Vocabulary, writing skills, grammar, question and answer, and review First Aid FBISE Class 10th Notes Chapter 4 2021 federal board of Islamabad 10 Notes.
First Aid FBISE Class 10th Notes Chapter 4
|Specialized word||What I think it means||What it does mean|
|what I think it means||what it does mean|
|scratches on skin||an abrasion caused by rubbing roughly against the skin.|
|germs||an uncontrolled growth of microorganisms in a host|
|cream||a viscous preparation of oil, usually containing medication used for treatment|
|covering wound||a strip used to protect a wound or injury|
|a light piece of cloth||material applied to a wound for protection or therapy|
|to hold the skin together||one in and out movement of a threaded needle in suturing.|
Read more: Try Again FBISE Class X Notes Chapter 3
Q.2) Complete the missing letters in the words below to match the meaning given on the right. All these words have prefix dis-.
_______ ocate to put out of place
_______ tisfied to be unhappy
_______ract to divert
______ ualify to exclude
______ elieve to doubt
_______ prove to reject
Q.3) Now use the above words in sentences.
During the fight, the boy was hit hard that dislocated his shoulder.
Father, dissatisfied by his son’s result, sent him to the boarding school.
The crowd was distracted by a helicopter hovering over the stadium when the only goal of the game was scored.
He was disqualified from the match, after finding him guilty of speeding up.
He chose to disbelieve the bad news as inconceivable.
Reading Comprehension First Aid Class X Notes for FBISE
Q.2) Answer the following questions.
i) You should not keep checking if the bleeding has stopped? Why?
We should not keep checking if the bleeding has stopped, because it will disturb the clotting of blood and cause the bleeding not to stop.
ii) Why is it necessary to keep away soap from the wound?
It is necessary to keep the soap away from the wound, because it can cause irritation to the wound, creating more trouble.
iii) How is an antibiotic cream or ointment good in healing the wound?
The antibiotic cream keeps the surface moist and makes the natural process of healing, faster.
iv) What should you do if you are allergic to adhesive material used in most bandages?
If you are allergic to the adhesive material used in most bandages, switch to the adhesive-free dressing or sterile gauze held in place with paper tape, gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic bandage.
v) When do you need to see a doctor?
Seeing a doctor becomes very important when you observe a sign of infection, redness of wound, irritation or if the wound does not heal faster.
vi) What should your first aid kit consist of?
Our first aid kit should consist of:
- The first aid book
- Sticky plasters
- Plastic bandages
- Gauze and adhesive tape
- Antiseptic (germ-free wipes)
- Safety-pins and tweezers.
- Latex gloves
- Calamine lotion
- The clinical thermometer
- Tablets like, aspirin or paracetamol
Q.3) Read the First Aid Process of cuts and scrapes. Put the relevant information in the graphic organizer showing sequence.
Handling of minor injuries at home, need careful assistance. To care cuts and scrapes follow the guideline
- Stop the bleeding: minor injuries stop bleeding on their own, by applying pressure for 20-30 seconds. Do not disturb blood clotting by checking it continuously. Seek doctor’s advice in case blood spurts
- Clean the wound: rinse the wound with clean water, avoid soup because it irritates. Use tweezers for cleaning.
- Apply antibiotics: apply antibiotics to keep the surface moist and expedite the ing process.
- Cover the wound: it will keep the wound safe from harmful germs. Once the wound is healed enough to make infection, remove the age and expose the wound to air.
- Change the dressing and watch the wounds: change the dressing once, daily. Make sure if the person is allergic to adhesive use sterile gauze. See a doctor if the d does not show signs of healing.
Grammar First Aid Class X Notes for FBISE
Q.1) Place adverbs at appropriate places.
i) l am happy when it is my birthday, (always)
ii) My brother gets up at six o’clock from Monday to Friday as he goes jogging. (often)
iii) He went to the market, (last night)
iv) Have you been to Hunza Valley? (ever)
v) The birds were chirping, (beautifully)
vi) I’m waiting for Khalid to arrive. I have been waiting for over twenty minutes! (still)
vii) He saw a blind beggar, (in the market)
i) I am always happy when it is my birthday.
ii) My brother often gets up at six o’clock from Monday to Friday as he goes jogging.
iii) He went to the market last night.
iv) Have you ever been to Hunza Valley?
v) The birds were chirping beautifully.
vi) I’m still waiting for Khalid to arrive. I have been waiting for over twenty minutes!
vii) He saw a blind beggar in the market.
