English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 10

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 10 (Life in The Universe) Second Year Karachi and Sindh board Question Answers English 12th class Notes, Composition, Exercise, Summary, Mcqs, Online Test, Guess Papers, and Past Papers.

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 10 (Life in The Universe)

Why, according to Butler, is modem science likely to restore man’s faith in his own importance in the universe?

According to Butler, modern science is likely to restore man’s faith in his own importance in the universe because of the major shift in the methodology of science. It is now changing from the study of elementary forces and simple particles to the complexities of living textures.

Why did the scientist of the nineteenth century tend to find simplicity in the universe?

The scientists of the nineteenth century tend to find simplicity in the universe because they were primarily concerned with the elemental forces. Therefore, they were of the view that nineteenth-century science is simple in nature as compared to the complexity of the universe in the twentieth century.

Why does Butler think that calculating machines ought not to be called ‘mechanical brains’?

Butler is of the view that it is simply a matter of injustice to consider calculating machines equivalent to human brains or to be called ‘mechanical brains.’ He justifies his statement by saying that the diverse functions of real brains are beyond our understanding and they are much more capable of doing and manipulating the phenomenon as calculating machines are.

How, according to Butler, was science responsible for fostering a popular belief that man is insignificant?

According to Butler, science was responsible for fostering a popular belief that man is insignificant as he believes that it is due to Galileo’s discovery that lessens the importance of man in the universe. On the second place, Darwin’s theory further weakens man’s position in the universe. Butler denies all such mechanical concepts put forward by the scientists about the importance of mankind and thus says that intelligence is the main factor that is responsible for the worth of a man, not his size or shape in labeling him an insignificant being.

How does Butler justify his belief in the importance of scientific research into the nature of living cells?

English notes for class 12 Sindh Board Chapter 10

Butler justifies his belief in the importance o scientific research into the nature of living cells by saying that it will enable the scientists in future to create a microscopic spot of jelly which they can proudly describe as alive. Apart from this, Butler does not believe that there is any scientific knowledge which leads to a certain answer to the question of the ability of scientific research in creating life in a test tube.

What was the original distinction between ‘organic’ and ‘inorganic’ substances? Does this distinction still hold good in modem science?

Organic compounds are the great fusion of substances that come from living things such as alcohol, oils, fats, sugars, waxes, resins, rubber, cellulose, starch etc. These organic compounds were thought to be quite different from the inorganic ones. No doubt, they were compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen etc but the chemists were not at all willing to consider them into a class of compounds which they had managed to prepare. This distinction between organic and inorganic was broke down when a German chemist, Wohler became successful in preparing urea which had previously been regarded as a typical product of life.

Who was responsible for the atomic theory of chemistry?

John Dalton was responsible for the atomic theory of chemistry. This theory basically explained the facts of chemical combination in simple compounds. It was concerned with the elementary composition of substances.

What had to be understood for chemistry to become a science?

In order to consider chemistry as a science, it is important that it had to be understood that all the substances are combinations of the same primary elements which are to all intents and purposes indestructible.

What, in brief, are his views on the probability of life existing in worlds other than our own?

Butler has a different opinion about the origin of life as compared to James Jeans. He is of the view that the origin of life is not a mere coincidence that accidental combining different chemical atoms at a moderate temperature to put life into existence. Whereas he believes that the essentials of life also exist on other planets if suitable physical conditions, moderate temperature are available.

What new theory concerning the origin of the planets is presented by Professor Butler?

Professor Butler presented a new theory concerning the origin of the planets. According to him, there are equal chances of life on other planets as we have on our planet earth. He further emphasizes on the concept that the planets originated in the breakup of the companion of the sun in a tremendous explosion. He suggests that explosive starts called Supernovae are not at all infrequent and it has been estimated from such occurrences that at least a million planetary systems may have been produced in our galaxy.


Write an essay of from 350 to 400 words on one of the following topics:

  1. The differences between the views of Jeans and Butler on the place of life in the universe.
  2. A layman’s attitudes towards science.
  3. The role of science in education.

The differences between the views of Jeans and Butler on the place of life in the universe.

The world rests upon the foundations of opinions, thoughts, ideals, appreciation, and criticism of people. Among all, the most important one is criticism or opposition to someone’s work or thought. The reason behind is that it opens new doors and widens the horizon for others to think logically and put forward new theories and produce ingeniously.

The views about the origin of life in the universe are quite contradictory according to the point of view of James Jeans and Alfred Butler. Jeans was of the opinion that life started on this planet earth with the origin of simple organisms and then it took the form of the more complex creatures i.e. human beings. Whereas Butler had a different opinion about that, he believed that the theories put forward by Galileo and later by Darwin further weakens the position and importance of man in this universe.  According to him, it is the intelligence not the size or shape of a man that matters to raise the stature of the man in the eyes of the world.

Secondly, with respect to the place of life in the universe James holds a belief that earth is the only planet where life can exist as it provides favorable conditions and moderate temperature for the living beings to breathe and grow and have life in its true sense. On the other hand, Butler has the opinion that earth is not the only planet in the planetary system that can have and support life. He was of the view that the origin of life is not a mere coincidence about the accidental combination of different chemical atoms at a moderate temperature to put life into existence. Whereas he believed that essentials of life also exist on other planets if suitable physical conditions, moderate temperature are available, we can have a life over there too. 

