English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 8

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 8 Second (Space Ship One) Year Karachi and Sindh board Question Answers English 12th class Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers.

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 8 (Space Ship One)

Why does her father instruct her to kill herself?

Professor Witney, Katherine’s father instructed her to kill herself as he was aware of the torture that might be inflicted upon the war prisoners by the victorious army. He knew it well that if she was caught by the army alive they would definitely inflict severe torture on her when they came to know that she was his daughter. He instructed her to inhale the fluids that were present there in corked tubes, pour them in a glass of water and drink. Katherine did the same as instructed by her father as she was an obedient daughter.

How has Katherine survived the poison-gas attack?

Katherine, the daughter of Professor Witney was in England at the time when there was a nuclear and poison-gas attack on the city of London. She had survived from the poison-gas attack as she managed to hide herself in one of the topmost parts of the building known as “Crow’s nest.” It was well protected from the gas that’s why Katherine survived from the poison-gas attack.

What disaster has befallen England during the night?

A severe disaster struck England that night as the enemy of England attacked it with nuclear weapons. The sky was full of great grey canisters. They burst in the air and sprayed out a heavy, oily fog. The soldiers of the army were in armour wearing gas masks just similar to helmets and a sort of parachute. They had guns in their hands and were dropping canisters on the city.

How has England come to be defenseless?

England has come to be defenseless as the enemy of the country attacked it with nuclear weapons and army too.

What is Professor Witney’s attitude to the new type of society in which scientific and technical progress is the one thing that seems to matter?

Although Professor Witney himself was a scientist still he was quite depressed to see all around him the nations and people actively busy in utilizing scientific and technical progress for the destruction of the universe. He wanted the scientist to make positive use of the scientific and technical progress so to provide comfort, ease, and happiness to mankind. Therefore, according to Professor Witney, the new type of society was simply ‘a silent murderer of the universe’ where scientific and technical progress was affecting the lives of millions in a negative way.

What was the nature of the fear that afflicted Professor Witney during the night before the landing on the moon?

Being a loving husband and caring father, Professor Witney had a terrible dream during the night before the landing on the moon. He had dreamed that war broke out in the world and England was attacked by some forces. Due to that dream, when he woke up he was too anxious about the safety of his wife and daughter as he was unable to have any sort of contact with them. He too feared that his dream might not come true.

What was the significance of Professor Witney’s chalking Noah’s Ark on the second space ship?

Professor Witney had designed a second spaceship for his next expedition. The purpose of that space ship was to unearth the hidden secrets of the solar universe. After designing, he chalked out “Noah’s Ark” on the bow of the space ship. This chalking was of utmost significance. Professor Witney hated war to a great extent and he feared that soon the dominant nations of the world might be having nuclear war creating chaos and disturbance in the whole world. He had a desire to save humanity from the dangerous effects of such nuclear war that’s why he called his space ship “Noah’s Ark” as Noah saved people of his nation from the Great Deluge in his ship. That specific space ship was capable of carrying ten people along with a dozen animals and vast stores and can travel with the cruising speed of hundred thousand miles an hour.

What is the relationship between Harry and Professor Witney?

Harry was the supposed son-in-law of the genius Professor Witney. We came to know this fact when Harry while talking to professor Witney said, “If I hadn’t had the infinite cheek to fall in love with your daughter, sir, I suppose I’d have had a very dim chance of coming.” The name of Professor Witney’s daughter was Katherine with whom Harry intends to marry soon.

When has the spaceship been to the moon before and with what passengers?

A month earlier the first space ship was sent to the moon and at that time three sheep were the lucky passengers of it as they were the first to have an extraordinary scientific trip to the moon.

Why is the spaceship traveling at only seventy miles an hour when Harry wakes up?

Harry wakes up due to the constant calling of William Leigh (the engineer of the space ship) of his name. He wakes up rubbing his eyes. At that time the space ship is travelling at only seventy miles an hour. The reason for such a low speed of the space ship is that it is approaching the moon and soon it would be landing there safely.


Composition

Write an essay of from 350 to 400 words on one of the following topics:

  1. An appreciation of Space Ship One.
  2. Has space travel any real value to the human race?
  3. The benefits offered by science.
  4. The dangers to mankind created by science.

An appreciation of Space Ship One

James Hampden has done a marvelous job in sketching the flight of spaceship one in dramatic scenes performed by renowned performers of different times. Spaceship one reflects the genius intuitions of James as he has written: “Spaceship One” in 1946, long time before the first ever flight into space.

 Right in the beginning, the scenario details that are given by the author gives a perfect imagination to the readers about the inner view of the spaceship. All the equipment and gadgets are quite the same as they are used in space crafts. Apart from gadgets, the physical appearance of the characters is described in full length. Just in words, the readers get a clear idea about the personality, attitude, gestures and body movements of the three characters.