Q.2) Find a suitable adverb to replace each adverb phrase in the following sentences.
i) Our teacher wanted that work to be done without delay.
ii) She is, without doubt, the most caring person I have met
iii) This plant flowers once every year.
iv) You should complete the work in a while.
v) The two old friends met each other by accident.
i) Our teacher wanted that work to be done immediately.
ii) She is doubtlessly the most caring person I have met
iii) This plant flowers yearly.
iv) You should complete the work shortly.
v) The two old friends met each other unknowingly.
Q.4) Identify gerund and infinitive in the following sentences.
1. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own.
2. To clean the area around the wound, use soap and a washcloth.
3. Don’t keep checking to see if the bleeding has stopped.
4. So try to keep it out of the actual wound.
5. If a rash appears, stop using the ointment.
6. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles.
Q.5) Change the following sentences into the passive voice. Subject in the passive sentences may be skipped.
i) You must put out all smoking materials.
ii) You must fasten the seat belt.
iii) They will demonstrate safety precautions.
iv) You should read the safety instructions.
v) You can store small packages in the overhead compartment.
i) All smoking material must be put out.
ii) The seat belt must be fastened.
iii) Safety precautions will be demonstrated by them.
iv) The safety instructions should be read by you.
v) Small packages can be stored by you in the overhead compartment.
Q.1) Write a paragraph on “How to take care of cuts and scrapes”. Use transitional devices e.g. first, next, then, after that, in the end, etc. to join sentences within the paragraph.
Any injury can cause pain by cutting or scraping. It can be safely treated through cleaning and clearing the bruises at home to reduce the infections and speed up healing. Following is the guideline for how to take care of cut and scrape.
Firstly, try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the area with a tissue, gauze pad, or clean cloth. The bleeding should stop after a few minutes. If the blood soaks through the gauze or cloth, add more gauze or other cloth and apply more pressure.
Don’t remove the gauze or cloth to check to see if it is still bleeding until you have kept the pressure for several minutes.
Next, after you stop bleeding, rinse the cut thoroughly with cool water. You can either hold the wound under running water or pour water from a cup over the wound. After that, apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream to the wound. If the rash appears, stop using the cream. Do not forget to cover the wound to keep scratch safe from bacteria and germs.
And change the dressing daily. Lastly and importantly, always keep a check on the signs of infection i.e. wound redness, raising pain, liquid flow etc. In such cases, seek a doctor’s assistant.
Q.2) Did you ever get cuts and scrapes? How did you give yourself first aid? Write a paragraph in the past tense. First, outline with the help of mind map given below.
Learning to ride a bicycle for the first time is fun yet frightening. It was a cloudy beautiful morning in summer. I took my bicycle, newly gifted by my father on my eighth birthday without any assistance.
The road on my street is wide and clear. I mounted my bike and started paddling. I stumbled first but then balanced myself and gave my bike some speed which increased gradually. It was quite fun. Suddenly, I heard the horn of a car from behind. As I turned my head to the back, I didn’t know what happened and when I gained consciousness, I was in a hole and bike on my side. The hole was not very deep.
I couldn’t make sense of the accident from where the hole comes from, in the middle of the road. I stood up, dusted off my clothes and started looking for the bruises I got. At that moment I was feeling pain but not much since I was scared to death because of the car horn.
I held back my tears, took my bicycle and started running towards my house, stumbling and jittering. I didn’t tell my mother just to avoid her anger, went to my room silently and inspected my bruises. Now I was feeling pain in my toes and knees. Along with that, I also had scratched my lips which were bleeding.
I rinsed my wounds with cold water and covered the bruises with tissue paper. I took some ointment cream, poly faux from my mother’s drawer and spread it over the scratches and cuts. As I felt a little satisfied, I went to the mirror to scrutinize myself. To my horror, I lost my tooth. That gave me a twinge of pain.
I started crying louder this time. My mother came to my room and was shocked by surprise. After that, I faced the music while going outside alone. Riding a bicycle for beginners needs a high level of precautions. Helmet, knee pads and shoes are mandatory to wear to avoid these loses.
