Lahore Board Class 12 English Notes Chapter Wise

Lahore Board Class 12 English Notes | 2nd Year Class XII Notes | FSc Notes | Adamjee Notes | Zahid Notes | im ki dunya Notes, short and long question.

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Lahore Board Class 12 English Notes Question and Answer

Chapter 1 (The Dying Sun)

Q 1. How is it that a star seldom finds another star near it?

Answer:
A star seldom finds another star because millions of stars are continuously wondering about in space. A few of these stars form constellations while most of them travel in isolation. They travel in the limitless universe where there are immeasurable distances among them, so it is a rare possibility that a star comes in close proximity with another.

Q 2. What happened when, according to Sir James Jeans, a wandering star, wandering through space, came near the sun?

Answer:
Some two thousand years ago, a star wandering through space came in close proximity with the surface of the sun. It raised huge tidal waves on the surface of the sun and they were stronger than the ones caused by the moon on the surface of oceans. They traveled across the surface of the sun and resulted in the formation of a huge mountain beyond human perception.

Q 3. What happened when the wandering star came nearer and nearer?

Answer:
As the wondering star came nearer and nearer the sun, the mountain rose higher and higher. When the star began to move away again, its tidal pull was so strong that the mountain was torn into pieces, which hurled into the infinite space.

Q 4. What are planets and how did they come into existence?

Answer:
Planets are huge pieces of matter, which were originally the part of the sun and are constantly revolving around it. They came into existence because of the disturbance caused by a wandering star when it came in close proximity to the sun. The powerful tidal pull of the star tore off some of its parts, which hurled away into space and keep on wandering about the sun until this day.

Q 5. Why is there no life on the stars?

Answer:
There is no existence of life on the stars because of the lack of suitable physical conditions. Life requires a peculiar temperature, which is neither too hot nor too cold within which life can exist whereas stars were originally the pieces of sun hurled away into space. Hence, stars are barren in terms of life.

Q 6. Write a note on the beginning of life on the earth.

Answer:
Sir James Jeans is not very traveled about the beginning of life on Earth. He says that perhaps life came into existence because of the process of cooling of the broken piece of the sun over the passage of time until its temperature became moderate. It started in simple organisms whose survival was dependent on the ability to reproduce themselves before dying. In the due course of time, these organisms became complex and eventually resulted in the creation of the human race.

Q 7. Why is the universe, of which our earth is a part, so frightening? Give as many reasons as you can.

Answer:
The universe, which Earth is a part of, is so frightening because of its vastness and the immeasurable distance between any two stars. Moreover, we perceive the stretches of time to be too great to imagine and the history of the human race is very small in comparison to the gigantic universe. Another reason is our loneliness and that our home stands as a millionth part of a grain of sand on all seashores across the world. Lastly, we find it frightening because of the absence of life anywhere in the universe except on Earth.

Q 8. What, in your opinion, should be the conditions necessary, for the kind of life we know to exist on other heavenly bodies? Do such conditions generally exist?

Answer:
For the existence of the kind of life that we are familiar with on other heavenly bodies, suitable physical conditions are required. It is possible only in a narrow belt surrounding each of these fires at a distance whereby the temperature required for the existence of life is moderate, neither too cold that it would freeze everything nor too hot that it would burn everything. Whereas, the stars apart from Earth can be perceived as a collection of fires scattered through space and those beyond the Milky Way galaxy to be too cold with hundreds of degrees of frost, making the existence of life impossible. Hence, there is no likelihood of life in other heavenly bodies beside Earth.


Chapter 2 (Using the Scientific Method)

Q 1. How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?

Answer:
 The scientific method has helped us remarkably in our fight against diseases. Average life expectancy of a human has increased up to thirty more years. Previously, the lives of babies were threatened by contagious diseases like measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever, and diphtheria, which were incurable. Now babies are born in hospitals so there is a remote possibility of getting them a disease. With the advent of the scientific method, causes, prevention, and treatment of these diseases have been made possible.

Q 2. Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago.

Answer:
The streets and roads of our cities today are paved and well drained and they are cleaned regularly as opposed to the narrow, unpaved, and poorly drained streets where household garbage and other waste material were thrown. The effective sewerage system carries off the filthy material to the disposal plants through sealed pipes. Towns and cities are supplied a sufficient amount of water through pipelines, so the age-old bucket system used for carrying water to their homes is no longer in practice.

Q 3. What are the sanitary conditions like in our villages today and how would you improve them?