The dialogues written by James are quite simple in nature but at the same time effective too. That’s not all; the actors delivered the dialogues with accuracy, expression and utmost perfection. Furthermore, the dialogues are not too long but simple and crisp to be understood even by a layman.

 Each and every detail that is there in the act about the acceleration, time lapse etc. is just perfect to understand the whole process of spaceship travel into space and its landing on to the moon. 

The fear and dream of Professor Whitney turned into reality means that sometimes it happens in real life too that dreams may come true whether good or bad.

 The emotions and facial expressions of the characters really add a delicate flavor to the act. For instance, a little wryly, he (Harry) peers a little anxiously at the board, with no conviction etc.

The way James has depicted the war scene shows his skillful approach towards the panic that can be created among the masses by the unusual, sudden attack of the enemy forces, especially at night time.

Almost at the end, the heart-touching talk of Professor Whitney with Katherine and the helpless gestures of Harry has the potential to make the readers not only gloomy but gives a sympathetic touch to the drama.

In a nutshell, it can be said that “Spaceship One” is one of the splendid pieces of literary work by James. All the spices of description, emotions, feelings, dialogues, character sketch are just perfectly amalgamated by James in Spaceship One.

Has Space Travel any Real Value to the Human Race?

 Space travel doesn’t mean a trip performed by men of different nations just for the sake of real pleasure. But it is more than that if viewed by wearing the spectacles of optimism that really count for the betterment of human race.

Travel in space stands for space exploration from different perspectives. The first benefit that one can derive from space travel that has real value to the human race is the Long-Term Survival. Meaning that we have an idea that may be the world we call Erath might lose its identity either in a natural way like a rogue comet or by the hands of humans in case of nuclear war. Then what we would be expecting at that time. For sure, we as humans must need an alternate for our survival and continuity of human race; it can either be a Moon or Mars. 

Secondly, if nothing happened like mentioned above related to the world’s destruction then comes the question of the ever-growing population of the earth. The current earth’s population is about 6.8. Billion people. It is already beyond the carrying capacity of the earth.  Therefore, we need somewhere to put up all these people or it might occur that we end up living in skyscrapers by probably destroying all animals’ habitats and pollute the air beyond what is breathable.

Space exploration led to a great number of medical breakthroughs that can save mankind from a number of serious diseases or illnesses. For instance, the technology used to detect breast cancer tumors in the early stages is derived from the star-mapping technology used by the Hubble Space Telescope, an alternative to detection by surgery, which saves time and money and isn’t painful.

As we are polluting our planet earth with our own hands, at the same time we are also responsible for diminishing the valuable natural resources from the face of the world. Through space travel, it is revealed to the scientists that yes there is a wealth of natural resources available in space that can be utilized by mankind in order to survive well, but definitely, it’s not a simple and easy task to carry on. 

At the end, it can be concluded that space travel or space exploration is of utmost importance for the welfare and survival of the human race in the coming years. The future of space travel and exploration is quite bright and full with potential.

The Benefits offered by Science

 The world we are living in is doubt can easily be titled as “scientific world.” The reason behind is that every inch a man moves, everything his eyes experience, every sound his ears hear has a scientific touch in it. Science is one of the greatest blessings for mankind. It has changed the world from Stone Age to modern digitalized world. It is just possible due to science that now the man is living a comfortable, luxurious and easy life without much difficulty as compared to the hard labor of the people of the past times.

A huge number of benefits may fall into the lap of mankind just due to scientific inventions, innovations, discoveries and technological advancement. First and the foremost benefit is related to human health. Medical discoveries increase the rate of mortality among millions that abode on earth. The diseases that seem to be incurable are now cured quite effectively due to science such as T.B, malaria etc. X- Rays and laser therapies are also the milestones in the field of medical sciences.

 With respect to illuminating the life of mankind, it is the electricity that is the outcome of scientific technology. It not only lit up our paths but our homes, roads, offices, and factories too. A number of machines in industries and factories are now dependent on electricity for more efficient work, greater and better output.

Chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, modern machinery, and technical knowledge are responsible for the re-birth of agriculture. These innovations are of great help for much better production of fruits, vegetables, grains etc. in bulk amount.

Means of communication and transportation must not be forgotten while talking about the benefits of science. Radio, television, cinema, newspaper, internet is pouring a wealth of knowledge and information into the minds and souls of the masses at a fast pace. People of present times are much more aware about not only their surroundings but have a better know how about the events and happenings, discoveries and innovations, accidents and mishaps that are taking place all over the world.  Same is the case with ships, aero planes, and cars etc. that have crept slowly but amazingly in the lives of the people giving them comfort and saving their precious time too.

 In a nutshell, it can be concluded that science is nothing but is the eyes, ears, breath and even mind of the people of this planet earth. Therefore, it can be said that science is the right hand of mankind.