Review-1 First Aid Class X Notes for FBISE
Q.2) Answer the following questions.
i) Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ is a perfect model and example for all mankind. Explain.
Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ is a perfect model for all humankind. He is the best epitome of justice, equity and fair dealing. He never favoured unjustly, that even his worst enemies used to bring their suits for justice. He followed the rules according to the rules given by Allah.
ii) Write a note on Chinese New Year celebrations.
Chinese New Year celebration starts from January 21st till February 20th. Families visit each other, devouring heavy feasts typically made for the event. Doors and walls are decorated with red wall hangings and frames, inscribed with the word fu. The red colour is customary to wear. Even the envelopes given to children are red. It symbolizes good spirits. Thorough cleaning of houses is customary before the New Year event starts. That wards off bad spirits from the houses. Henceforth, Chinese New year celebration is associated with welcoming of good spirits that keep bad luck and troubles away for the year.
iii) Why is trying again important in life?
iv) Write the First Aid Process of cuts and scrapes.
1. Trying again is important in life as it gives the courage to face the challenges and never lose hope when you are on the way to success. As failure is a stepping stone in the process of succeeding. Trying hard keeps you persistent and builds up your courage to embrace success.
2. Any injury can cause pain by cutting or scraping. It can be safely treated through cleaning and clearing the bruises at home to reduce the infections and speed up healing. Following is the guideline for how to take care of cut and scrape.
Firstly, try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the area with a tissue, gauze pad, or clean cloth. The bleeding should stop after a few minutes. If the blood soaks through the gauze or cloth, add more gauze or other cloth and apply more pressure. Don’t remove the gauze or cloth to check to see if it is still bleeding until you have kept the pressure for several minutes.
Next, after you stop bleeding, rinse the cut thoroughly with cool water. You can either hold the wound under running water or pour water from a cup over the wound. After that, apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream to the wound. If the rash appears, stop using the cream. Do not forget to cover the wound to keep scratch safe from bacteria and germs. And change the dressing daily. Importantly, always keep a check on the signs of infection i.e. wound redness, raising pain, liquid flow etc. In such cases, consult the doctor.
Q.3) Read the passage and answer the questions given below.
Since the advent of the Internet, there have been profound changes in the way we live, work or play. Firstly, the Internet has brought email to the masses, which made it possible to send messages, digital photos, music, and videos to anywhere in the world instantly. Gone are the days when it took about fifteen days for a letter from Lahore to reach San Francisco. Besides email, further innovations like instant messaging have also become the norm.
With a web camera, users can actually see each other on the computer monitor and speak to each other through a microphone at no extra cost. In the past, this convenience was only available to companies that could afford highly expensive video conferencing equipment at exorbitant charges.
The effect of this technological development is that people are able to stay in close touch with each other even though they are thousands of kilometres apart. Not long ago, this was only possible in science fiction movies and our fantasies, the internet has also changed the way we access information. In the past, one had to search books, magazines and libraries if one needed to know something. Now, search engines e.g. Google and Yahoo give us a list of websites that provide the information that we need. There are even free online dictionaries, encyclopedias and maps. As technology advances, the impact of the Internet will be even more profound in the future. Now It is up to us to use its power to serve mankind positively.
- 1. What is the first change that the internet has brought in our lives?
- 2. How have search engines revolutionized access to the information?
- 3. The Internet has brought people closer. How?
- 4. Find words from the passage that mean the same as phrases given below.
a. far greater or higher than is reasonable
b. the quality of being or making things easy
5. Write a precis of the given passage and suggest a suitable title for it.
1. The Internet has completely changed our way of living. Through emails, we can easily send instant messages, photos, and videos anywhere around the world. Besides a camera, users can see each other from far distant areas at a very cheap cost. Any information can be searched through the search engines with a single click.
2. Search engines have revolutionized the search, as it provides us lists of information related to any field of life with a single click that is accessible to everyone. We do not have to spend hours in libraries to search for a book or piece of the journal.
3. The Internet is accessible to everyone, everywhere with cheap cost. People can communicate with each other, sit miles apart and send instant messages and do video chats. Hence, it has brought people more closely.
