Lahore Board Class 11 English Notes Chapter 1 to 13

Bise Lahore Board Class 11 English Notes FSc Pre Engineering Grade 11 Chapter 1 to 13 Short and long question.

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Lahore Board Class 11 English Notes Chapter 1 to 13

Class 11 English Notes Button, Button Chapter 1

i.  Why did Norma consider the tone and attitude of Mr. Steward offensive?

Answer:
Norma considered Mr. Steward’s tone offensive because it was businesslike. Despite her lack of interest, he maintained that it could be monetarily valuable to her.

ii.  Why did Arthur disagree with his wife?

Answer:
Arthur disagreed with his wife’s idea because he believed that pushing the button in order to get money at the cost of someone’s life is an immoral and inhumane practice. He considered it a murder.

iii.  Why did Norma try to persuade her husband to agree with her?

Answer:
Norma tried to persuade her husband to agree with her because accepting the offer could facilitate her in the fulfillment of her materialistic desires. She saw the possibility of taking a trip to Europe, buying a cottage on the Island and in this way an opportunity to improve her lifestyle by getting a better apartment, furniture, clothes, and a car.

iv.  What were the reasons Norma gave to her husband to accept the offer?

Answer:
Norma told her husband that this offer might be for research purpose aimed at analyzing the possible reactions of people or some rich man might be playing tricks with people. She argued that it is not immoral to kill person unknown to them and the money would help them improve their lifestyle.

v.   Why did Mr. Steward continue persuading Norma?

Answer:
After Arthur refused his offer, Mr. Steward continued persuading Norma because he observed that she is a woman of weak character, unlike her husband. Therefore, he could entice her with the prospect of the monetary gain of fifty thousand dollars.

vi.   What was the message Norma received on pushing the button?

Answer:
Norma received a message from Lenox Hill Hospital revealing the tragic news that her husband had met a subway accident. She was informed that Arthur had been pushed from the platform in front of the train by a crowd of people.

vii.  What is the significance of Arthur’s life-insurance policy?

Answer:
Ironically, Arthur’s life insurance policy is significant because it was equal to the amount that was offered by Mr. Steward with double compensation in case of accidental death. In other words, Norma had to pay a very high price for the execution of her desire.

viii.  Did Norma remain normal on hearing the news of the accident of her husband?

Answer:
Norma did not remain normal on hearing the news of her husband’s accident. She was in a state of shock  and could barely walk or breathe. Feeling distressed, she started behaving hysterically and felt like something cold was pressing her head.  

Q 4. Write Down The Answer of The Following Questions in 100-150 words.
i. Write a note on the character of Arthur.

Answer:
Arthur Lewis is one of the protagonists of the story ‘Button, Button’ by Richard Matheson.  In this story, he has been portrayed as a humane, honest and celebrated citizen. He is a strong-minded person who adheres to his moral values. When Arthur and his wife encounter the prospect of earning fifty thousand dollars at the cost of someone’s life, not only he rejects the offer but also opposes his wife’s notions. He is shook by surprise at Norma’s desire for a better lifestyle at the cost of humanity. He considers it a heinous crime against humanity and regards it as a “murder”. Since Norma is lured by the possibility of the improvement of their lifestyle at the expense of the monetary reward for doing a job as simple as pushing a button, she is not ready to give up. Overcome by the temptation, despite Arthur’s objection against the idea, she executes the task of pushing the button in his absence as which results in Arthur’s death in a subway accident.

ii. Why didn’t Norma remain true to her husband?

Answer:
Norma was a woman of frail character conflicted between materialism and morality, who was lured by the prospect of acquiring a huge sum of money, that is, fifty thousand dollars by doing a job as simple as the pushing of a button. She is enticed by the prospect of uplifting her lifestyle at the expense of the money earned in no time. However, Arthur is surprised at her weak sense of morality; he is shaken by surprise at her wife’s notions. Norma, on the other hand, remains indifferent towards his opinion and the inhumane aspect of the offer made by Mr. Steward. Regardless of the fact that the money earned in such a way will result in the death of a person, overcome by temptation, she gives in to the offer. In spite of the opposition of her husband, she calls Mr. Steward in his absence and accepts the offer which indicates that Norma did not remain true to her husband. However, the wrong decision made by her brings her everlasting sorrow as her husband dies in a Subway accident soon after she pushes the button of the gadget.

iii. Do you agree with Norma’s assertion that the death of someone you have never seen is not important?

Answer:
No, I strongly oppose Norma’s assertion that the death of someone you have never seen is not important. Since “killing of a single person is the murder of the entire humanity”. Life of every human is precious, no matter to which country, land or religion he or she belongs. Norma’s point of view that earning money at the stake of the life of a person unknown to her is acceptable because it does not affect her life directly is not only inhumane, but it also depicts the frailty of her character. So, in order to accomplish her self-centered desire of improving her lifestyle, she accepts the offer made by Mr. Steward. However, money earned by such effortless means and at the cost of the life of a person does not bring her happiness, but results in unbearable loss and everlasting misery for Norma. In short, murder of a person is a heinous crime against humanity and not justifiable in any way.

iv. Write the story in your own words.

Answer:
On reaching home, Norma receives a package labeled “Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Lewis…” containing a button unit accompanied with a note stating that Mr. Steward will be calling them at 8:00 am. A man visits them while Norma is busy doing dishes. He reveals that he is Mr. Steward, an agent of an international organization and puts forth an offer of fifty thousand dollars in return for the task of pushing of the button of the gadget that would result in the death of some unknown person somewhere in the world. Arthur opposes the idea as he considers it a “murder”, whereas Norma is enticed by the prospect of earning such a huge amount effortlessly as she sees the possibility of improvement in their lifestyle at the expense of this money. After a series of arguments between them, Norma is still unable to convince Arthur who is shaken by surprise at her wife’s weak sense of humanity. Despite her husband’s opposition, she calls Mr. Steward in his absence and accepts the offer. As soon as she pushes the button unit, she is informed about the death of her husband in a Subway accident. It is then that she realizes that the money she has been offered is equal to Arthur’s life-insurance with double indemnity in case of his accidental death.

v. What moral lesson does the story teach?

Answer:
The story “Button, Button” by Richard Matheson emphasizes the idea of the frailty of human character in the face of egocentric worldly desires. Norma, the central character of the story is lured by the prospect of improving her lifestyle and is willing to go to any length in order to ensure the accomplishment of her materialistic desire of improving her lifestyle by buying a nicer apartment, furniture, clothes, and a car, even at the cost of humanity. In order to achieve her purpose, she accepts the offer of fifty thousand dollars in return for the task of pushing the button on the button unit, although she is aware of the fact that it would result in the death of some person unknown to her. This tragic story revolves around the theme of lack of modesty as Norma, who belongs to a middle-class family is not happy with what she has and is tempted by the scheme of earning a huge amount of money effortlessly. In this way, she has to pay a huge price for the fulfillment of her desires as her tragic flaw and brings her own doom as it leads to the death of her own husband and she becomes the face of everlasting misery. Norma’s misfortune indicates that money acquired at the cost of morality cannot result in the prosperity of a person.


Class 11 English Notes Clearing in the Sky Chapter 2

Lahore Board Class 11 English Notes Chapter 1 to 13

i. Why didn’t the old man follow the advice of the doctors?

