English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 4

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 4 (Pakistan and the Modern World) Second Year Karachi and Sindh board Question Answers English 12th class Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers.

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 4 (Pakistan and the Modern World)

What does he put forward as the two main duties today of the Western world?

Liaquat Ali Khan put forward the two main duties today of the Western world as following:
Firstly, the Western world should share its great knowledge, skill, and expertise with those nations that are lagging behind in the field of knowledge, information, and experience.
Secondly, the Western world should demonstrate that true democracy is the need of the hour and is the right of every nation as it is international in its very conception and it is necessary for the world peace.

Liaquat Ali Khan contrasts two emotions that the Asian peoples tend to feel when they view the Western world What are these two emotions?

According to Liaquat Ali Khan, following are the two emotions that the Asian peoples tend to feel when they view the Western world:
First of all, the Asian people greatly admire the progress and advancement of the Western world in every walk of life and they are greatly impressed with the fast pace flourishing civilization along with other European countries of the world. They too are quite keen to get rid of their black days of misery, desolation and backwardness and have a strong desire to witness the bright rays of hope for themselves.
Secondly, the Asian people are well aware of the obvious contrast between their standard of living and the standard of living of the Western world. Therefore, Liaquat Ali Khan demanded from the Western world to erase the germs of inequality and disruption from Asian countries and should help and motivate them to get benefit from the seeds of democracy and freedom.

What is the synthesis that Liaquat Ali Khan believes is necessary for Pakistan to achieve?

According to Liaquat Ali Khan, the synthesis necessary for Pakistan to achieve is to do as much as possible to unite and uplift a large number of Free states which are emerging these days. He further suggested that Pakistanis should observe a unique combination of faith in Islam and modern technology for the ultimate progress and prosperity of the nation.

What is meant by a ‘synthesis’?

The word ‘synthesis’ means the act of combining separate ideas, styles or beliefs together. This idea was put forward by Liaquat Ali Khan that firm faith in Islam must be amalgamated with modern science and technology for the progress and development of the nation.

What does he state the real meaning of freedom, for the common man, to be?

Liaquat Ali Khan threw light on the aspect of freedom extensively in his speech. He stated the real meaning of freedom for the common man that he must enjoy freedom from want, disease, poverty, and ignorance. If he cannot get rid of any of these then to him the freedom is just the freedom from only foreign domination and nothing else.

On what grounds does Liaquat Ali Khan assert that the first duty of the Pakistanis as a free people is to themselves?

Liaquat Ali Khan asserted that the first duty of the Pakistanis as a free people is to themselves so not to dishonor the fair name of the state where men and women would feel and enjoy complete freedom. On the second place, all Pakistanis should be attentive enough so to prove themselves as truly free citizens of the country before the eyes of the world.

Our administrative machinery had to be built up from scratch.’ What does this sentence mean?

The sentence delivered by Liaquat Ali Khan has of utmost significance representing the injustice done to the newly born state of Pakistan by the century-old India or Hindustan. ‘Our administrative machinery had to be built up from scratch’ means that Pakistan had no resources when she made its appearance on the map of the world. Pakistan didn’t get sufficient machinery or efficient military personnel to cope up with the needs of the citizens of the emerging state as well as to curb the problems related to the political, economic and social upheaval.

What advantage does he show the Hindus to have gained from the creation of Pakistan?

According to Liaquat Ali Khan, the creation of two independent states namely Pakistan and Hindustan is a must in order to have peace in the entire world. One of the biggest advantages that the Hindus have gained from the creation of Pakistan is that they would have a relatively smaller and peaceful state to rule as compared to a land where people suffer from injustice, unrest, uncertainty, and discrimination in every walk of life. It would be beneficial to Hindus with respect to practicing culture, traditions, and civilizations to the fullest.

What main differences does he point out between Muslim and Hindu beliefs and attitudes?

The main differences pointed out by Liaquat Ali Khan between Muslim and Hindu beliefs and attitudes are as follows:
The Muslims are monotheists i.e. they believe in only one God whereas the Hindus are polytheists i.e. they believe in many gods and goddesses.
The Muslims believe in the Prophet of Arabia and in Christ and the prophets of the Old Testament whereas the Hindus do not.
The Hindus believe in the caste system whereas the Muslims believe in the equality of all men.
The Muslims believe in the rights of private ownership for everyone whereas the Hindus promote the distribution of wealth and discourage vast unearned accumulations.
Besides all the above-mentioned differences, one can find a vast difference between the culture, social, political, economical and ethical values and morals of both Hindus and Muslims. Therefore, it is not possible for the Muslims to live together with Hindus on the land of Indo Pak Sub-Continent.

Briefly state the main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslim’s desire not to continue living in a united India.

The main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslim’s desire not to continue living in united India was that if they were given freedom from Englishmen then Hindus would become their rulers and it was just merely the change of rulers nothing else.


Write an essay of between 350 and 400 words on one of the following subjects:

  1. Why the Muslims of South Asia strove to found their own state.
  2. The ideals of modem Pakistan.

                     1. Why the Muslims of South Asia strove to found their own state.

Freedom is not only a single word that everyone wants to cherish in life but it is all about the feelings and emotions attached to the sense of being free. Freedom means freedom of thought, freedom of speech, freedom to practice religious beliefs and attitudes, freedom to vote etc.