4. (a) Line no. 5: equipment at exorbitant charges can be replaced by far greater or higher than reasonable. (b) Line no.9;” even more profound in future” can be replaced by the quality of being or making things easy.
5. The Internet has revolutionized the world through changing lifestyle by introducing. Emails, instant messages, videos and pictures on a single click. It has revolutionized the search by introducing search engines, like Google, yahoo etc. which take a split of a second to provide ample information regarding any subject hence saves us from wasting our time by inducing our heads in bookshelves in libraries. Everything is available at the cheapest cost which was beyond imagination before. Now it depends on us how we take it.
Title: “Internet -a bliss for Mankind”
Q.4) Write a paragraph on any ONE of the following topics.
- i) Land Pollution
- ii) The subject I like the most in school
What is beneath your feet? A floor, made up of bricks. What comes next? Underground pipelines. Beneath that, we have soil, sand, rocks, etc that form the earth. We imagine these basic foundations of our planet to be a kind of pristine, internal wilderness but that is not the case. We are the ones that cause changes to the world, negatively.
We can see many of the changes we’ve made to the world, some of our impacts are virtually invisible, and land pollution is a good example. Factories are causing smoke that pollutes air and water as well through the oil drifting over the ocean, but the poisons that seep from underground mines, the garbage tipped into landfills by the truckload, or the way the very soil that feeds us is turning to dust.
Land pollution, in short, is a much bigger and more subtle problem than it might appear. Land pollution is caused by solid wastes and chemicals. One of the major pollution problems of large cities is the disposal of solid waste material including farm and animal manure, crop residues (agricultural wastes), industrial wastes including solid fuels, garbage, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, construction rubbish, brick, sand, metal and glass resulting from demolition of buildings, dead animals like dogs, cats and birds.
Huge quantities of unwanted material cause serious disposal problems. Further, many of the chemicals emitted into the air such as radioactive minerals, sulphur, and lead, eventually come to earth to pollute the soil. Many pesticides and herbicides are harming the soil causing loss of fertility. In forest ecosystems, these chemical pollutants may inhibit processes of soil formation, and reduce the capacity of the forest to maintain the fertility of the soil that eventually will cause a shortage of vegetation as well as wood and other useful things. To save the earth from destruction, we need to introduce “recycling” of waste materials.
We also have to introduce organic food and organic farming that could lessen the use of artificial pesticides. Technologies, such as bioremediation can help in clearing out pollutants from land that need to be used. Phytoremediation is a similar concept but involves using plants, such as willow trees, to pull contaminants from the soil. These will facilitate a cleaning environment. It realizes that the earth is a limited and precious resource.
The subject I like the most in school
Out of six subjects at school, Mathematics is my most favourite subject. No doubt some people find it difficult, dull and colourless but for me it has worth. It gives me a level of satisfaction and interest while studying. I can solve problems related to mathematics for hours without getting bored. My aim in life is to become a mathematics professor or mathematician someday.
The major reason why I like mathematics is that I do not have to memorize everything like a parrot the way I have to do in other subjects. To acquire good marks in mathematics you just need to have sufficient mental logic for the subject. This subject is also demanding in various education fields. This is the only subject in which you can score full marks and raise your overall percentage.
The most amazing part of this subject is that you just have to remember some formulas to solve the problems. It is needless to say that mathematics is a very logical subject and does not require any kind of boring memory work like other subjects. For me remembering facts and dates is very difficult while mathematical reasoning is quite easy. Some of my friends find this subject very difficult. I wonder why. In my spare time, I help my friends to solve mathematical problems. As far as mathematics is concerned, homework and tests are easy to achieve. I get surprised to see my classmates getting punished for not completing the mathematics homework. However, every individual on this earth has his/ her kind of likes and dislikes.
Q.5) Write a general essay on any ONE of the following topics.
- i) Traffic Problems of a Big City
- ii) School Discipline
Traffic problems of a big city
Big cities have bigger problems.
Traffic is one of the major concerns of big cities. Authorities remodel streets and roads to avoid traffic. But does it solve the problem?