Answer:
The old man did not follow the advice of the doctors because he was the sole breadwinner of his family who had to raise a family of five children. Since he could not afford to take rest, he did not lose hope and determination. He struggled to regain his lost energy and proved the doctors wrong.

ii. What had the doctors told the old man?

Answer:
The old man had visited many doctors, all of whom had advised him to avoid long walks and take rest. Due to his heart ailment, they had suggested him to spend the remaining days of his life with his family.

iii. Where did the old man take his son?

Answer:
The old man took his son to the top of a mountain because he wanted to show him the piece of land he had ploughed and harvested after clearing the trees and burning the bush. He wanted his son to see the fruit of his toil.

iv. Had the son ever been there before?

Answer:
The son had visited the place several times with his parents. However, he had not been there for the last three years.

v.  What were the names of the vegetables the old man grew on his farm?

Answer:
The vegetables that the old man had grown on his farm were; yams, tomatoes, and potatoes. He had also raised corn, beans, and pumpkins over there before.

vi. Why did the old man take the steep path?

Answer:
The old man preferred to take the steep path in order to remain physically fit and restore his healthy spirits back. He was unable to climb straight initially but as he continued to get better, he started taking steeper paths.

vii. Why did the son at the age of six cry?

Answer:
The son had cried at the age of six because he had lost the little wooden plough in the fields, which he was fond of. He continued to cry until his father made him another one, but he never liked it as much.

viii. What were the feelings of the old man at the age of seventy?

Answer:
At the age of seventy, the old man enjoyed having a healthy spirit and contented mind. He was proud of the fact that he had defeated death all this time and proved the doctors wrong. He had a sense of achievement, which he had earned through a lot of hard work.

ix. Why had the old man planted his secret garden?

Answer:
The old man had planted his secret garden because he believed that anything grown in the new land would taste better. Moreover, he wanted to remain active and relish a sense of achievement which by the fruit of his labour.

Write the answer of the following questions in 50-100 words.
i. Describe the physical appearance of the old man.

Answer:
The old man has been portrayed as a man of seventy having “pale blue eyes” and a “red-wrinkled face” worn out by sweat while he was wearing a “big blue bandana” on his head. He has been depicted as a man of healthy spirits who is determined to do the laborious task of taking a walk through the steep path up to the mountaintop where he ploughed and harvested on the previously barren land.

ii. How did  the   old man feel about the land?

Answer:
The land was a source of remarkable sense of achievement to the old man as he claims that “with just little help” he was able to plough raise vegetation free of weeds and fence the barren patch of land in the “heart of wilderness” on the top of a mountain. He had high expectations with the vegetation that he would reap to be fresh and tastier than his son would have tasted ever. He smelled the land expressed his feelings as; “Just like fresh air. It’s pleasant to touch, too.” He also was also able to relive and cherish the memories of his youth with his wife there, as he says; “I went back to our youth. And this is the only land that felt like it was.”

iii. What did the son remember from his childhood? Were these good memories?

Answer:
Jess recollected the bitter-sweet memories of his childhood some of which were good while others were bad. He remembered the time when he remembered how his father had found a “coffee tree in the woods” once, which was known to him as the “only one of its kind growing” in their country. He also recalled the time when he was six and had lost the “little wooden plough” that his father had made him in a furrow. This was the time when he cried a lot until he made him another plough but having developed a deep affiliation with it, he never loved it as much as the first one.

iv. Write the story in your own words.

Answer:
The story ‘Clearing in the Sky’ by Jesse Stuart revolves around the narrator of the story, Jess, who accompanies his father who wants to show him the fruit of his toil. In spite of doctors’ predictions for the past forty years who advised him to avoid long walks and spend the remaining days of his life with his family, he has already lived the seventy years of his life energetically. Being the breadwinner­ of his family, the old man retains his healthy spirits and fights back the ailment taking the laborious task of clearing and fencing the barren land and raises vegetables in the midst of the wilderness. He is proud of his achievement that he had managed to carry out the tedious task with “just a little help” and “cheated death many times”. The spot has a special place in his heart as the memories of his youth are associated with it and it gives him a new sense of energy. In short, the so reflects his father’s deep affiliation and appreciation of nature and the strength of human spirit.

v. What moral lesson does the story teach?

Answer:
If a person is determined and has strong willpower, he can accomplish any task on his own. God helps those who help themselves. One should be like the old man who does not let physical problems hinder his way and his love for nature and sense of determination to fight back with circumstances enable him to accomplish his goals. Despite his physical weakness, he proves the doctors wrong by his determination and healthy spirit, as he remains energetic at the age of seventy as he says; “If the doctors have been right, I’ve cheated my death many times.”


Class 11th English Notes Dark They were, and Golden -Eyed Chapter 3

i. Why did Harry want to go back to the Earth?

Answer:
Harry wanted to go back to the Earth because he was scared of the severe climate on Mars and the physical changes that it was bringing about in their identities. He felt strange, insecure, and realized that they did not belong to the planet.

ii. Why did he want to stay?

Answer:
Harry Bitterring wanted to stay back on Mars because he dreaded the atomic war taking place on Earth and considered it a safe haven for himself and his family. Moreover, he saw the prospect of growing vegetation and raising his children at Mars.

iii. What climate did they face?

Answer:
The Martian climate was severe; the nights were too cold and foggy and the days extremely hot. The hot air burnt their houses and the boards of their house had gone out of shape.

iv. What was the condition of the Bittering family on hearing the news of the war on the Earth?

Answer:
On hearing the news of the war on the Earth, the entire Bittering family was very distressed and feelings of fear, astonishment and hopelessness overpowered them. Laura lost her balance as she revealed the tragic news while crying. Harry drenched in sweat with fear while his wife started weeping.

v. What did they want to grow?

Answer:
In order to ensure their survival, growing vegetation was mandatory for the Martians. They wanted to grow onions, peach trees and some other kind of vegetables in order to ensure their survival on Mars.

vi. What was the condition of their house?

Answer:
The drastic changes in climate were affecting everything including the house constructed by the Bittering family. The hot air had burnt it hence the shape of the boards was distorted. It did not look like an Earthman’s house anymore.

vii. What was the advice Harry gave to the people?

Answer:
Harry gave quite a sincere advise to the people to make arrangements of going back to Earth in order to escape the drastic effects of the Martian climate. He suggested them not to waste their time and assist him in building a rocket.

viii. How dangerous can a Martian virus be?

Answer:
The Martian virus was dangerous because it could bring about changes in the physical appearance of the people and made them lose their identity. It can also make their bodies thin and slender and they became dark and golden-eyed.

Q 4. Write the answer of the following questions in 100-150 words.
i. What circumstance did the Bittering family face?

Answer:
The Bittering family had to face the worst circumstances on Mars. They had to sustain severe climatic conditions as extremely hot wind blew during the day and at the nights were too cold and foggy that even the shapes of the boards that their houses were made of deteriorated badly. They had to survive there on insufficient food and without basic facilities of life. Moreover, the Martian climate brought a lot physical changes in their appearance as they became dark and their eyes turned yellow. Mr. Bittering believed that there was some Martian virus which was responsible for these changes. It made him feel like something might draw his soul out of his body and he felt like a “salt crystal in a mountain stream being washed away.” Their thoughts were also being affected because of the virus as they were losing their intellect. It was like he was submerged in a chemical that could “dissolve his intellect and burn away his past.”

ii. How social were the people of Mars?

