Biology Notes FA FSc Chapter No 7 Protests and Fungi

Biology Notes FA FSc Chapter No 7 Protests and Fungi New updated class 11 for kpk fbise, punjab and sindh boards.

Protests and Fungi Biology Notes Class 11

Q.2 i) What is endosymbiosis?

Answer:

   Fossil records indicate that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes somewhere between 1.5 to 2 billion years ago.

Endosymbiosis or endosymbiont hypothesis:

   “The eukaryotic cells might have evolved when a large anaerobic (living without oxygen) amoeboid prokaryote ingested small aerobic (living with oxygen) bacteria and stabilized them instead of ingesting them. This idea is known as the endosymbiont hypothesis.”

   Endosymbiont hypothesis is proposed by Lynn Margulis which supports the hypothesis that two separate mutually beneficial invasions of a prokaryotic cell produced the modern day mitochondria and chloroplast as eukaryotic organelles.

Step #1: Invasion of ancestral mitochondria:

     In this model, ancestral mitochondria were small heterotrophs capable of using oxygen to perform cellular respiration and thereby create useful energy. They became part of a large cell either by direct invasion as an internal parasite or as an indigestible food source.

Step# 2: Invasion of ancestral chloroplast:

   The second invasion brought ancestral chloroplasts, which are thought to be small, photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

Modern-day supporting evidence for endosymbiosis:

   Modern-day supporting evidence for endosymbiosis shows that both the mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genes, circular DNA and RNA and reproduce by binary fission independent of the host’s cell cycle. They, therefore, appear to be more similar to prokaryotes than eukaryotes.

Q.2 ii) Euglena has a dual mode of nutrition. Give your comments.

Answer:

  Euglena is unicellular organisms classified into the Kingdom Protista and the Phylum Euglenophyta. All euglena have chloroplasts and can make their own food by photosynthesis. The Euglena is unique in that it is both heterotrophic (must consume food) and autotrophic (can make its own food). Chloroplasts within the euglena trap sunlight that is used for photosynthesis, and can be seen as several rod-like structures throughout the cell. They are not completely autotrophic though, euglena can also absorb food from their environment; euglena usually live in quiet ponds or puddles. 

Q.2 iii) Describe the orientation of two flagella in dinoflagellates.

Answer:

  Dinoflagellates possess two flagella of unequal size inserted laterally. The two flagella beat in two grooves, one encircling the cell like a belt and the other perpendicular to it. As they beat, the encircling flagellum causes the organism to spin like a top; the perpendicular flagellum makes the organism move in a particular direction. Together, these two rotational components result in a helical swimming path.

Q.2 iv) What do you understand by red tides?

Answer:

Red tides (algal bloom):

  “Red tide is a common name for a phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms) when it is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown colour.”

 In coastal areas, poisonous and destructive red tides occur frequently. These red tides are associated with great population explosions or blooms of dinoflagellate which change the colour of the water to red.

Q.2 v) What is a holdfast?

Answer:

Holdfast:

    “A holdfast is a root-like structure that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, such as seaweed, other sessile algae, and sponges, to the substrate.”

  Holdfasts vary in shape and form depending on both the species and the substrate type. The holdfasts of organisms that live in muddy substrates often have complex tangles of root-like growths. Those of organisms that live in sandy substrates are bulb-like and very flexible, thus permitting the organism to pull the entire body into the substrate when the holdfast is contracted.

Q.2 vi) What is carrageenan?

Answer:

Carrageenans:

   Carrageenans are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible seaweeds. They are widely used in the food industry, for their gelling, thickening, and stabilizing properties. Their main application is in dairy and meat products, due to their strong binding to food proteins. There are three main varieties of carrageenan, which differ in their degree of sulfation.

For example:

   Gelatinous extracts of the Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) seaweed have been used as food additives since approximately the fifteenth century. Carrageenan is a vegetarian and vegan alternative to gelatin in some applications or may be used to replace gelatin in confectionery.

Q.2 vii) Describe the chloroplast in spirogyra.

Answer:

Spirogyra:

  Spirogyra is a filamentous green alga in which the chloroplast has a characteristic spiral shape. Spirogyra is a large genus. It is widely distributed and found throughout the world. It has about 300 species. It is found in freshwater. It grows as a free-floating mass. Therefore, it is commonly called pond scum.