Answer:
The sanitary conditions of in our villages these days are deplorable because of the lack of proper sewerage system to carry waste material and disposal plants. Due to a poor drainage system, accumulation of filthy water beside the homes of villagers is a common sight. These dirty pools of water are the breeding grounds of germs, flies, and insects because of which diseases and epidemics such as cholera, malaria, influenza break out. Drinking water is scanty in underdeveloped rural areas and is generally obtained from pools and uncovered wells. Moreover, the cattle float freely in the ponds and people who use drinking water for bathing and washing purposes pollute it. For the improvement of sanitary conditions in the villages, I would suggest that a proper drainage system should be introduced and the streets and drains should be cleaned regularly. Awareness campaigns about cleanliness and its impact on their health hygiene should be held in order to enlighten the villagers. Methods for purification of drinking water should be introduced. Moreover, old wells for drinking water should be abandoned.

Q 4. How has the scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?

Answer:
The scientific method has helped us in the production and preservation of food in many ways. Regardless of the season and climate, people can now enjoy fresh a variety of fruits and vegetables all year round. Seafood and a variety of meat can be preserved by the quick-freeze method and their nutrition is retained at the same time. Modern methods of selection, gradation, and processing of foods have made it more wholesome and fresh. Dehydration or removal of water is a practical method of preservation, which has obliterated the risk of poisoning from canned foods such as milk, eggs, potatoes, and apples.

Q 5. We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?

Answer:
There is no doubt towards the fact that we are now generally less fearful than our ancestors were in their times. Our ancestors were afraid of unseen powers and evil spirits. Supernatural causes were held responsible for diseases so they were terrified by the evil spirits. Superstitions such as bad luck associated with black cats, broken mirrors, and number thirteen that gives rise to feelings of anxiety were rampant. Back in the day, people wore charms to avoid bad luck. Hence, feelings of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty prevailed in the times of our ancestors.

Q 6. How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?

Answer:
The scientific method has enabled us to get over our old fears because it has brought changes to our attitude and enlightened our minds. It has enabled us to discover the causes and devise the methods of prevention and cure of diseases and we do not believe in evil spirits. Superstitions of black cats, broken mirrors, and the number thirteen do not horrify us because our thoughts rest upon the idea that everything happens for a reason. Instead, ideas are supported by facts and scientific proofs in our times, so the elements of uncertainty and fear that were prevalent in the past have reduced fundamentally.

Q 7. What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples.

Answer:
In the past, superstitions had an astonishing grip over the people. They relied on astrology for everything they did and fortune telling influenced their lives. For example, before doing any work or going on a journey, they sought the help of astrologers. However, Astrology and fortune telling are still practiced in our times but they do not influence the lives of most of the people anymore and they believe that everything happens for a reason.

Q 8. Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?

Answer:
Some of the superstitions still prevalent in our country in spite of the fact that science has dispelled them include the omen of black cats, which stands as a symbol of bad luck. The misfortune associated with broken mirrors is another superstition that many people in our country still believe in it. There are tremendous effects of superstitions on the thinking pattern and lives of people in general. Superstitions often cause unrealistic and unfounded fears. Feelings of fear of the unseen supernatural forces occupy their minds.


Chapter 3 (Why Boys Fail in College)

Q 1. According to the author, there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they? Can we help them?

Answer:
According to the author, some boys fail in college because they do not try. The problem with these boys is that they face problem in concentrating on their studies. When such boys open their book to study, they get nervous and they unconsciously start wasting their time by engaging themselves in trivial jobs like the sharpening of pencils. Since the trouble is psychological in nature, we can help them by pointing out the source of the trouble and encourage them to work on it.

Q 2. How does mistaken ambition on the part of boys and their parents lead to the failure of the boys?

Answer:
Mistaken ambition on part of the boys and their parents leads to the failure of the boys because of their lack of interest in the subject they are studying. Their parents have usually chosen the courses they study and they follow the direction planned by their parents half-heartedly. The advice of the college staff can help them deal with such cases before the failure is complete.

Q 3. There are some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college. Who are they? Do you have such boys in college in your country?

Answer:
Some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college are of this sort have always done their schoolwork effortlessly but are unaware of the real application. Such boys fail because of their misjudgment that they can pass college examination with as little effort as they had to put in school. A change their attitude towards college education and the formation of a completely new set of habits is required on part of the boy himself in this case. Yes, I have encountered such boys in my country where even the brightest of the students do not have the real understanding of the concepts and are not able to apply them. These students misjudge the college curriculum to be as easy as the school one and consequently fail.

Q 4. How does financial pressure lead to the failure of students described in the lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country?