Answer:
The lieutenant informed the captain that Martian people were very social. He reported about their behavior to be “very friendly”. He describes them as dark people with yellow eyes and says that he had a little conversation with these people. He says that they “learn English fast”. The lieutenant seemed to be pleased to meet them and was confident that their “relations will be most friendly with them…”. Ironically, they did not know that these people whom they were calling Martians belonged to Earth once but had probably forgotten the English language because some chemical, perhaps a Martian virus had transformed their physical appearance, dissolved their intellect and burnt their memories.

iii. How did the life change finally? Was this better or worse?

Answer:
The physical appearance as well as the thoughts of the Martians who originally belonged to Earth and were Americans transformed as a result of the Martian virus. They became dark and “yellow-eyed”, their bodies “slender” and eventually learned to survive in the severe climatic conditions on Mars. Their intellect had “dissolved” as they had forgotten the English language and their thoughts had also lost Earthliness. However, as America was in the wake of the atomic war, living on Mars even in the adverse circumstances at least ensured their survival at all which is the sole reason why Mr. Bittering puts his attempts of making of a rocket in order to go back to earth to a halt. So we can say that although they lost their identities it was better that they survived on Mars, nevertheless, their lives were badly affected.

iv. Write the story in your own words.

Answer:
The story ‘Dark they were, and Golden Eyed’ by Ray Bradbury revolves around the Bittering family who are immigrants who join the other Earth people to escape the nuclear war on Earth. However, life on Mars was not very conducive for the survival of human beings. The physical appearance as well as the thoughts of the Martians who originally belonged to Earth and were Americans transformed as a result of the Martian virus. They became dark and “yellow-eyed”, their bodies “slender” and eventually learned to survive in the severe climatic conditions on Mars. Their intellect had “dissolved” as they had forgotten the English language and their thoughts had also lost Earthliness. However, as America was in the wake of the atomic war, living on Mars even in the adverse circumstances at least ensured their survival at all which is the sole reason why Mr. Bittering puts his attempts of making of a rocket in order to go back to earth to a halt. At the end, a captain and his lieutenant come to their rescue but they fail to recognise them because of their changed physical appearance as regard them as Martians.

v. What differences can you point out in the lifestyle of the people of two different planets?

Answer:
The people on Earth have a completely different physical appearance, facilities and circumstances than the Martians. Their eyes were yellow coloured whereas the people who live on Earth mostly have black, brown, green, grey or hazel eyes. The Martians’ food was limited but on Earth there is a variety of food that people enjoy. The people on Earth live in well-constructed houses mostly, depending upon their status, however, these people had to build their houses with boards and even they were damaged because of the severe climate. On the other hand, the climate on Earth is moderately hot or cold that human body and his surrounding can endure. The Martians also lacked the basic facilities like gas, electricity etc that the people living on Earth enjoy. There was no prospect of having information technology on Mars either.  


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 4 question and answer

i. What was the time when the boy tried to snatch the purse of the woman?

Answer:
The boy, Roger, snatched the purse of the woman at “about eleven o’ clock at night”. 

ii. What happened to the boy when he tried to snatch the purse?

Answer:
When Roger, the boy tried to snatch the purse from the woman, the strap of the purse broke as he pulled it. His own weight combined with the weight of the purse made him lose his balance as a result of which he “fell on his back on the sidewalk” and his “legs flew up”.

iii. What was the reaction of the woman?

Answer:
When the incident occurred, the woman turned around and kicked the boy on his back in anger. Then she picked him up by his shirt front and “shook him until his teeth rattled”. However, when he apologized later she dragged him home but treated him with love and kindness as she asked him to wash his face, served him dinner and some money. This treatment of hers made the boy ashamed of his wrongdoing.

iv. What was the conduct of the people when they saw the incident?

Answer:
The conduct of the people passing by was kind of indifferent; they were silent spectators of the incident. Two to three of them passed by, while some “stopped, turned to look”   and  others “stood to watch”

v.  How did the boy look physically?

Answer:
The boy looked as if he was fourteen or fifteen years old. He has been portrayed as a”frail and willow wild” boy wearing blue jeans and tennis shoes.

vi. What was the condition of the boy when the woman gave him a few jerks?

Answer:
The boy was nervous when the woman gave him a few jerks.”Sweat popped out on his face and he began to struggle”. After giving him a few jerks, Mrs. Jones put a nelson around his neck, so he was terrified that she is going to send him to jail.

vii. Why did the woman ask the boy to wash his face?

Answer:
The woman asked Roger to wash his face because she considered him like his son and wanted to make him look presentable. She wanted to reform his personality by teaching him the principles of health and hygiene and good conduct.

viii. Why didn’t the boy run from the house of the woman?

Answer:
The boy did not run from the house of the woman because the polite and motherly attitude of Mrs. Jones made him realize that she was a kind-hearted lady. Moreover, she had trusted him and he did not want to be mistrusted.

ix. Why didn’t the woman watch the boy while preparing a dish?

Answer:
The woman didn’t watch the boy while preparing a dish because she wanted to indicate that she trusted him. She did not pay attention to the boy deliberately as she had realised that her polite treatment and trust will bring out a positive change in the thoughts and will reform his character.

x. What was the nature of the woman’s job?

Answer:
Mrs. Jones told the boy that she worked in a “hotel beauty shop that stayed open till late” at night. She offered hair dressing services to all the different kinds of women including “blonds, redheads and Spanish” who came there.  

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 100-150 words.
i. Write the incident in your own words.

Answer:
On her way back from work late at night, a woman encountered a boy who attempted to snatch her purse. However, he lost his balance and fell on the pavement. She kicked the boy from his back and pulled him up from the front of his shirt. The fourteen to a fifteen-year-old weak boy wearing a blue shirt and tennis shoes got frightened and apologized her. When she inquired if there was anyone in his family to tell him to wash his face, he responded in negation. The woman put a half nelson about his neck and dragged to take him to her house in order to have him wash his dirty face and on their way, she scolded him for attempting to steal her purse. He revealed that he made the attempt of robbery in order to buy blue suede shoes. Not only she directed him to wash his face, but also prepared them a meal while she left the purse near him. The boy neither took the money from it nor did he run as he found her to be a kind-hearted lady and did not want to be mistrusted. While they ate the cake, he told her about herself and taught him good manners. She gave him ten dollars to buy the shoes he wanted at which he could only thank her as he fell short of words for the polite treatment of the lady and promised to behave well.

ii. What was the effect of the behaviour of the woman on the boy?

Answer:
The polite yet reformative behaviour of the woman left a remarkable impact on the boy’s personality. He was clearly impressed by the polite treatment and good conduct of the woman and promised not to misbehave ever again. Even though he got the opportunity, the boy did not steal the money or run away from her home because he “did not want to be mistrusted” again. By the end of the story, the boy became a new person altogether which was the result of the lady’s counseling and courteous manners that left an imprint on his mind. He could be expected to be a good citizen aware of moral and ethical principles and good manners now which was a result of the positive influence that the woman left on him.

iii. Why did she treat the boy nicely in her home after punishing him in the street?