Traffic control in the big city, like Rawalpindi, is challenging. Increase in the number of vehicles day by day is causing troubles for pedestrians, and residents of the city. What is the reason behind the increase? People from rural areas are rushing towards the metropolis of cities to make a bright future. Banks are offering loans for cars. And lack of responsibility to follow the rules, among the drivers
Big cities are bloodlines for a country’s economy. These centres generate great amounts of revenue through business activity and industrial estates. The facilitated lifestyle in big cities attracts more and more number of village dwellers to migrate to the cities. The rapid expansion of urban cities in Pakistan has generated many problems for its residents that contaminate the cities. As many dwellers set in cities as much land is required to live. For which trees are cut down, and forests are cleared off. This creates an imbalance in nature as well.
Furthermore, easy access to cars through bank loans has increased the number of vehicles on roads. The city roads are always crowded by trucks, buses, motor cars, scooters, and cycles which create chaos on the main roads of the city. People are attracted to the offer due to lack of public transport. The irregular expansion has caused a disrupted road network in the cities. This expansion in vehicles consumes a large portion of fuel, which releases in the air causing air pollution.
Last but not least, expanding the traffic network arises the next challenge of implementing traffic rules. The traffic sergeants are at every signal but the people disregard their signs either deliberately or unknowingly. A lot of people driving on the roads are unaware of these rules and eventually cause loss of many precious souls.
The government needs to take immediate steps toward this issue. The city was expanded irregularly on one side and the absence of facilities in the newly found towns draws its residents to drive to other parts of the city to shop for their necessities. Lack of proper public transports pushes everyone to keep his vehicle. And with the ongoing construction projects and the absence of proper alternative routes, the traffic jams have added to the woes of people.
To wrap it up, I would suggest that in the future all the big cities should be planned, keeping in mind the next 60 years expansion. The road networks must be built at the very beginning to ensure proper access. New projects for public transport will also decrease the number of cars. Above all the traffic rules must be strictly implemented and followed. There must also be the media campaigns which highlight the hazards of fast and drunk driving. With these solutions, we can improve the situation of traffic in a big city.
Attention, Stand Straight, March Past!
Students start marching towards classes in proper rows, neatly pressed uniform and polished shoes.
Discipline can be defined as control over one’s desires and obedient’ to codes of behaviour. In school, discipline is very necessary to be practised which is the backbone of national unity. If everything goes on in a definite routine and the discipline is maintained then there would not be any chaos. It is very important for civilized life. If there is no discipline, there is confusion everywhere. Discipline is of great importance in school. Those schools which give importance to implementing discipline always produce good students and best results. If there is no discipline in schools, it is not possible to impart education effectively. It is necessary to maintain law and order in society as well as schools. Students must be taught self-control. Parents themselves should keep discipline. Children should be taught the value of discipline in childhood. A well-disciplined student can only achieve success.
A well-disciplined student needs to be very punctual to his routine. He should be very regular and sincere to his studies. He should be hardworking. He should always be ready and active in various other extracurricular activities. He should remain active and smart. He should learn how to face difficult situations and how to win over them. A student is the future of the country. It is he who has to take the responsibility of the country. A student should always be in good health and fitness. For this, he should get up early in the morning. He should exercise daily. He should play a game of his choice daily. It is well known that a healthy body has a healthy mind. His mind will be strong and sharp only when he is physically strong, fit and healthy. The biggest task of a student is to study. A student should be very devoted and sincere to his studies. He should be very punctual.
A country cannot face its enemies if its armed forces are not disciplined. Likewise, a school will not progress if their student is not disciplined. Unfortunately, there is not much discipline today in schools and colleges. And that is the reason why there is a lack of unity and integrity among the nation. Discipline is one of the basic requirements of civilized life. The absence of discipline may lead to failure and backwardness of the nation. But one can overcome these problems if everyone follows a personal code of conduct and maintains self-discipline for the prosperity of the nation.
Q.6) Write a narrative essay on any ONE of the following topics.
- i) On a Rainy Day
- ii) Most Memorable Trip
On a Rainy Day
Rain Rain Go away,
Rain is a blessing. Rain is a curse. It would have been a blessing if we could control rains and bring them on wherever we are in need or keep them off as long as we desire them. But rains are natural phenomena and not under human control sometimes not to our liking. There was a day when it rained and rained all the fun of the day.