Answer:
Financial pressure leads to the failure of the students because they have to earn themselves in order to meet their college expenses. They have to manage their studies and work shifts simultaneously, so they do not get ample time to concentrate on their studies. In this way, they get a poor education and poor living. Yes, I have come across such boys in my country who have to earn themselves in order to meet their educational finances. They become the victims of financial pressure and are unable to give due time to their studies which result in their failure.

Q 5. To what extent does the question of health lead to failure at college? How far can the college authorities with their medical officers help students in such cases?

Answer:
Failure at college has a lot to do with the physical and mental state of health of a student. The efficiency of a student who is suffering from a disease such as tuberculosis, tonsils, sleeping sickness, poor digestion, or any form of the mental or nervous problem is greatly affected. The college authorities with their medical officers can help the students in such cases by arranging adequate health service.

Q 6. What place would you accord to sportsmen in colleges?

Answer:
A good number of boys in college are attracted towards athletics, sports, and literary activities. The writer suggests that such boys should maintain a balance between co-curricular activities and their studies. Their attitude should become professional and instead of wasting their time, they should devote most of their time to their studies.

Q 7. There are some students who join college for the fun of it. Should they be allowed to stay?

Answer:
Some lazy students who join college for the fun of it and do not have any serious aim in life. They do not concentrate on their studies and waste their time instead. No, such students should not be allowed to stay in college so that they may go back to the cold world and recognize the lack of worth of a lazy bluffer on their own.


Chapter 4 (End of Term)

Q 1. What was the Daiches’ attitude towards the weekend as a schoolboy? Why did he long for it?

Answer:
The writer longed passionately for the weekend when he was a schoolboy. Although he was a good student and enjoyed classroom work, the homework load and observance of strict timings were too much for him. He looked forward to Friday as a gala day in his life because it enabled him to relax and have extra sleep in the morning.

Q 2. What was his general view of school life?

Answer:
Although he often enjoyed classroom work at school but he did not like school because of its rigorous discipline and the feeling of anxiety that the fierce competition rose in him. He felt that it was impossible to relax and his routine-life as a schoolboy was tiresome. Moreover, he did not like waking up early in the morning for school. The funereal voice of his maid who used to wake him up haunted him.

Q 3. He liked holidays for their freedom – freedom from what?

Answer:
The writer liked holidays because they gave him freedom from tiresome homework. He disliked the dull routine of school. Although he enjoyed classwork, the monotony of school life did not suit his temperament. Therefore, holidays were a source of coveted freedom for him: freedom from anxiety and strict discipline.

Q 4. How did he spend his summer holidays?

Answer:
The writer enjoyed summer holidays by walking across the meadows in the month of July, wearing his summer school clothes: a grey shirt, grey shorts, and Weston’s blazer. Therefore, summer holidays were a source of profound happiness to the writer. He looked forward to them eagerly.

Q 5. Wishes don’t come true in this life, writes Daiches. What are the things he longed for but could not have?

Answer:
According to the writer, wishes don’t come true in this life. He longed for many things that his parents could not afford. In his early childhood, he desperately wanted to have a tricycle. As he grew up, he wished to have a bicycle, which he was able to buy only after receiving the prize money that he had won at Edinburgh University. As a kid, he used to stand by the sweets or ice cream shops gazing at all these delicacies empty-handed.

Q 6. What did he do with his pocket money?

Answer:
The writer used to get a few pence per week as his pocket money. He used to save it in a money box and did not spend it on himself. His siblings used to do the same. Apparently, he belonged to a very humble background so he and his siblings could not afford the luxury of having money to spend on themselves.


Chapter 5 (On Destroying Books)

Q 1. What sort of books were presented by the British public to soldiers?

Answer:
British public sent different kinds of books to the troops. Although some of the books presented to the soldiers were suitable, yet a lot of them were merely useless rubbish. These included some of the oddest things to be presented such as twenty-year-old magazines, guides to the Lake District, and bank numbers of Whitaker’s Almanac. It appeared that the owners wanted to get rid of these useless books.

Q 2. Was it interest of soldiers that prompted their action, or was it the wish to get rid of useless books?

Answer:
It appeared that people had sent them to the soldiers with the wish to get rid of them because many of the books were useless. Perhaps, they got tired of those useless books and wanted to dispose them off. It was like they got an opportunity and turned it into account.

Q 3. Why should bad books be destroyed?

Answer:
Bad books should be destroyed because it is absurd to keep useless books only because they are printed material. It is positively a public duty to destroy them. The action of having them disposed of has many benefits. It makes room for new books and saves one’s heirs from the trouble of sorting out and disposing of these useless books and storing them.

Q 4. Why is it difficult to destroy books?

