Q.1) Describe the size and composition of the population of Pakistan.
Table of Contents
The term “demography” is defined as “the statistical study of the human population or the study of the changing numbers of births and deaths in a society over a specified period.” The demographic data and its main characteristics are vital for purposeful planning. The essential characteristics of demography include total population, its regional distribution, the urban-rural ratio, literacy, and level of education, rate of population growth rate, average density per square kilometre and the occupation of the people.
Population Size and Composition:
Pakistan is a densely populated country with a density of 166 persons per squkilometreeter. The density of population is referred to the average number of people living in a square kilometre. The population of Pakistan is not evenly distributed. In Punjab, it is 358, in Sindh 218, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 238, in Balochistan 19, in Federally Administered Tribal teas (FATA) it is 117 and in the Federal Capital Territory of Islamabad; it is 889 per square kilometre. The population size and composition of Pakistan is as:
Area (Square Kilometer)
Density (Per Square kilometre)
Member Per household (Average)
Population Size and Comthe position According to Cities:
There are 12 big cities in Pakistan whose entire population constitutes 19% of the total population and 58% of the total urban population of Pakistan. These 12 cities consist of almost four hundred thousand (4,00,000) population. Karachi is the biggest city of Pakistan with a population of over 10 million. The presence of the basic facilities of life is considered the main determining factor of the size of the population in an area. People living in an area that has all the basic facilities of city life are known as urban population, while rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between the total population and the urban population. The size of the population of these main cities according to the 1998 census is as:
The majority of the population of Pakistan lives in rural areas while one-third of the total population lives in cities. In 1998, about 67.5 per cent of the population resides in rural areas while 32.5 per cent of the population was urban. However, over time, due to the absence of basic facilities of life and lack of job opportunities in the villages, people are migrating to the cities in large numbers. Therefore, the majority of the population of Pakistan derives its livelihood from agriculture, industry, service, and trade. About ten per cent of the civilian labour force is working as guest workers in other countries. Thus, the Population size, composition, and growth rate play an important role in the economic and social development of a country.
Q.2) What is the literacy rate in Pakistan? How does it affect national development?
Education is a powerful means of bringing about national integration and illiteracy is no less than a curse for society. It hampers the progress and development of a country. The literacy rate in Pakistan remained quite low because of slow economic progress. The rate of literacy during the last 27 years was:
Literacy per cent
Therefore, the level of literacy rate in Pakistan is the lowest in Southeast Asia. Most of the people in Pakistan have acquired only a very basic literacy level. According to the facts of 1998 census, the level of education in the country is:
Level of Education
B.A/ B.S.C and equivalent
M.A /M.S.C and equivalent
Literacy and economic and social development are mutually interdependent. Educated people are aware of the socio-economic scenario of the country and can help in the progress of the country. The countries with an effective impressive need oriented, saleable and effective system of education come out to be the leaders of the world, both socially and economically. Therefore, if a country has trained its labour, it makes the economic activity more productive while illiterate and uneducated labour delivers little and produces less. Instead of contributing to the economic growth of the country, it becomes a liability and a burden due to which the country remains trapped in the vicious circle of poverty.
Q.3) How does the growth and migration of the population affect the country’s development?
Migration is defined as the act of travelling from one place to another to change one’s place of living. After the establishment of Pakistan, the trend of the movement of the rural population to urban areas accelerated. The people began to move to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities and essential basic facilities of life. In 1951, only 17.8 per cent of our population was urban while by 1998, it rose to 32.5 per cent and is increasing constantly because the rural areas have fewer facilities of life as compared to cities, i.e. education, health, and recreation whereas the urban areas are attracting more population because of more hospitals, medical facilities, educational institutions, and recreational facilities.
Effects of Migration on the Country’s Development:
Migration badly affects the economic progress of a developing country as it increases the size of the population of a country and burdens the economy of a country. The rural-urban migration creates several problems such as:
It adds to the shortage of residential units, food, shelter, more rent for residential houses, or they are forced to live in localities where necessary facilities are generally absent or
In addition, the problems of sanitation and health are created due to pressure on the urban population.
The educational and recreational facilities become insufficient.
The transport and traffic problems become severe. As a result, the urban slum areas expand and remain devoid of civic facilities. In this way, migration becomes a curse for the development of the country.
Measures to reduce the effects of Migration:
The government is endeavouring to reduce the migration of ruthe populations to urban areas by resorting to better planning and seeking a solution to urban problems. Some of the measures taken by the government to reduce the effects of migration are:
Incentives are being afforded to agriculture to improve an economic lot of the rural populace.
The handicrafts and cottage industries are also being encouraged.
The transport and communication facilities are being improved to connect the rural areas with the urban areas.
The hospitals, dispensaries, and trade centres are being established in rural areas.
The govewith time on projects to solve the problems caused by expanding
Migration is an overgrowing phenomenon and is known as the movement of people from one place to another. Rural-urban migration is considered the greatest migration of a country, which greatly affects the economic condition of a developing country because people with the passage of time move towards the cities for the better li opportunities which burdens the economic budget of the cities. Therefore, it is rightly believed that if the rural areas have more employment opportunities, the pressure of migration towards the urban areas will be relieved.
Q.4) What are the causes of population growth in Pakistan?