My friends and I planned to enjoy our holiday. We decided to go to Murree. It was a fine day. We started our journey, early in the morning so that we could reach home early. We decided to gather at one spot, and it was decided to be mine. It was a summer morning. So we didn’t mind taking any jacket. We started in our home.
We were hoping to have the maximum fun, oblivious of the fact that clouds were already grey and dark. As we reached our destination, all of the sudden, rain started with heavy thunder and lightning. And the rain started pouring like streams on a hilltop. First, we decided to have fun in the rain, but as the magnitude started getting higher, our motivation gradually decreased. We started looking for a safe shelter. But nothing was found in the local vicinity. We all got in the car, dripping. We started looking for a safe abode. But Visibility was reduced to a few meters. It poured so heavily that even their headlights of the car could not pierce the thick sheet of water pouring from the sky. Water collected more speedily than it went down the drains. We were stuck in the middle of the road. And all were praying to get home safely. All were trembling and shivering from the cold. We were feeling so hungry as well. Nothing was visible
One of my friends went outside the car though we insisted on staying in because it was very dangerous to go in this heavy rain. But he said he wants to search for any nearby places. Half an hour had passed and he didn’t return. We all got curious so decided to go looking for him. As we left the car, we were welcomed by cold waves of wind and a gush of water painted us. We searched for him everywhere and could not find him. After a while, the rain stopped a swell. We took a sigh of relief. But our anxiety was growing higher and higher. We searched for him everywhere. At last, to our wonder, we saw him running towards the car, carrying something in hands. He found a café by far in the village. He bought edibles but due to gushing rain could not get back to us soon. We scolded him for the negligence. But devoured yummy fried chicken and buns.
By the time we had got so tired. So as the rain stopped we didn’t delay a second and ran our car towards our home. It was the horrible trip of my life I will never forget.
Even today when rain falls, I get scared a little.
Most Memorable Trip
I like travelling so much, and I dream I can travel around the world one day. Since I am a high school student, somebody might say I have my entire life ahead of me, with all of its beautiful experiences. But despite being so young, I already have a personal breathtaking experience, which I am sure I will carry with me until my last days: my first trip to America.
I was lucky to get selected among 230 students from my region for a weeklong trip to America through a scholarship program. The very feeling was full of excitement. I was leaving on the 23rd of September from Islamabad. I was very excited to meet new people from the new world. I left my home and reached the airport. There I met other members of the same program. We greeted and took our flight. As directed by our mentor, we took our seats in respective planes as assigned. It was my very first time to sit on a plane. The flight went smooth, chattering and joking with all members.
On the plane, I made good friends. After we reached America, we all were greeted by the director and respective members of the scholarship program. We were given a briefing regarding our stay and all the related things. On the first day, we just stayed in the respective hotel where our mentors used to demonstrate us the important issues we might come across. After that, we were supposed to meet our host family, where we had to spend the remaining six days.
I was so excited to meet new people from the new world. As I had already talked to them from my country, it was easy for me to recognize them on the day of the gathering. I went to their house where they informed me of all the rules and regulations regarding my stay. I was so excited to meet all of them. They were very nice and caring people. They had a resort, which was the most breathtaking place. We usually used to go there in summers. Although the temperature always remained higher in summer, the joys in the resort were countless. I visited a few nearby states of America in cruise, including Mexico. Every state had its worth and significant beauty. I was admitted to a nearby school where my host siblings were already studying. Teachers over there used to give us tasks regarding the places they made us visit. In this way, I got to know about their history and culture. I had been too popular places all over Chicago, which was the state I was residing in. I had made many beautiful friends.
Words are less to admire the beauty of nature, that is visible everywhere. I am very astonished by the limitless beauty of nature spread everywhere. I had been to a few places there because the days were quite less. Comparing them with my own country I would say we are blessed with nature as well but we, ourselves have destroyed the beauty of nature. In short, I loved the place a lot, although it was a short period. But I enjoyed every moment of my trip.
Q.7) Paraphrase the following stanza.
If you find your task is hard.
Time will bring you your reward,
All that other folk can do,
Why should you not have patience?
Only keep this rule in view,
If you find your task hard, try again. You will get your reward only if you keep on trying again. All those people who achieved their goals, have done it through much struggle and patience. So with patience, you should also do only if you keep focused on the rule that “try again”.