Answer:
The woman treated the boy nicely in her home after punishing him in the street because she wanted to teach him good conduct as well as moral and ethical principles of life. In order to do achieve her noble purpose, she had to appear like a role model for him. Her strategy was successful apparently as he was impressed by the kind-hearted woman’s courtesy and her polite manners by the end of the story. She gave him the punishment of his crime; not only she kicked him on his back but also dragged him. In order to teach him a moral lesson, she had to create a balance between motherly love and punishment as extreme punishment could bring more negativity of character and stubbornness in his attitude. She wanted to reform his conduct in a constructive manner so she treated him like he was her own son, giving the punishment first followed by conducting a counseling session in a polite manner as she wanted to teach his the lesson of kindness. In this way, the reformative manner of the woman left an imprint on the mind of the boy and transformed his personality as she brought a positive strength to his character.


11th English Notes Chapter 5 question

i. Why did Manana accuse Hubert of picking the lost pocketbook?

Answer:
Manana had seen Hubert picking up something on the way to the market place where the pocketbook had been lost. He mistook it as the pocketbook but it was a piece of string.

ii. What did the people think of Hubert when they heard the return of the pocketbook by some other person?

Answer:
When the people heard about the return of the pocketbook by some other person, they still refused to accept that Hubert was innocent. They believed that he had fabricated a scheme to save himself and had picked up the pocketbook.

iii. Why did George give the pocketbook to his employer?

Answer:
Being a simple, uneducated villager, George was unable to read the pocketbook owner’s particulars from its contents. Therefore, he thought it would be more appropriate to give the pocketbook to his employer in order to have it handed over to its rightful owner.

iv. What made Hubert shameful?

Answer:
What made Hubert feel shameful was not the false accusation of theft itself, but being considered a liar made him feel humiliated. Although he was an honest and truthful man, Hubert felt that being called a liar was a disgrace to his self-esteem and character.

v. Why did the people make fun of his innocence?

Answer:
The people made fun of Hubert’s innocence in order to amuse themselves. They narrated the story to each other in the manner of a soldier who had been on a campaign and shared anecdotes of his battles.

vi. Why did he keep claiming his innocence before his death?

Answer:
Hubert kept claiming his innocence even on his deathbed because he considered it shameful that people considered him a liar and a dishonest person. He did not want to die in disgrace.

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 100-150 words.
i.  Write down a note on the character of Hubert.

Answer:
Hubert is the protagonist of the story ‘The Piece of String’ written by Guy de Maupassant. Hubert has been portrayed as a man of humble origins who becomes the face of the false accusation of theft and the harsh treatment of his fellow villagers. Hubert has been described as a “simple countryman”, a “peasant” by profession who was an “honest” person and a sensitive soul at heart. When Hubert is accused of stealing the pocketbook of Mr. James, he is astounded. Despite his persistent efforts, when the villagers also refuse to accept that he is innocent and consider him a liar, he takes it to his heart. He feels ashamed to be called a liar and unable to withstand this “disgrace to his self-esteem and character” the poor man reaches his deathbed.  

ii.  Write ten lines on the mentality of the people who did not believe Hubert.

Answer:
The people who did not believe Hubert did not have any fair sense of judgment. They were so narrow-minded that they only listened to one side of the story and believed it. In spite of the fact that they had been living close to Hubert in the same village for years, they blindly followed the fabricated accusation of theft, doubting his honesty. Even when George discovered the pocketbook and gave it to Mr James, the villagers believed that it is a scheme of Hubert to save himself and refused to believe that he is innocent. These hardhearted people made him a laughing stock in the society. They made his life difficult and the sensitive soul took the disgrace of his fellow villagers to his heart. Their death at the end of the story proves that God is just and such people who mistreat and accuse innocent people making their lives miserable always meet a bad end.

iii.  Why did the Mayor not believe the innocence of Hubert?

Answer:
The mayor was informed by Manana, whom he considered a competent and trustworthy officer that Hubert had stolen the pocketbook. Since, he could not believe that his credible officer Manana could be mistaken. So when Hubert spoke in his defence and informed the mayor that he had picked up a piece of wire not the pocketbook, he refused to believe him saying; “You will not make me believe that Mr Manana, who is a man of worthy credence, mistook the cord for a pocketbook.” Moreover, the poor peasant did not have any credible proof to prove his innocence. 

iv.  Was it necessary for Hubert to continue pleading his innocence?

Answer:
Hubert did not need to continue pleading his innocence. When the villagers refused to believe that he was innocent even after George discovered the pocketbook and gave it to Mr James, he should not have continued making efforts in order to prove his innocence. There was no need of making futile efforts to convince these people who accused him and made fun of him as they believed in one side of the story. 

v. What suggestions can you give to Hubert to save him from such a humiliating situation?

Answer:
Hubert should have left the village of heartless people who could not even recognize the truth of his character and doubted his honesty. Being a peasant by profession, Hubert could live and work somewhere else instead of taking it to his heart. In this way, he could have survived.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 6

i. What was the subject discussed at the Club?

Answer:
The subject discussed at the Club was opportunity and determination. Some of the people held the view that determination alone could pave the way to success, while others believed that opportunity was also needed.

ii.  What did Terbut think of Jorkens’ argument?

Answer:
Tubert opposed the view of Jorkens according to whom determination was required for success. Tubert held the view that determination without opportunity is fruitless. He believed that a person cannot be successful if he is determined but does not get the right opportunity at the right time.

iii. How did Jorkens convince that a man can become a skating champion of the Sahara?

Answer:
Jorkens held the view that if a person was determined, he could work hard and devise ways for creating opportunities for himself. He convinced Tubert that a man could become a skating champion of Sahara even if he was short of money, provided he was determined and worked out to create an opportunity, making money for himself.

iv.  How did Gorgios persuade his people to make his country strong?

Answer:
After years of struggle, Gorgios acquired a strong position in politics which enabled him to preach his ambition openly by making fine speeches. He persuaded the people to make their country strong by emphasizing how the glory of their country and its ancient throne could be multiplied if they agreed to the creation of the post of Court acrobat.

v.  What was the viewpoint of the parents of Gorgios?

Answer:
Gorgios’ parents were of the view that determination alone was not the key to success and in order to achieve ones’ goals a lot of time and persistent hard work are required, while he was very ambitious at such an early age. He was able to understand their verdict and realised that “his parents were right after all” later in life when he had to strive for a long period of time in order to accomplish his ambition of the creation of a seat for Court acrobat.

vi. What were the arrangements made for the function of inauguration?

Answer:
In order to conduct the function of the inauguration, the great throne-room was turned into a gymnasium. Sitting arrangement for members of the Royal House was made along a raised platform. Red and gold coloured curtains were hung along the walls and high swings of acrobats with gilded ropes from the ceiling. A row of neat hurdles was arranged on the polished floor.

vii. Describe the scene of inauguration. Write five sentences.

Answer:
The inauguration took place at the throne-room which had been transformed into a gymnasium and the arrangements made for the event were spectacular. When the doors opened with a flood of golden light, Gorgios entered the hallway in his brilliant tight-fitting, red uniform of the Court acrobat. He , leaning on a gilded-stick, wearing pointed shoes and it appeared as if he was exhausted. He looked at the Royal platform with a sad expression. Gentle applause broke assuring him that no activity was expected of him as he tried to touch the swings that were hung from the ceiling. 

viii.  What were the feelings of Gorgios on the occasion?

Answer:
The arrangements also made him feel nostalgic as they reminded him of the time when Gorgios had won the race in his school days and looked at the royal platform with a slightly sad expression because it reminded him of his lifelong struggle.

ix. Did Gorgios use any shortcut to achieve his ambition?

