found in the local vicinity. We all got in car, dripping. We started looking for safe abode. But Visibility was reduced to a few meters. It poured so heavily that even there headlights of the car could not pierce the thick sheet of water pouring from the sky. Water collected more speedily than it went down the drains. We were struck in the middle of a road. And all were praying to get home safely. All were trembling and shivering from cold.

We were feeling so hungry as well. Nothing was visible
    One of my friends went outside the car though we insisted him on staying in for it was very dangerous to go in this heavy rain. But he said he want to search for any nearby places. Half an hour has been passed and he didn’t return. We all got curious so decided to go for finding him. As we left the car, we were welcomed by cold waves of wind a gush of water panted us. We searched for him everywhere and could not find him. After a while, the rain stopped a s well. We took a sigh of relief. But our anxiety was growing higher and higher. We searched for him everywhere. At last, to our wonder, we saw him running towards the car, carrying something in hands. He found a café by far side village. He bought edibles but due to gushing rain could not get back to us soon. We scolded him for the negligence. But devoured yummy friend chicken and buns.
    By the time we had got so tired. So as the rain stopped we didn’t delay a second and ran our car towards our home. It was the horrible trip of my life I will never forget.
Even today when rain falls, I get scared a little.

                                                            Most Memorable Trip
I like travelling so much, and I dream I can travel around the world one day. Since I am a high school student, somebody might say I have my entire life ahead of me, with all of its beautiful experiences. But despite being so young, I already have a personal breath-taking experience, which I am sure I will carry with me until my last days: my first trip to America.
    I was lucky to get selected among 230 students from my region for a weeklong trip to America through scholarship program.  The very feeling was full of excitement.  I was leaving on 23rd of September from Islamabad. I was very excited to meet new people from new world. I left my home and reached airport. There I met other members from the same program. We greeted and took our flight. As directed by our mentor, we took our seats in respective planes as assigned. It was my very first time to sit on a plane.

The flight went smooth chattering and joking with all members. On the plane, I made good friends. After we reached America, I we all were greeted by the director and respective members of the scholarship program. We were given briefing regarding our stay and all the related things. On the first day , we just stayed in the respective hotel where our mentors used to demonstrate us about the important issues we might come across. After that we were supposed to meet our host family, where we had to spend the remaining six days. I was so excited to meet new people from new world. As I already had talked to them from my country, so it was easy for me to recognize them on the day of gathering. I went to their house where they informed me of all the rules and regulation regarding my stay. I was so excited to meet all of them.

They were very nice and caring people. They had a resort, which was the most breath taking place. We usually used to go there in summers. Although the temperature always remained higher in summer, but the joys in resort were countless. I visited few nearby states of America in cruise, including Mexico. Every state had its own worth and significant beauty. I was admitted in a nearby school where my host siblings were already studying. Teachers over there used to give us task regarding the places they made us visit. In this way I got to know about their history and culture.  I had been to popular places all over Chicago, which was the state I was residing in. I had made many beautiful friends.


    Words are less to admire the beauty of nature, that is visible everywhere. I am very astonished by the limitless beauty of nature spread everywhere. I had been to few places there because the days were quite less. Comparing them with my own country I would say we are blessed with nature as well but we, our self have destroyed the beauty of nature. In short, I loved the place a lot, although it was a short period of time. But I enjoyed every moment of my trip.

Q.7) Paraphrase the following stanza.

If you find your task is hard.
Try again;
Time will bring you your reward,
Try again;
All that other folk can do,
Why with patience should not you?
Only keep this rule in view,
Try again.
Answer:
If you find your task hard,  try again. You will get your reward only if you keep on trying again. All those people who achieved their goals, have done it through much struggle and patience. So with patience, you should also do only if you keep focused on the rule that “try again”.

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