Chloroplast in spirogyra:

   Chloroplasts are present in the cytoplasm. Their number is variable. The number of the chloroplast is the characteristic feature of this alga. The chloroplast of spirogyra is a long, spirally coiled ribbon-shaped with pyrenoids. Pyrenoids are attached with the chloroplast. They are arranged linearly on the chloroplasts at intervals. Pyrenoids are protein-containing structures, which store starch around them and arranged in a single series in the mid-axial line of the chloroplast.

   Darves (1965) studied chloroplast of Spirogyra with the help of an electron microscope. It reveals the presence of photosynthetic bands (grana) in the chloroplast. Each granum has 4 to 12 thylakoids. He found numerous pyrenoids unsheathed in starch.

Q.2 viii) Discuss the role of algae in maintaining the oxygen balance in the biosphere.

Answer:

  Algae are the major part of the ecosystem. As primary producers, green algae are important components of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems.  Microscopic algae are the source of much of Earth’s oxygen. 70% to 80% of all the oxygen comes from algae. The oceans cover about 71% of this planet and land is only about 29%. The ocean produces as much oxygen as every square mile of land so the oceans produce about 71% and the land 29% of the oxygen. It has been estimated that up to one-quarter of the world’s photosynthesis is performed by algae and its associates. The planktons play a major role in photosynthesis in the aquatic ecosystem. The vast majority of planktons in the ocean consist of various protists.

Q.2 ix) What are saprobes?

Answer:

Saprobes (Scavengers of the earth):  

   Saprophytic fungi and bacteria, commonly known as saprobes, feed exclusively on dead organic matter which is derived from plants and animals. These bacteria possess a powerful enzyme system which helps in the breakdown of complex organic compounds to simpler substances. They utilize the energy released in the process. The chemicals thus released become available to other organisms. The saprobes are called recyclers of nutrients. As they clean the earth by their action, they are also called the scavengers of the earth.

Q.2 x) What do you understand by symbiosis?

Answer:

 Symbiosis:

   “Symbiosis is any type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, which can be mutualistic, communalistic, or parasitic.”

                                            “Or”

  “Symbiosis is a close relationship between two organisms from different species. It is sometimes, but not always, beneficial to both parties.”

Symbiosis in fungi:

  Fungi develop many symbiotic associations with other organisms.

Example:

1- Lichens: 

       “In a lichen, a fungus develops a symbiotic association with an alga in which alga is the photosynthetic partner.”

   It is an excellent example of mutualism in which both the partners are benefited. Most of the visible body of the lichen consists of its fungal partner. Interspersed with the hyphae of the fungus, there are found cyanobacteria, green algae or sometimes both. Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate the cell walls of the algal partner and transfer nutrients directly to fungus. Biological signals sent out by fungus direct its algal partner to produce metabolic substances that it does not produce when growing independent of fungus.

2- Mycorrhizae:

       “The roots of about 80% of all known species of vascular plants normally are involved in mutualistic symbiotic relationships with fungi. The association is called mycorrhizae.”

   The fungus in a mycorrhiza increases the total surface area of the root system for soil contact and absorption. Mycorrhiza helps in the direct transfer of phosphorus, zinc, copper and other nutrients from the soil into the roots.

Types of mycorrhizae: 

  There are two principal types of mycorrhizae.

i- Endomycorrhizae:     

       In endomycorrhizae, the fungal hyphae penetrate the outer cells of the plant root, forming coils, swellings and minute branches and also extend out into the surrounding soil.

ii- Ectomycorrhizae:

       In ectomycorrhizae, the hyphae surround but do not penetrate the cell walls of the roots.

Q.2 xi) How will you justify the name scavengers given to fungi?

Answer:

Fungi (Scavengers of an ecosystem):

  Fungi are the principal decomposers in a biosphere. Saprophytes exceed parasites in number in the ecosystem. They decompose the organic matter and release the substances locked in the dead bodies of plants and animals for circulation in the ecosystem. They possess a powerful enzyme system which helps in breaking down tough organic compounds like lignin, a major constituent of wood. The substances thus released become available to the next generation of organisms. Fungi recycle the nutrients in nature and are called recyclers. The fungi clean the earth by removing the organic matter and because of this characteristic they have earned the name scavenger. Fungi also destroy food which is not properly preserved. It includes bread, jams, cooked food etc. Fungi secrete substances into the food which make the food unpalatable, carcinogenic and poisonous.