Answer:
No, Gorgios did not follow any shortcut to achieve his ambition. He achieved his position of a Court acrobat after persistent hard work of sixty years. He joined politics and gained enough power, be able to convince people for the creation of the seat of Court acrobat through his speeches.

x. How long had Gorgios to stick to get his ambition achieved?

Answer:
Gorgios had to struggle and stick to get his ambition achieved for lifelong period of more than sixty years.

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 50-100 words.
i.  Discuss the political views of Jorkens.

Answer:
Jorkens was of the view that a career in politics could pave the way to the accomplishment of the goals of a person, so if someone wanted to achieve his ambition, he should go into politics. By making fine speeches, a person could gain the support of people in order to achieve his agenda. Although he might face opposition in the beginning and it might take a lot of time to convince them, but determination could lead to success.

ii.  How did Gorgios achieve his ambition?

Answer:
Gorgeous achieved his ambition after a long struggle of over sixty years. He had to get into politics in order to acquire a strong position so that he could deliver fine speeches by which would be able to convince people of the importance of having a Court acrobat for the prosperity of their country and glory of their ancient throne. At first, he had to face opposition but with time he was able to convince people what difference would the presence of a young athlete in the Court “exhibiting perfect physical fitness” make to a nation. Such a person would be an exemplary athlete who would strengthen their soldiers. He remained determined for a long time until he was able to create the seat of a Court acrobat.

iii.  Do you agree or disagree with the viewpoint of the writer? Give five reasons.

Answer:
Yes, I agree with the point of view of the author. If a person is determined, he can create opportunities for himself even if he does not have them at hand. It is rightly said that “if the opportunity doesn’t knock, build a door” and so did Gorgios, who is the protagonist of the story. He paved the way to the accomplishment of his goal by getting into politics, making fine speeches and convincing people for the creation of the seat of a Court acrobat until he was able to achieve his purpose. Moreover, as Jorkens says, “life is like a race… the man who keeps on wins the race.” So, it is the law of nature that a man who strives for the fulfilment of his ambition through continuous struggle is rewarded on account of his efforts in the end.

iv. Why were the brilliant dresses put in the shade at the inauguration?

Answer:
The hall was decorated beautifully to recognize the great efforts of the Court acrobat. Gorgios was that one person for whom the stage was set. People arrived in bulk to cherish the heroic achievement of Gorgios. The uniforms and the brilliant dresses were all put in the shade when the doors opened with a flood of golden light in order to give a warm welcome to the old man who was dressed in his brilliant uniform would appear to receive the crown for his life’s hard work.

v.  What is the lesson that the story teaches?

Answer:
The story “The Reward” by Lord Dunsany revolves around the idea that if a man is determined to accomplish his life goals, he can make it possible no matter how hard it may be. To achieve his goals, he should strive to create opportunities for himself. It is rightly said that hard work pays off in the end and same was the case with Gorgios who was able to accomplish his ambition by persistent hard work, undying patience and firm determination. It took him a time span of over sixty years in order to create the position of a Court acrobat.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 7

i. What was the condition of the parents on the arrival of the doctor?

Answer:
When the doctor arrived, he noticed that the parents were disturbed about the health of their daughter. Her mother looked upset and her father was also worried.

ii. What was the behaviour of the child with the doctor?

Answer:
The child’s behaviour with the doctor was quite rude and unfriendly. She looked at him with cold, steady eyes and expressionless face. She behaved like an indecent child who needed control and training.

iii. She had a fever for three days, hadn’t she?

Answer:
Yes, the girl had had a fever for three days. Her face showed that she was still having fever.

iv. Did the girl change her expression when the doctor said, “Does your throat hurt you?”

Answer:
No, the girl did not change her expression when the doctor asked if her throat hurt. She kept staring at him with a cold expression in her eyes.

v. Why did the doctor call the sick girl by her first name?

Answer:
The doctor called the girl with her name in order to convince her of his politeness. He addressed her in a kind and friendly manner so that she might open her mouth and let him examine her throat.

vi. Did the sick girl promptly respond to the instruction of the doctor?

Answer:
The sick girl did not respond to the instruction of the doctor promptly. She did not open her mouth and continued to remain motionless with a still expression on her face until the doctor employed the technique of throat culture in order to examine her throat.

vii. Why did the parents rebuke her?

Answer:
The parents of the sick girl rebuked her because she was reluctant to open her mouth to let the doctor examine her throat. She resisted aggressively and even broke his glasses as he approached her. They were ashamed of her this misconduct and disobedience of hers.  

viii. What was the threat of the doctor to the child if she did not show her throat?

Answer:
The doctor warned the girl that if she did not let him examine her throat, she could possibly die if she had diphtheria. He also threatened her that he would have to make the use of force to be able to examine her throat if she did not open her mouth herself.

ix. Why did she break the wooden blade?

Answer:
Mathilda gripped the wooden blade between her molars and broke it into pieces because she was afraid it might hurt her throat. She resisted the doctor in order to escape the painful treatment.

x. What was the condition of the tonsils of the sick girl? 

Answer:
The condition of the tonsils of the sick girl was chronic. Both her tonsils were covered with the membrane. This made it clear that she was suffering from diphtheria.

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 50 – 100 words.
i.  How did the child look by appearance?

Answer:
The child was “fully dressed” and had been portrayed as an introvert who was “inwardly, quiet”. She was an attractive little kid who had beautiful blond hair and was “as strong as heifer” in appearance. She appeared like one of those pictures of children that featured in advertising leaflets and photograph sections of Sunday newspapers.

ii.  Why did the parents keep the sick child in the kitchen?

Answer:
The parents kept the sick child in the kitchen in order to keep her warm because their house was damp sometimes. Since she was having fever since three days, they had to keep her in a warm place so the girl was resting in her father’s lap in the kitchen when the doctor arrived.

iii. How did the doctor succeed in examining her throat?

Answer:
The doctor succeeded in examining the throat of the child after a lot of effort. Firstly, he had to insert a wooden spatula in the sick girl’s mouth which she broke into pieces and later he made use of a silver spoon at the back of her teeth in order to force her mouth open wide. Finally, he was able to see her tonsils covered with membrane.  

iv.  Describe the feelings of the doctor in his struggle to diagnose the disease.

Answer:
Although the doctor exhibited his best professional behaviour in the beginning of the story, but his behaviour changed as he struggled to diagnose the disease that the child was suffering from. Lack of cooperation from the child’s side and her continuous resistance towards the medical examination aggravated the doctor’s anger. He had to make use of force eventually in order to open the mouth of the child to be able to examine her throat. 

v.  Compare and contrast the conduct of a healthy child and a sick child.

Answer:
The conduct of a healthy child is usually in complete contrast to the conduct of a sick child. A healthy child is usually friendly and obedient and remains active whereas a sick child becomes stubborn, unruly and rude at times and misbehaves with people around him because he is unable to play and enjoy. A healthy child, if well-kept is usually comfortable with routine medical examination as opposed to a sick child who often gets upset and is reluctant to have medical examination. The former exhibits a gentle behaviour most of the time whereas the later is often moody, sensitive and prone to aggression.

vi. Under what circumstances can the use of force be justified?