The world population is growing at an alarming rate and Pakistan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The causes of population growth in Pakistan are:
The majority of the people believe that Allah is the Sustainer and Provider. Many people think that having a large family is a source of strength. Family planning practices have not gained popularity in Pakistani society. The low literacy rate also contributes to the higher population growth. Early marriages also add to the growth of children. The desire for a male child results in producing more children. In the rural areas, more male children are considered an asset for the family and a sign of pride among the kith and kin and others. The majority of the people believe that Allah is the Sustainer and Provider. Many people think that having a large family is a source of strength. Family planning practices have not gained popularity in Pakistani society. The low literacy rate also contributes to the higher population growth. Early marriages also add to the growth of children. The desire for a male child results in producing more children. In the rural areas, more male children are considered an asset for the family and a sign of pride among the kith and kin and others.
Q.5) How can a balance be maintained between the growing population and the National resources?
The national resources of a country play an important role in the development of a country. They are concerned with the “Population” of a country. Economic and social progress requires a good balance between national resources and population. The population on one side strengthens the supply of a country as a producer if it is educated and skilful whereas on the other side it deteriorates the economy of the state if the population of a country is illiterate and unskilled. Moreover, if the population is too scant, the natural resources cannot be utilized effectively, but if the population is too high coupled with the growth rate then the pressure on national resources makes it difficult to maintain prosperity in the country.
Steps to maintain the balance between National Resources and Population Growth:
Pakistan is a densely populated country. Its total resources are not increasing as compared to the growth rate of the population. Overpopulation has resulted in undue pressure on the existing resources and is leading to problems of food, clothing, residence, unemployment, education, health facilities, and many other issues of life. Due to the scarcity of facilities, the quality of life of the people is becoming substandard. This can be resolved by striking a fine balance between the population and the resources. It is necessary to reduce the rate of population growth and to increase the national resources. The following steps should be taken to maintain the balance between national resources and overpopulation:
The productive resources should be developed at a faster rate in respect of professions, handicrafts and cottage industry, agriculture and trade.
Technical education and training should be popularized in the country to use modern technology so that the quantity and quality of output of agriculture, industry and other means of livelihood may improve.
Special attention is needed to discover new resources, particularly in mining and mineral oil explorations.
There is considerable land to be brought under cultivation. In addition, the land affected by waterlogging and salinity should be made for cultivation.
The government should place policies, which ensures that resources contribute to the long-term economic development of nations.
Such laws should be put into place in countries that maximize the value of natural resources for sustained growth and development.
Conservation of resources requires policies that formalize management procedures.
Planning is required to ensure balanced growth between resources and population growth to avoid undue strains on the economic development of a country.
Q.6) Describe the effects of a growing population on health and education.
The social and economic progress of a country is a well-being concept within a field of international development and is related to human development. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach and the human condition is measured by the education and health sector. People are the real wealth of nations and the basic goal of social and economic development is to create an environment that enables people to enjoy a long, healthy, and creative life. Therefore, the quality of life and development of a country is determined by the quality of education and health. Overpopulation, however, is the main problem of Pakistan, which is the result of early marriages and the desire for more children and especially the desire for a male child. Thus, the rise in the ratio of child population has affected the matter of health as well as their education.
Effects of Growing Population on Education:
Education is a fundamental factor in the process of human development. Educated people are aware of the socio-economic scenario of the country and can help in the progress of the country. The experiences of the developed countries show that it is necessary to invest in the education sector for economic and social progress. However, overpopulation is considered a great hurdle in delivering effective education to the people of Pakistan. Due to the increase in population growth, the number of educational institutions is falling short. These institutions are also facing a shortage of physical facilities and equipment such as most of the schools have no boundary walls, no water facilities, limited transport, toilets, rooms, and furniture. Moreover, due to the increase in family members, poor people cannot afford the expenses of education. Therefore, they are unable to send their children to school. In this way, the illiteracy ratio in the country is increasing.
Effects of Overpopulation on Health:
Health plays a significant role in the economic development and growth of a country. Health is a blessing of Allah and it is a common proverb that “health is wealth.” It is said that health is among the basic capabilities like education that gives value to human life. Therefore, the wealth of any nation can be measured by the health status of its citizens. The health sector in Pakistan is very poor and faces the problems of poverty, low standard treatment, and diseases due to overpopulation. Poor health and malnutrition of people are important underlying factors for low school enrollment, poor classroom performance, and early school dropout, as reflected in the World Declaration on Education for All. Malaria, influenza, typhoid, tuberculosis, and hepatitis are very common diseases in Pakistan. Moreover, poor diet and unhygienic living, affects the mental and physical capabilities of the people of Pakistan adversely, which in turn hampers the social and economic growth of the country.
Health and education are among the basic capabilities that give value to human life and economic progress but overpopulation is becoming an obstacle in raising the standard of education and health. Good health is not only essential input but also an important outcome of basic education of good quality. The government and private sectors of Pakistan should take effective steps to increase the net enrollment at the education level and to control the problems of the health sector. In this way, Pakistan can only achieve social and economic progress at the international level.
Fill in the Blank
i) The last Census in Pakistan was held in the year___________ .
ii) The density of population in Sindh is __ persons per square kilometre.
iii) Total population of Karachi according to the 1998 Census is _________ .
iv) The majority of Pakistanis live in ___________ areas.
v) The female literacy rate in Pakistan is ____________ according to 1998 Census.