Q.2 xii) What is an ascus?

Answer:

Ascus:

  “Ascus is a sac, typically cylindrical in shape, in which the spores of ascomycota fungi develop.”

                                        “Or”

  ” The characteristic feature of Ascomycota is the production of sexual spores called the ascospores within a sac-like structure called ascus.”

Ascocarps:

   Ascomycota is commonly called sac fungi. Unlike zygomycota, the most ascomycota bear their sexual states in fruit bodies called ascocarps which range in size from microscopic to macroscopic. Asci are produced in ascocarps.

   Most of the ascomycota also reproduce asexually by means of conidia, produced in chains at the end of the conidiophores. Some of the ascomycota parasitize crops and ornamental plants causing powdery mildew. Certain members of the class are extremely beneficial. Many ascomycota are the decomposers of plant material. More than 40% live with green algae and cyanobacteria in beneficial symbiotic associations forming lichens. Some form mycorrhizae with roots of higher plants. Penicillin, the wonder drug, is obtained from a fungus called Penicillium. Yeast is useful for both bakers and brewers.

Q.2 xiii) Describe the primary mycelium found in basidiomycota.

Answer:

Basidiomycota:

   Basidiomycota not only include mushrooms, puffballs and shelf fungi but also important pathogens like rusts and smuts. They are also known as club fungi because of their club-shaped basidia.

Mycelium:

   The mycelium in basidiomycota exists in three forms i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary mycelium.

1. Primary mycelium:

      Primary mycelium is also called monokaryon in which each cell is uninucleated, possessing a haploid nucleus.

2. Secondary mycelium:

       Secondary mycelium is formed by interaction with primary mycelium. It consists of dikaryotic cells in which each cell possesses two haploid nuclei.

3. Tertiary mycelium:

       When the mycelium becomes more complex and gives rise to fruit bodies (basidiocarps), it is called tertiary mycelium.

Q.2 xiv) Discuss the medicinal importance of Claviceps purpurea.

Answer:

Claviceps purpurea:

   Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants. Consumption of grains or seeds contaminated with the survival structure of this fungus, the ergot sclerotium, can cause ergotism in humans and other mammals.

Medicinal importance of Claviceps purpurea:

 Fungi have been used medicinally since ancient times. Ergotamine obtained from Claviceps purpurea is used to facilitate delivery of babies and also used to relieve a migraine headache.

Q.2 xv) Discuss the economic importance of yeast.

Answer:

Economic importance of yeast:

   Yeast has been used by humans throughout recorded history. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (yeast) is used in the baking and winemaking industry. It has got the ability to ferment carbohydrates, breaking down glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is fundamental to the production of bakery products, beer and wine.

What is a lichen?

“In a lichen, a fungus develops a symbiotic association with an alga in which alga is the photosynthetic partner.”

It is an excellent example of mutualism in which both the partners are benefited. Most of the visible body of the lichen consists of its fungal partner. Interspersed with the hyphae of the fungus, there are found cyanobacteria, green algae or sometimes both. Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate the cell walls of the algal partner and transfer nutrients directly to the fungus. Biological signals sent out by fungus direct its algal partner to produce metabolic substances that it does not produce when growing independent of fungus.


Biology Class 11 Notes for kpk pdf long question

Q.3 i) Describe the salient features of class Ascomycota.

Answer:

Class Ascomycota:

 Ascus (sing: Asci):

   The characteristic feature of Ascomycota is the production of sexual spores called the ascospores within the sac-like structure called an ascus.

Ascocarps:

    Ascomycota is commonly called sac fungi. Unlike Zygomycota, the most Ascomycota bear their sexual states in fruit bodies called ascocarps which range in size from microscopic to macroscopic. Asci are produced in ascocarps.

Conidia:

  Most of the Ascomycota also reproduce asexually by means of conidia, produced in chains at the end of conidiophores.