Answer:
The use of force is justified only in case of certain circumstances when the gravity of the situation rises to such an extent that the life of a person is at stake. In the story, “The Use of Force”, the doctor employed the technique of “throat culture” as the last resort after making several attempts to convince the sick girl to open her mouth, but she continuously resisted to get herself examined. The girl’s life was in danger as the doctor and her parents were apprehensive that she might be suffering from the deadly disease which was very common among the students of her school. So we can say that use of force is not justifiable in general but when the life of a person is in potential danger, use of force becomes inevitable.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 8

i.  What was the advice given by Nushirvan to his people? 

Answer:
Nushrivan advised people to be just. He told them that cruelty was not deeply rooted in the society beginning but was at a small scale in the beginning but it increased and became a custom as a result of the injustice and cruelty of the rulers.

 ii.  What was the remedy suggested by the physicians for the disease of the king?                                          

Answer:
The physicians prescribed the bile of a person endued with certain qualities as the only remedy for the disease of the king. Orders were issued to find such a person who was physically fit.

 iii.  Why did the boy look to the sky and smile?

Answer:
The boy looked to the sky and smiled because he felt helpless. He sought justice from the Almighty Allah against the brutality of the king and materialism of his parents.

 iv. What should be the role of a Qazi?

Answer:
Qazi should do justice and must have considerable knowledge and understanding of moral and social laws. He should not give undue favor to any person and should not pass any decree that takes the life of an innocent person.

 v.  Why did the king weep?

Answer:
The king wept after listening to the boy’s words as they exposed his true self and the miserable condition of the boy melted his heart. He could not contain himself and felt ashamed when he reflected on his own decision that he was about to take the life of an innocent boy.

 vi. How did the king recover?

Answer:
The king recovered within a week after releasing the boy because he realized his mistake and did not have him executed. Allah Almighty rewarded him for his repentance of the unjust decision made by him previously.  

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 50-100 words.
i. Write a note on the character of Nushirvan.

Answer:
Nushrivan was the king of Persia who was famous for his justice, equality and honest treatment with his subjects. He was of the view that so much cruelty and oppression did not prevail in the world initially but over time its intensity increased because of the authoritative people who did not practice justice and made use of their power. According to him, if a king eats one apple from the garden of any of his subjects without paying him, his slaves will pull down the whole tree. In this way, he would be responsible for propagating the custom of making use of force and ignoring the due right of the subjects. In order to discourage this practice, he set up an example in front of his people by paying for the salt that he got from one of the villagers.

ii. What should be the role of a king?

Answer:
The king should be an honest, wise and just person because the responsibility of an entire state rests upon his shoulders. He should be selfless and should not make use of his power in order to achieve his agenda. Moreover, his decisions should be impartial and they should reflect his wisdom and honesty towards his subjects. He should treat the people with equality, provide equal chances for progress and abstain from oppression and dictatorship allowing the people to live freely. His honesty should rest with the state affairs and he should make efforts to work towards the peace and prosperity of the state.

iii. Can an unjust king flourish?

Answer:
An unjust king can never flourish as his injustice would give rise to rebellion and unrest in the society. He can never win the hearts of his subjects. His dishonesty will lead to outrage amongst people against his reign and he will lose his supporters with time and his government will become weak. His country can never make progress and his injustice eventually gives rise to a revolution among the people which will end his tenure. In short, the prosperity of the people depends upon the honesty of the king to a great extent.

iv. What moral lesson do you get from the second tale?

Answer:
The second tale of “The Gulistan of Saadi” by Sheikh Sa’di revolves around the idea how the morals and virtues of a king can influence his people. In this parable, the king of Persia, Nushrivan who was famous for his justice, equality and honest treatment with his subjects sets an example of justice and equality in front of his people by paying for the salt that he gets from one of his people.  He believed that if he does not pay his subjects, he would be responsible for propagating the custom of making use of force and ignoring the due right of the subjects.

v. Compare and contrast the three tales.

Answer:
All the three tales revolve around the common theme that the morals and virtues of the kings affect their people a lot so the prosperity of the people is dependent upon the virtues of the king. The more unjust the king is, the more troubled his country will be. The first tale is about a Persian slave who does not understand the value of safety until he is exposed to the fear of death, the second about Nurshivan, the king of Persia, who believed in justice and equality whereas the third parable is about a king who exploits his subjects and is ready to sacrifice the life of an innocent boy in order to cure his own disease and realizes his mistake later.

vi.  Describe an event in which the trouble of one person affects the others.

Answer:
In our everyday lives, we come across many events where the trouble of one person affects the others. For example, my uncle’s Information Technology company’s sales declined last year due to his absence as he had gone abroad for the treatment of his heart ailment while he handed over the business matters to his only son. His lack of interest in the business matters affected the company’s reputation and sales as a result of which the company had to bear the severe financial loss and eventually went bankrupt. Due to the company’s financial crisis, the wages of the employees got delayed and the poor labour had to face a very hard time. In this way, the carelessness of a single person brought trouble to his family and workers, both.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 9

i. What is a clump of trees?

Answer:
A clump of trees means group or furrow of trees growing together.

ii. What was stuck in the camel’s throat?

Answer:
A melon was struck in the camel’s throat.

iii. What did the quack pretend to cure?

Answer:
The quack pretended to cure goitre, that is, the swollen throat.

iv. What did the quack do with the old woman?

Answer:
In order to cure goitre, the quack tied up the woman’s throat with a blanket. Then he struck the swollen part forcefully with a mallet.

v. What was the result of cure?

Answer:
The result of the cure was dreadful as the old woman expired.

vi. What was the punishment inflicted upon the quack by the villagers?

Answer:
The punishment inflicted upon the quack by the villagers was that he was asked to dig the grave for the burial of the old woman. This punishment was followed by beating.

vii. For  whom did the quack dig the grave?

Answer:
The quack dug the grave of the poor old woman who had expired because of his mistaken treatment.

viii. What did the quack do in the next village?

Answer:
In the next village, the quack warned the people that he would try to do his best but if the patient died, he would not be forced to dig a man’s grave.

ix. Why didn’t the villagers let the old man get cured?

Answer:
The villagers did not let the quack cured the old man because he talked about digging the grave of the patient before he began his treatment. They could not take the risk of relying on such a person for the patient’s treatment.

x. Why did the quake come back to the camel man?

Answer:
The quack came back to the camel-men because he wanted to tell them that they had not told him of the right way to cure goiter.

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 50-100 words.
i. How did the camel-men cure their camel?

Answer:
The camel-men cured their camel by tying a blanket round his throat. Then they struck it hard with all their strength until the melon in the camels’ throat broke into pieces and was easily swallowed by the animal.  

ii. How   did the quack try to cure the old woman?

Answer:
The quack tried to cure the old woman with using the same treatment as the one that the camel-men used on the camels. He tied the throat of the poor old woman up and struck the swollen part of her throat forcefully. This treatment, however, resulted in the old woman’s death.

iii. How  did the quack come to realize his error?

Answer:
The quack came to realise his error when the camel-men made him understand the difference between a camel and an old man or woman. They declared his ideas stupid, as they were surprised how he could not understand that the treatment could suit a camel, which was an animal of prodigious size and strength whereas an old man or woman could never survive the blow of a mallet.

iv. How did the camel-man prove the stupidity of the quack?