At the end, it can be concluded that different people or scientists hold different opinions about the same concept and they all are important for fostering the concept in the minds of the millions. Therefore, it cannot be said that if one concept is accurate the other is not.

A Layman’s Attitudes towards Science

Science although is the discovery or the result of hard work of the scientists of all times but it is basically a gift from Allah Almighty to humanity. Science has served and still serving or will keep on serving mankind until and unless he starts misusing it for destructive purposes.

The advantages that science offers to a layman are responsible for creating a positive image of it in the mind of him. A layman appreciates science on the forefront due to its marvelous discoveries in the field of agriculture as food is of vital importance in the lives of the masses. Modern agricultural machinery, latest equipment, premium insecticides, pesticides, and good-quality fertilizers truly add the production of an agriculturist and that in turn improves the quality of food items available to a layman at the marketplace.

 After satisfying the stomach, next comes the question of good health and hygiene as it is the basic right of all the citizens of any nation. Scientific inventions help play a vital role in the cure and treatment of various fatal diseases such as malaria, cholera, plague etc. Scientific technology in the field of medicines helps a great deal in increasing the mortality rate of individuals all over the world. This gives a real sense of relief to a layman as he knows that after Allah’s will, it is science that helps him in his recovery from a number of diseases and in gaining health.

Communication and science are the two inter-related phenomena that have influenced the lives of millions. Radio, newspaper, television, cinema, internet etc has given a wide spectrum to a layman to get informed and stay in touch with the dear ones by using any of the above-mentioned scientific means of interaction and communication.

A layman’s life has shrunk into not only days but into hours or minutes as he is able to cover the large distance by travelling either by airplane or train, ship or boat, bus or car. With the advancement in the means of transportation, it becomes easier and much more comfortable for a layman to transport his goods to distant places without any difficulty.

Therefore, one can say that a layman always holds a positive attitude towards science as it has affected his life quite optimistically in almost every walk of life including business, education, industry, improved lifestyle etc. 

The Role of Science in Education

Science and technology have strongly influenced the social, cultural and educational perspective of mankind to a great and unbelievable extent. It is science that has given passion and vigor to man to explore not only space but to step on the moon too.

 The life of our great-grandparents was totally different from the one we are living and enjoying in the present times and all the credit goes to the latest, modern scientific inventions and discoveries of this era. Science has a direct impact on almost all the people belonging to different walks of life like business, agriculture, industry etc. Similarly, it is playing a pivotal role in the field of education as well.

Nowadays, science and education are like the mind and soul of an individual as one cannot progress without the assistance of the other. The role of science just begins at a very early stage of education when a child enters his kindergarten. The first step is to inculcate the habit of observation among children as they are always curious about nature, trees, flowers etc.

Later on, when they grow up, it is the responsibility of not only institutions but science teachers too to focus more on experimental study rather than the theoretical one. It is a fact that human beings learn more through practical or experimentation as they can observe the whole process in front of their eyes.

Science in education broadens the minds of the learners towards various hidden truths of nature including the universe, earth, planets, plants etc. It gives in-depth knowledge about the processes involved in the happening of any incident as it is based on real facts, figures, hypothesis, and examinations.

Apart from the sole role of science, science teaching has to be effective enough so to achieve the desired objectives and purposes such as to promote an ever-deepening understanding of basic principles, to develop pro­blem-solving and analytical skills and the ability to apply them to the problems of the material environment and social living, and to promote the spirit of enquiry and experimenta­tion.

In a nutshell, it can be concluded that science has a direct influence on the minds of the new generation, therefore, it must be catered with full responsibility and accurate teaching methodologies should be adopted so as to gain the desired result in the form of brilliant, first-class scientists, biologist, geo-physicists, zoologists etc to serve the nations.


Summarize the following passage in not more than 85 words:

Because they had learnt a little about living things, uninformed people jumped to the conclusion that what was still to be learnt was unimportant. Because, they were impressed by machines, they assumed that human beings were like them, only a little more complicated. The mechanical concept of life runs through innumerable books and newspaper articles and has done much to produce and foster this low opinion of human ability. A calculating machine is called a mechanical ‘brain’. It is true that these machines are wonderful pieces of mechanism and ingenuity, but the operations they perform are really rather limited. Their main value is to carry out quickly certain repetitive operations which human beings find tedious and time-consuming. To call them ‘brains’ is a gross libel on real brains, the fantastic operations of which, as we shall see, are quite beyond our understanding even in comparatively unintelligent animals.
The idea of a ‘mechanical man’ is another sign of the times. ‘Rossum’s Universal Robots’ have had plenty of successors, which have spilled over from literature into the films and comic strips. The popular magazines of ‘science fiction’ are full of them. The girl in the mass-production factory lakes them for granted: but it is not surprising that she should think that an automaton could put a squiggle on the chocolates nearly as well as she can, and if an automaton could do that she might easily imagine there was little difference between it and her.


Write your precis in one paragraph.

Answer:
Living beings are still not properly understood by people that’s why they are willing to accept that machines are equal to man in terms of work and intelligence. People consider mechanical machines as brains although the concept is wrong as such machines can just perform some tasks repetitively which humans consider tiring and time taking otherwise the machines are not at all equal to the intelligence of even an unintelligent animal. In present times, the concept of mechanical man i.e. robot is also gaining success.

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