Importance of Ascomycota:

  • Some of the Ascomycota parasitize crops and ornamental plants causing powdery mildew.
  • Certain members of the class are extremely beneficial.
  • Many Ascomycota is the decomposers of plant material.
  • More than 40% live with green algae and cyanobacteria in beneficial symbiotic associations forming lichens.
  • Some form mycorrhizae with roots of higher plants.
  • Penicillin, the wonder drug, is obtained from a fungus called Penicillium.
  • Yeast is useful for both bakers and brewers.

Protests and Fungi Biology Notes Class 111
Protests and Fungi Biology Notes Class 111

Q.3 ii) Give an account of the characteristics of lichens.

Answer:

Lichens: 

   “Lichens are a symbiotic association between fungus, usually an ascomycete with an alga or a cyanobacterium and characteristically form a crust-like or branching growth on rocks or tree trunks.”

                                          “Or”

   “In a lichen, a fungus develops a symbiotic association with an alga in which alga is the photosynthetic partner.”

Characteristics of lichens:

  Lichens are an excellent example of mutualism in which both the partners are benefited. Most of the visible body of the lichen consists of its fungal partner. Interspersed with the hyphae of the fungus, there are found cyanobacteria, green algae or sometimes both. Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate the cell walls of the algal partner and transfer nutrients directly to fungus. Biological signals sent out by fungus direct its algal partner to produce metabolic substances that it does not produce when growing independent of fungus.

Lichens as pioneers in ecological succession:

   Lichens are known as pioneers in ecological succession in extremely harsh habitats. Lichens are often strikingly coloured because of pigments that play a role in protecting the photosynthetic partner from the destructive action of the sun’s rays. These pigments can be extracted from lichens and used as natural dyes. 

Q.3 iii) Give an account of the characteristics of Dinoflagellates.

Answer:

Dinoflagellates:

  “Dinoflagellates is any of numerous one-celled aquatic organisms bearing two dissimilar flagella and having characteristics of both plants and animals.”

Characteristics of Dinoflagellates:

  • Dinoflagellates are unicellular autotrophs possessing chlorophyll a and c in addition to carotenoids.
  • They live in both marine and freshwater environments.
  • The cell wall is generally missing but when present, it is hard and made up of cellulose.
  • They have two flagella of unequal size inserted laterally. The two flagella beat in two grooves, one encircling the cell like a belt and the other perpendicular to it. As they beat, the encircling flagellum causes the organism to spin like a top; the perpendicular flagellum makes the organism move in a particular direction.
  • In the coastal areas, the poisonous and destructive “red tides” occur frequently.

Q.3 iv) Describe the life cycle of Phytophthora infestans.

Answer:

Oomycota (Water moulds):

  All the members of Ascomycota are either parasites or saprophytes. They are distinguished from other protists by their zoospores which bear two unequal flagella, one pointed forward and the other backward. Because of some similarities, oomycete was previously placed with fungi, but there exist many differences between the two groups. The oomycete cell wall is made up of cellulose whereas it is chitin in fungi. Although oomycete descended from plastid bearing ancestors, yet they do not possess plastids and cannot bring about photosynthesis. Water moulds living as parasites on aquatic animals produce white fuzz on the body of their host.

Phytophthora infestans:

   Phytophthora infestans, which causes late blight of potatoes, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of 1845 and 1847. During the famine, 400,000 people starved to death.

   Damp, cool and windy weather is extremely suitable for the spread of disease. Mycelium is branched, non-septate, hyaline and intercellular. It gets nourishment from the host by sending down haustoria into the body of the host.

The life cycle of Phytophthora infestans:

i- Asexual reproduction:

  • In warm and humid conditions, the mycelium produces long and slender structures called sporangiophores which emerge from the lower surface of the leaf through stomata. These branches give rise to sporangia.
  • In warm conditions, sporangia may behave as spores. Hyphae emerge from the sporangium and penetrate the plant through the stomata.
  • In cold conditions, the sporangium content may divide to form swimming spores, which when released swim in a surface of a film of moisture.
  • They may encyst until conditions are once more suitable for hyphal growth and produce new infection.

ii- Sexual reproduction:

  • Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
  • The male structure called antheridium fuses with the female organ, the oogonium.
  • Male and female nuclei fuse forming oospore.
  • The diploid oospore undergoes meiosis and produces sporangiophores bearing sporangia.
  • Sporangium produces biflagellate zoospores which after being released from sporangium germinate into a haploid asexual mycelium.