Answer:
The camel-man proved the stupidity of the quack by making a demonstration in order to enable him to witness the effects of the same treatment met out to a camel and the quack himself. He hit the camel with a heavy stick; bound with iron rings and merely moved a step or two whereas when he struck the quack a similar blow, unable to bear the pain, he fainted.

v.  What lesson does the story teach?

Answer:
The story teaches us the lesson that any person who shows up at the time of an emergency should not be trusted blindly as he could be someone who has disguised himself as a medical professional. It could be life-threatening for the patient. Similarly, the old woman expires because of the mistaken treatment by such a person. Moreover, “you reap what you sow”, so the pretended doctor was beaten and had to dig the grave of the old woman who expired.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 10

i. What are locusts?

Answer:
Locusts are large insects that live in hot countries and they fly in large groups called swarms destroying all the plants and crops of the area. They are mostly found in Asia and Africa.

ii.  Why did the farmers throw wet leaves on fire?

Answer:
The farmers threw the wet leaves on the fires in order to make the smoke acrid and black. The purpose was to repel the swarms of locusts from the unpleasant smell spread in the air so that they would fly away.

iii.  What was the desire of every farmer?

Answer:
Every farmer desired the locusts not to notice his farm so that the damage may not occur. Although they warned each other of locusts, all of them wanted the locusts to overlook their farms and go to the next ones.

iv. Did Margaret know what to do to keep  the locusts away?

Answer:
No, Margaret did not know what to do against the swarms of locusts destroying the fields. Although she wanted to help the people, but lack of awareness became a hindrance in her way.

v.  What was the  condition of trees?

Answer:
The trees looked strange as they were covered with thick locusts and their branches were weighed down under the weight of the insects.

vi.  How did old  Stephen treat the stray locust which he found on his shirt?

Answer:
Old Steward picked the stray locust from his shirt and split it down into pieces with his thumbnail. He found it to be full of eggs.

vii.  Are the hoppers different from the locusts?

Answer:
Hoppers are young locusts that are born from the eggs of the locusts. While locusts fly and jump fast, hoppers jump from point to point and keep on growing.

viii.  Did Margaret lose heart on the loss of crops?

Answer:
Margaret did not lose hope on the loss of crops. She preferred not to think about it and was making up her mind to fight against the locusts for two of three years more and replanting them.

ix.  Why are the locusts compared with bad weather?

Answer:
The locusts are compared to bad weather because like bad weather they could come at any time. Moreover, they are likely to damage the crops just like bad weather, such as heavy rains, hailstorm etc. can destroy the fields.

x.   Why did the men eat their supper with good appetites?

Answer:
The men ate their supper with good appetites because they had been struggling against the locusts all day long. They were tired and hungry so they had their meal with full desire. Moreover, they thought that the damage could have been worse and they needed to get ready for the next trial.

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 50-100 words.
i. How did the farmers try to prevent the main swarm of locusts from landing on their farms?

Answer:
In order to prevent the swarms of locusts from landing on their farms, the farmers took as many preventive measures as they could. They made fires with wood and grass and threw wet leaves on them so that their unpleasant odour would repel the locusts. They also made noise in order to make the locusts fly away.

ii.  Why, even after all the crops were destroyed, did the men continue to fight the swarm?

Answer:
Even after all the crops were destroyed, the men continued to fight the swarm because they feared that locusts would lay eggs giving birth to millions of hoppers, that is, baby locusts. The increase in their number could result in further damage to their crops.

iii.  What was the condition of the land when the locusts had moved to the south?

Answer:
When the locusts had moved to the South, the condition of the land was devastating. Although the evening air was not black and clouded like before, the sky was clear. The trees and crops were destroyed and there were no bushes for the cattle to rear on so everything needed to be replanted.

iv. What are the measures the farmers should have taken to save their crops? Give five suggestions.

Answer:
The farmers could have taken many preventive measures in order to save their crops. They could have sprayed insecticides. They could also seek advice from the Agricultural Department in order to control the attack of locusts. They could also make use of bio-pesticides such as fungus in order to spread disease among the locusts, which would have resulted in their ultimate death. Use of Nitrogen fertiliser could also prevent locusts.

v.  Write a note on the character of Margaret.

Answer:
Margaret was a farm owner who was a very active, wise, and thoughtful woman. When the locusts attacked the fields, she did not know what to do but she he encouraged the servants to make arrangements against them. After the damage that occurred because of the attack of locusts on the crops, she felt like a savior after the war. She tried to get used to of locusts for three to four years and believed that they were going to be like bad weather, which is always unpredictable and imminent. Margaret felt that the countryside was devastated and the situation could not have been worse.


English Class 11th Notes Chapter 11

i. What was the cause of Negroes’ discontentment?

Answer:
The blacks were deprived of their basic rights and were not treated equally with whites. They were belittled by the white people and treated as slaves so they could not prosper.

ii.  What are the qualities of the veterans of creative suffering?

Answer:
The veterans of creative suffering suffer imprisonment in narrow jail cells and struggle against the brutality of police. These people are courageous and determined and suffer cruelty and injustice in order to gain freedom.

 iii. What is the dream of Martin Luther King Jr.?

Answer:
Martin Luther King Jr. dreams of brotherhood, justice and assurance of equal rights to all. He dreams of the time when black Americans are not belittled because of the colour of their skin and are provided with equal opportunities for progress.

iv. What should be the faith of Negroes?

Answer:
The faith of the Negroes should be that suffering without any cause brings God’s favour. They should hope that one day they would be able to earn their freedom since they are made to suffer without any fault of theirs so God will compensate them.

v. What was the necessity of pleading the case of the Negroes’ freedom?

Answer:
The necessity of pleading the case of the Negroes’ freedom was that they were victims of injustice and inequality. They did not enjoy freedom, were deprived of their basic rights, and subjected to slavery by the white people all their lives.

vi.   What should be the criterion of judgment for a person?

Answer:
The criterion of the judgment of a person should be the strength of his character not the colour of his skin. It should be his courage to speak and fight for truth and justice.

vii.   Do the Negroes enjoy liberty in all the parts of their country?

Answer:
No, the Negroes do not enjoy liberty in all parts of their country such as the states of Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana. They are deprived of their basic human rights and are subjected to slavery by the whites.

viii.   From which part of the country did the Negroes gather there?

Answer:
The Negroes gathered there from various parts of the country including Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and some other areas in order to gain freedom and equality.

ix.   Write down the song in your own words.

Answer:
I sing of my country which is a land of freedom. I sing of the land where my ancestors led their lives and passed away. It is a land of pilgrim’s pride. Let the chant of freedom be heard from every nook and corner of the country.

x.   What is the effect of the repetition of words?

Answer:
The effect of the repetition of words is that it serves the speakers’ purpose of laying emphasis on certain parts of the speech. It stresses the main ideas and not only makes the people realize the significance of these words but also keeps them focused in the direction intended by the speaker. 

Q 4. Answer the following questions in 100-150 words.
i.  Write a note on the struggle of Martin Luther King Jr. for the Negroes.

Answer:
Martin Luther King was a priest and honoured political activist of the Black race during the Civil Rights Movements in America in 1950s and 1960s. He struggled for the assurance of the rights and liberation of Negroes of United States of America all his life. He led freedom movements in the Southern States of America for Negroes. He made speeches, and led processions in order to evoke a sense of freedom in those people and wrote for them. Moreover, he raised his voice against racial discrimination and requested the government to make laws in order to ensure equality between whites and blacks. In short, he was a political activist of Negroes who devoted his life in order to preach sanctity of freedom, fraternity and restore the faith of Negroes in everyone and equality of human rights.

ii.   What was the condition of the Negroes in his days?iii.  