  The Dangers to Mankind created by Science

Science all around us has not only facilitated man in each and every walk of life but is also responsible for creating havoc, chaos, disturbance and hazards in his life.

 Along with a long list of benefits, science also has a lengthy list of dangers as well. Due to the factor of modernization and industrialization, pollution can be considered as the foremost threat posed by science and its various inventions. The air around us is polluted by the smoke coming out from various vehicles and the huge thick clouds of smoke from the chimneys of the industries and factories. This pollution is hence responsible for a number of serious and threatening diseases to mankind. That’s not all; it is this world’s pollution that is seriously damaging the ozone layer and is one of the causes for the increase in earth’s temperature.

Next comes the turn of unemployment that is generated by the use of modern, latest technologies created by science. Years before the work that needed hundreds of people now just require a man or two to accomplish the task just due to the entry of computer in the life of mankind.

 On the third place, we can easily place atomic bombs and nuclear weapons that have taken years of scientists to invent for the destruction of mankind. The nations who own them can get the title of ‘super-powers’ meaning that they have the license to murder and disable the generations of the man just in few minutes.

From the cultural and ethical point of view, the massive demolition done by science is in the name of latest media technologies that have given an opportunity to all to view whatever they want to without the fear of their elders. In this way, people of all ages are using the internet without any check and balance and thus they are knowingly treading on the path that only leads to Hell.

Therefore, we all know that everything has its pros and cons, it just depends on the wise or foolish usage of that commodity. In order to progress, every one of us has to show a positive attitude towards the eradication of dangers created by science to mankind.


Summarize the following passage in not more than 130 words:

Space travel is by far the most expensive type of exploration ever undertaken by man. The vast expenditure of money and human effort now being devoted to projects for putting man into space might well be applied to ends more practically useful and more conducive to human happiness. It is a strange world in which tens of millions of pounds are spent to give one man a ride round the earth at thousands of miles an hour while beneath him in his orbit live millions for whom life is a daily struggle to win a few coins to buy their daily bread.

The money and effort that go into the development and construction of a single type a space-rocket would more than suffice to rid several countries of some such scourge as malaria or typhoid fever, to name only two of the diseases medical science has conquered but which still persist in the world, simply because not enough money and effort are devoted to their eradication Why should the richer countries of the world be pouring their resources into space when poverty and disease on earth are crying out for relief ? One could give a cynical answer to this question and assert that man’s expensive adventures into space are merely the by-products of the struggle between two great powers for prestige and possible military advantage.

There is some truth in this answer, but not the whole truth. Travel into space exemplifies the same spirit of courage and curiosity which has taken man to the poles and the top of Everest, and produced the scientific miracles of this age. Poverty and disease are, in fact, being relieved more rapidly than ever before thanks to the applications of science to production, transport, and medicine. Space travel is one of the more striking aspects of the progress of science and it is this same progress which gives us reasonable hope of banishing poverty, ignorance and preventable disease from the earth. It is worth remembering that many of the practical advantages now enjoyed by the common man from the applications of science have been brought about by scientific research which seemed, when it was first attempted, as unrelated to practical benefits as the exploration of space may seem to us at present.

Answer:
Space travel is one of the exciting sorts of travel undertaken by man so to travel into space. The rich and powerful countries are spending a huge sum of money just to send one man into space ignoring the fact that millions of lives on earth are crying for some of the basic necessities of life such as food. Poverty and diseases can easily be eradicated from the face of this planet earth only if the rich nations show concern and generosity towards such grave issues of the other nations of the world. Other than this, with the advancement in the field of science, poverty, and disease can be eliminated quite easily. This progress of science seemed useless in the beginning as today it seems worthless with respect to space exploration.


Translate the following sentences in to Urdu or Sindhi.

  1. Parents should not do their children’s homework.
  2. You ought to visit us next spring when the weather will be delightful.
  3. He ought to be working instead of reading the paper.
  4. You should have returned this book to the library last week.
  5. The workmen should have been painting the house but they were standing about doing nothing.
  6. Your car ought to be repaired by the end of the week.
  7. These books ought to have been taken back to die library.
  8. It should be warmer in Karachi than it is here.
  9. The pupils ought to have found this examination paper easy.
  10. Ought we to take warm clothes with us if we go to Abbottabad next month?
  11. Must you leave so soon?
  12. He must come and see me tomorrow morning.
  13. This room must be thoroughly cleaned by tomorrow morning.
  14. He had to come and see me on the following morning.
  15. The room had to be cleaned by the following morning.
  16. You must be very tired after your long journey.
  17. This house must have been built before my father was born.
  18. These letters must have been put on my desk while I was out of the room.
  19. The aero plane was delayed owing to a fault in one of the engines.
  20. The delay was due to a fault in one of the engines.
English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 8

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