Describe the life cycle of Phytophthora infestans
Describe the life cycle of Phytophthora infestans

Q.3 v) Discuss the general characteristics of fungi.

Answer:

General Characteristics of Fungi:

1. Fungi are heterotrophic:

    Fungi obtain their food by secreting digestive enzymes into substrates. Then they absorb the organic molecules released by the enzymatic action.

2. Fungi have several cell types:

        Multicellular fungi are filamentous and the filaments are in the form of long slender structures called hyphae. Sometimes the filamentous form is lost and the hyphae are arranged in complex structures such as mushrooms.

3. Chitin cell wall:

     The cell walls of fungi are made up of chitin, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, which is more resistant to decomposition than cellulose.

4. Nuclear mitosis:

     Mitosis in fungi is different from that in plants and animals. The nuclear envelope does not break and reform. Mitosis occurs in the nucleus with the nuclear membrane intact.

Q.3 vi) Given an account of the class Basidiomycota.

Answer:

Basidiomycota:

    Basidiomycota not only include mushrooms, puffballs and shelf fungi but also important pathogens like rusts and smuts. They are also known as club fungi because of their club-shaped basidia.

Mycelium:

   The mycelium in Basidiomycota exists in three forms i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary mycelium.

1. Primary mycelium:

       Primary mycelium is also called monokaryon in which each cell is uninucleated, possessing a haploid nucleus.

2. Secondary mycelium:

         Secondary mycelium is formed by the interaction with primary mycelium. It consists of dikaryotic cells in which each cell possesses two haploid nuclei.

3. Tertiary mycelium:

        When the mycelium becomes more complex and gives rise to fruit bodies (basidiocarps), it is called tertiary mycelium.

The life cycle of Basidiomycota:

Basidiocarp:

   Club-shaped basidia are arranged inside a fruiting body called basidiocarp.

Basidiospores:

  Karyogamy occurs in basidium which is followed by meiosis forming four haploid nuclei which are incorporated in basidiospores.

Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota:

   Sexual reproduction occurs through classical methods found in other groups of fungi. Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota differs from all other groups of fungi. No reproductive structures such as antheridia and oogonia are formed. Sexual reproduction involves the conversion of the monokaryotic phase to the dikaryotic phase by various methods.

Life cycle of Basidiomycota

Q.3 vii) Briefly discuss the beneficial aspect of fungi.

Answer:

 The beneficial aspect of Fungi:

 1- Fungi in the pharmaceutical industry: 

        Fungi have been used medicinally since ancient times.

  • Ergotamine obtained from Claviceps purpurea is used to facilitate the delivery of babies and also used to relieve a migraine headache.
  • Penicillin, the first discovered antibiotic is produced by Penicillium chrysogenum and other related species.
  • Cephalosporin is the most widely used broad-spectrum antibiotic, obtained from Cephalosporium acremonium and related species.
  • Griseofulvin is an antibiotic used effectively against fungal infections of hair, nails, skin, athlete’s foot and ringworm. It is obtained from a species of Penicillium.
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotic cyclosporine used as an immunosuppressant drug in organ transplantation is also a fungal product.

2- Importance of fungi in the food industry:

         Yeast has been used by humans throughouAscomycota history. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (yeast) is used in the baking and winemaking industry. It has got the ability to ferment carbohydrates, breaking down glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is fundamental to the production of bakery products, beer, and wine.

3- Fungi used in research projects:

        Yeasts are mostly used in the biological research projects due to their rapidly increasing generation time and increasing pool of genetic and biological information. It contains 6000 genes. In the soft drink industry, Aspergillus sp. is used to produce citric acid for colas.

4- Edible fungi:

  • Mushrooms are considered popular food throughout the world. Mushroom pizzas are famous for their taste.
  • The peculiar flavour and taste of certain types of cheese come from the fungi used in the processing. The ascocarp of Morchella esculenta (a morel) and tuber melanosporum (a truffle) are highly prized for their complex flavour.
  • Ectomycorrhizae of some plant families are also edible.
  • Yeast is also used as a nutritional supplement because it contains high levels of vitamin B and about 50% of yeast is protein.