Answer:
In Martin Luther King’s days, the Negroes living in America were leading a miserable life. They did not enjoy everyone human rights as par with the whites and were subjected to racial discrimination. They were treated as slaves and had to face a lot of trials and tribulations. They were imprisoned in narrow jail cells where they had to endure persecution and were subjected to police brutality. They were neither given equal opportunities to educate themselves and nor to prosper in any professional field. These people were dwelling in misery in the valley of despair in search of liberty and equality. Therefore, in order to uplift the lives of Negroes, Martin Luther King sacrificed his own life.

iii.  Write ten lines on racial discrimination.

Answer:
When a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of his or her race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin, or immigrant status, it is termed as racial discrimination. In the days of the political activist Martin Luther King, legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights given to white Americans were not granted to Black Americans. They did not enjoy equal rights in everyone matters of education, immigration, voting, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure etc. They were subjected to slavery and oppression by the whites. Racial discrimination is a threat to humanity because it deprives them of basic human rights of equality, justice, and equal opportunities in every walk of life.

iv.  Write the summary of the speech.

Answer:
Martin Luther King emphasized on the negation of racial segregation in the society in his speech. He stated that a nation could not prosper if equal treatment everyone was not met out to the Negroes as par with the whites. People should not be judged by their cast, creed and skin color, but the strength of their character. He gave the vision of America as a state where equality and justice prevailed and Negroes were not subjected to racial prejudice. In his of an ideal country, the blacks and whites enjoyed equal opportunities in every field of life.

v. What are the measures you can take to ensure justice with all the sections of the society?

Answer:
In order to ensure justice with all sections of the society, law and order should be the same for everyone irrespective of their caste, creed, financial and social status. The facility of free education should be provided to poor children in public schools. People should be given equal opportunities for work and progress. The poor sections of the society should be treated equally at public places. The poor should not become the face of oppression at the hand of the rich and the whites should not treat Blacks brutally.

English Class 11th Notes Chapter 12

i.  How much did she save for Christmas?

Answer:
Della saved one dollar and eighty-seven cents for Christmas. She had collected this amount cent by cent by careful buying of things.

ii.  Why did she feel proud in the beauty of her hair?

Answer:
Della felt pride in the beauty of her hair because she knew that they were more beautiful than any queen’s jewels and gifts. They fell behind her back like a stream of brown water and reached below her knee like a dress.

iii. Why did she sell her hair?

Answer:
Della sold her hair because she needed money in order to buy a Christmas gift for Jim, the man who was more valuable to her than any other thing.

iv. Why did Jim sell the gold watch?

Answer:
Jim sold the gold watch in order to buy an expensive Christmas gift for Della. He wanted to buy combs decorated with jewels for her.

v. Why did they want to exchange the gifts?

Answer:
They wanted to exchange the gifts because they loved each other dearly. They wanted to make each other feel happy on Christmas.

vi. Why did she feel sad on losing her hair?

Answer:
She felt sad on losing her hair because she did not look like the girl with the most beautiful hair whom Jim loved dearly, but a schoolboy. She feared that Jim might not like her with short hair and think of her as a girl who worked for money.

vii.  Why did Jim not welcome her when he stepped in?

Answer:
Jim did not welcome her when he stepped in because when he entered the house he found her hair missing. He was disappointed because he was in the habit of looking at Della’s hair with great pleasure.

viii. What did he bring out of his coat?

Answer:
He brought out a something tied in paper from his coat. When Della opened the packet, she found special combs for her hair.

ix.  How beautiful was the gold watch chain?

Answer:
The gold chain was simple but its specialty was that it was made of pure and rich material.

x. What was the wisdom in selling the most valuable things?

Answer:
The wisdom in selling the most valuable things was that they proved to each other that their love was selfless and these gifts would remind them that they valued each other more than any other thing. They sacrificed their most valuable things in order to make each other happy.

 Answer the following questions in 50-100 words.
i.  How did the Magi want to celebrate their Christmas?

Answer:
The Magi wanted to celebrate their Christmas by exchanging valuable gifts with each other as the testimony to their love. They were the first people to give Christmas gifts. These people brought gifts to the newborn Christ-child.

ii.  How much were they attached to each other in the story?

Answer:
In the story, “The Gift of the Magi”, Della and Jim were so attached to each other that they gave away their most prized possessions in order to buy expensive gifts for each other. They wanted to make each other happy on the holy occasion of Christmas.

iii. Why did they sell their beautiful valuable things?

Answer:
They sold their most beautiful, valuable things because they needed to buy special presents for each other on Christmas. Della’s saving for Christmas was only one dollar and eighty-seven cents while she wanted to buy something valuable for Jim who was very dear to her. Jim had a family to look after and he could not afford to buy her an expensive gift if he had not sold his gold watch.

iv.  Describe the story in your own words.

Answer:
Della and Jim had a profound love for each other and could not think of celebrating Christmas without presenting gifts to each other. Since they were short of money, they sold their most prized possessions in order to buy the presents. While Della sold her long, lustrous hair for twenty dollars and bought a gold chain for Jim’s watch, Jim sold his expensive gold watch, which he had inherited from his father in order to buy combs embellished with jewels for Della. Although the gifts were too good to be put into use, they served as a testimony to prove their worth to each other.

v. What is the moral of the story?

Answer:
The story teaches us the lesson that the relationships are more valuable than materialistic things. The act of exchanging gifts with each other on the holy occasions is a beautiful gesture which makes life lovable and worth living. 

English Class 11th Notes Chapter 13

i. What was Alias Abul’s full name?

Answer:
Alia’s Abul’s full name was Maulvi Abdul Barkat.

ii.  What was his turban known as and where did it originally come from?

Answer:
His turban was known as Mashadi lungi. It originally came from Mashad in Iran.

iii.  What did he always carry with him?

Answer:
He always carried a walking stick with him which was like a scepter decorated with bands of brass and gilt.

iv.  Describe Maulvi’s appearance.

Answer:
Maulvi Abul Barkat has been portrayed as a spiritual man having bulging eyes. He wore a light brown turban, the gilded tip of which shone brightly. He carried a walking stick, which appeared as a scepter decorated with bands of brass and gilt. He oiled his hair with oil, which spread a sweet but sharp fragrance wherever he went.

v.   How much did the Maulvi collect on every Eid?

Answer:
Maulvi Abdul Barkat collected one hundred and fifty to two hundred rupees on every Eid.

 vi.  How much was distributed among the needy and the poor?

Answer:
Forty to fifty rupees were distributed by Maulvi Abdul Barkat among the needy and the poor.

vii.   What was the name of his eldest daughter?

Answer:
The name of his eldest daughter was Mehrunnisa who was nicknamed Mehrun.

viii. What was the name of the member of the District Board where the Maulvi lived?

Answer:
The name of the member of the District Board where the Maulvi lived was Chaudhry Fateh Dad.

ix. What was the name of his wife?

Answer:
The name of his wife was Zaibunnisa.

x.   Write the names of the other two daughters mentioned in the story.

Answer:
The names of the other two daughters of Maulvi Abdul Barkat mentioned in the story are Zabda and Shamsun.

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