For centuries, the Muslims of Asian nations lived their lives under the oppressive regime of people who were the followers of different religions other than Islam. Same was the case of Muslims who lived in United India under the domination of British rule first and then it would be the turn of Hindus to rule Muslims. Then and there it would be felt by the Muslims of the sub-continent to have a separate independent nation where they would be free to practice their religion i.e. Islam wholly and freely. Apart from religion, there are a number of other reasons that compelled Quaid-e-Azam along with other prominent Muslim leaders to make a demand for a sovereign independent nation for the Muslims of the sub-continent. Some of them were unemployment, educational aloofness, social and culture deprivation, equality on civil grounds etc. The Muslims of the sub-continent knew it well that under Hindu domination it would not be possible for them to excel in any of the fields of life.

 Similarly, the Muslims living in other states of South Asia strove really hard to find their own states. Like Afghanistan, Iran etc. The foremost reason for the Muslims of sub-continent in particular and South Asia, in general, was one of the ‘religion’. The Muslims all over the world were and still are subjugated severely not to practice their religion freely and completely.

Therefore, it is evident from the histories of Muslims residing in Asian nations that they considered their religion above their lives and souls, that’s why millions of Muslims sacrificed their lives in order to get a free, independent nation where they would be enjoying freedom from the suppression of any foreign domination in the path of following and practicing their religion i.e. Islam at its fullest.

 In a nutshell, it can easily be said that each individual is born on the concept of freedom and that he likes to have throughout his lifetime.

 2. The Ideals of Modern Pakistan

 Pakistan, an Islamic welfare state made its appearance on the map of the world on August 14, 1947. It just became possible due to the sincere and tiresome efforts of not only by our great Muslim leaders but by the blood pour of each and every Muslim of the sub-continent.

Pakistan was envisioned by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Being a modernist, he had a dream to see Pakistan standing firm on the grounds of modernism. According to him, modern Pakistan should be established in order to survive in the modern world and to make its standing among the superpowers of the world.

 The first and the foremost ideal for a modern Pakistan in the eyes of our founder as he stated in his address at the Constituent Assembly on August 11, 1947, is that “You may belong to any religion or caste or creed- that has nothing to do with the business of the state.” This means that he was never in favor of just an Islamic welfare state but he focuses more on the provision of social justice and equality to all living in the free state of Pakistan.

The ideals of modern Pakistan are almost equal in strength and measure to the great ideals of human progress, tolerance, regard and respect for each other’s faith and beliefs.

Furthermore, the ideals presented by Quaid of a modern Pakistan was based on non-feudal foundation, mainly to abolish the practice of prizing local interests above national interests and to get rid of the relic of the old administration,

Quaid-e-Azam wanted to work and focus on the economic system so to build Pakistan on solid economic grounds. With respect to this, he said, “we have to work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on the true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice.”

In a nutshell, it can be concluded that modern Pakistan is the dream wish of Quaid-e-Azam on the basis of equality, social justice, non-feudal foundations, democratic system, peace of mind and soul. Therefore, it is now the responsibility of each and every citizen of Pakistan to work really hard to achieve his dream of modern Pakistan. 


Summarize the following passage in from 95 to 100 words :

That freedom means freedom only from foreign domination, is an outworn idea. It is not merely governments that should he free hut the people themselves who should be free; and no freedom has any real value for the common man or woman unless it also means freedom from want, freedom from disease, freedom from ignorance. This is the main task which confronts us if we are to take our rightful place in the modern world. We cannot hold the clock hack and therefore it is we who must go forward at a double pace, bending all our resources and all our energies to this great purpose. Students of history are aware that during the last two or three centuries of foreign domination our people have not kept pace with the march of civilization.

It was during these centuries that Western civilization of which you are the proud torch-bearers discovered a use for science which, though not new was so fast in tempo and so vast in its magnitude that it gave civilization a new orientation altogether. This is the phase that for various reasons our people missed. The result is that today we find multitudes emerging as large, free nations in Asia with their material and mental resources utterly undeveloped and with their standards of living so low that the world conscience should not be content to leave them stagnant. Our ancient steadfast faith is such a source of strength to us on the ideological front in these modern uneasy limes must. be wedded to the pioneering virility of modern technology. This is the synthesis we must achieve and achieve quickly, not merely for the sake of progress but for the sake of world peace itself.

The real freedom that must be enjoyed by the common man or woman means not only the freedom from foreign domination but from freedom of want, disease, freedom from ignorance. Due to foreign domination, it was difficult for Pakistanis to keep pace with the civilization of the modern world thus western world make use of that time by focusing more on science. This phase is responsible for turning many Asian nations undeveloped and they lag behind in developmental work. For the sake of progress and world peace, Pakistanis quickly have to amalgamate their persistent faith with modern technology.


 Translate the following sentences into Urdu or Sindhi.

  1. How is a gramophone record made?
  2. What sort of wood are these chairs made of?
  3. The carpenter made his daughter a beautiful dolls’ house.
  4. The headmaster made the boys explain why they were not in their classroom.
  5. These pictures will make the room more attractive.
  6. The bushes on the corner make it difficult for a driver to sec the traffic approaching from the right.
  7. I think you have made a mistake.
  8. Why did he make such a long speech?
  9. That small aeroplane is making for Walton aerodrome.
  10. What is a gramophone record made of?
  11. Many of the new plastics are made from oil.
  12. Can you make out who is standing by the door at the back of the hall?
  13. Did you make out a list of the clothes that you sent to be washed?
  14. The stories that she makes up for her children ought to be written down and published.
  15. It is impossible to make up a good team because nearly half our players are away.
  16. They have made it up and are friends again.
  17. I wish that he would slop hesitating and make up his mind.
  18. He did not write to me at all last week but he has made up for it by writing to me twice this week.
  19. Rashid soon made friends with a boy who lived next door.
  20. Did you make certain that the door was locked?
English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 4

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