5- Role of fungi in symbiosis:

        Fungi develop many symbiotic associations with other organism’s lichens and mycorrhizae are examples of this relationship.

i- Lichens:

       In a lichen, a fungus develops a symbiotic association with an alga in which alga is the photosynthetic partner. It is an excellent example of mutualism in which both the partners are benefited. Most of the visible body of the lichen consists of its fungal partner. Interspersed with the hyphae of the fungus, there are found cyanobacteria, green algae or sometimes both. Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate the cell walls of the algal partner and transfer nutrients directly to fungus. Biological signals sent out by fungus direct its algal partner to produce metabolic substances that it does not produce when growing independent of fungus. Lichens are known as pioneers in ecological succession in extremely harsh habitats. Lichens are often strikingly coloured because of pigments that play a role in protecting the photosynthetic partner from the destructive action of the sun’s rays. These pigments can be extracted from lichens and used as natural dyes.

ii- Mycorrhizae:

        The roots of about 80% of all known species of vascular plants normally are involved in mutualistic symbiotic relationships with fungi. The association is called mycorrhizae. The fungus in a mycorrhiza increases a total surface area of the root system for soil contact and absorption.

   Mycorrhiza helps in the direct transfer of phosphorus, zinc, copper and other nutrients from the soil into the roots. The vascular plant supplies organic carbon to the fungus.

6- Role of fungi in decomposition/recycling:

        Fungi and bacteria are the principal decomposers in the biosphere. Saprophytes exceed parasites in number in the ecosystem. They decompose the organic matter and release the substances locked in the dead bodies of plants and animals for circulation in the ecosystem. They possess a powerful enzyme system which helps in breaking down tough organic compounds like lignin, a major constituent of wood. The substances thus released become available to the next generation of organisms.

   Fungi recycle the nutrients in nature and are called recyclers. The fungi clean the earth by removing the organic matter and because of this characteristic they have earned the name scavenger.

Q.3 viii) Given an account of plant, animal and human diseases.

Answer:

Pathogenic fungi:

i- Plants diseases caused by fungi:

      Fungi are the serious agricultural pests.

  • Most common fungal diseases of cereals are rusts and smuts caused by species of Puccinia and Ustilago respectively. Sometimes about 50% of the world’s fruit harvest is lost to fungal attack each year.
  • Peach leaf curt, pear leaf spot and mildews are the diseases of fruits.
  • Red rot of sugarcane, potato blight, late blight of tomato and many more diseases of plants are caused by fungi.

ii- Animal diseases caused by fungi:

  • Ringworms in dogs and horses are caused by the species of Trichophyton and Microsporum.
  • Aspergillus species cause abortion in many animals.
  • Saprolegnia parasitica is the parasite of carp and salmon fish.

iii- Human diseases caused by fungi:

           Almost all parts of the human body are infected by fungi, especially the skin.

  • Rhizopus and Mucor cause the infection of the lungs, brain and gastric tissues.
  • The cause of dandruff is Microsporum furfur.
  • Candida sp. causes throat and mouth diseases, pulmonary infection, diseases of nails and genital organs.
  • Athlete’s foot is also a fungal disease.

biology unique professor notes 2020-21

Q: what is Protista, write their general features.

Protista” ( Proto- first ( 60,000 – 200,000 species)

Definition: “These are the first and oldest eukaryote organisms, very much different from each other in size, structure, and means of locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, habitats, and interaction with the host.”

Characteristics feature:

  • Protists are eukaryotes.
  • The protists are unicellular, conical, or simple multicellular organisms.
  • They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • There is no tissue system in multicellular protest.
  • Protists have flagella at some stage during their life cycle.
  • On the basis of their resemblances with pants, animals, and fungi, protists are divided into plank-like, animal-like, and fungus-like protests.

Question: 2 Explain the different groups of Protista.

Introduction:

On the basis of mode of nutrition, Protista is divided into three major :

  • Animal-like protists ( ingestive protists)
  • Pant like protest (photosynthetic protists)
  • Fungi like protists Absorptive protest)

Read more: Biology Notes FA FSc Chapter No 6 Prokaryotic

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