Answer:
It is difficult to destroy books because his house is littered with unwanted books. The writer is at loss as to how he should destroy books for many reasons. He can send all this rubbish to the soldiers but he does not want to give them any trouble. He wants to sell them but no one will take interest in buying books of inferior poetry. Moreover, burning such a huge quantity of books is a gigantic task.

Q 5. Why could not the author burn the unwanted books?

Answer:
The author could not burn the unwanted books because he lived in a multistoried flat in Chelsea. He had no kitchen range to toast them on the gas cooker. Moreover, his study fire was too small to burn them leaf by leaf. He would have to open them one by one, which would be very time-consuming.

Q 6. How did he decide to get rid of them?

Answer:
After thinking of all possibilities and rejecting all other ways of destroying books, the writer decided to throw the books into the river. He took a sack, stuffed his books into it, put it over his shoulder, and made his way to the river.

Q 7. Describe the author’s midnight venture to throw the books in the river and the suspicions which his action were likely to arouse.

Answer:
On a cold, starry night, the writer came out on the street carrying the sack of books on his shoulders. He came across a policeman and a passer-by. His heart trembled because he thought the police officer might look upon him as a thief or suspect him as a person throwing a baby wrapped in a sack into the river. A multitude of frightening ideas crossed his mind. Mustering up the courage, he threw the sack of books into the river.

Q 8. How did he muster up courage at last to fling them into the river?

Answer:
With some difficulty, the writer mustered up the courage, at last, to fling the books into the river. He was quite nervous and a multitude of frightening ideas crossed his mind. He thought that it was the last chance to get rid of those books. At last, he let the sack go into the river. He came back a happy man.

Q 9. Did he come to have a feeling for those books once he had got rid of them?

Answer:
Yes, the writer had a sad feeling for those books once he got rid of them. He thought that they deserved a better fate than falling into the cold torrent and settling down at the bottom of the river in the cold night. In short, it was a bitter-sweet experience for him.


Chapter 6 (The Man who was a Hospital)

Q 1. How did Jerome K. Jerome come to suspect that his liver was out of order? What were the diseases he thought he was suffering from on reading a book on the treatment of diseases?

Answer:
Jerome K. Jerome came to suspect that his liver was out of order while reading a patent liver-pill circular having various symptoms of liver disease. On reading a book on the treatment of diseases, he thought that he was suffering from diseases like Typhoid Fever, St. Vitus’ Dance, Bright’s disease, Cholera, Diphtheria, Gout, and Zymosis.

Q 2. What was the disease he discovered he didn’t have?

Answer:
He discovered that the only disease he did not have was Housemaid’s Knee.

Q 3. Was he pleased to find he didn’t have it?

Answer:
No, the writer was not pleased to find out that he did not have the disease, Housemaid’s Knee. He was rather disappointed.

Q 4. What was his first reaction?

Answer:
His first reaction on finding out that he did not have Housemaid’s Knee was that he felt sorry for himself. He considered it unfair to have been deprived of it. However, after some time, he became less selfish knowing that he had got every other disease and decided to do without the disease.

Q 5. Why should he be an acquisition to the medical class?

Answer:
The writer believed that he should be an acquisition to the medical class because he thought he was an interesting case from the medical point of view. Having so many diseases, he was a hospital in himself. In his presence, the doctors would have no need to walk the hospitals in order to get their diploma. All they had to do was walk around him and examine him.

Q 6. Describe his visit to the medical man.

Answer:
After finding out that he had so many diseases, he visited the doctor in order to seek medical advice. When asked about what was the problem with him, he told the doctor that his life was short as he was suffering from all diseases except Housemaid’s Knee. The doctor examined him, held his wrist and hit over his chest which was unexpected. He wrote down a prescription afterward and gave it to him.

Q 7. He thought he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him. Why?

Answer:
He thought that he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him because he could give the doctor a good opportunity to examine almost all diseases at the same time within a single person. The doctor could get to practice the treatment of more diseases out of him than seventeen hundred ordinary patients who came to him with one or two diseases each.

Q 8. What was the prescription given to him by the doctor?

Answer:
In the prescription given to him by the doctor, he was advised to take one pound beef steak after every six hours, do ten miles walk every morning and go to bed at eleven sharp every night. He also suggested him not to stuff his head with the things he did not understand.

Q 9. Describe his visit to the chemist.

Answer:
Without going through the prescription himself, he went to the chemist and handed it over to him. After reading it, he returned it to the writer saying that he might have been able to oblige him if he ran a co-operative store and family hotel at the same time because it contained some general instructions, not prescribed medicines.

Q 10. What is the significance of the doctor’s advice: don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand?

Answer:
The advice of the doctor that he should not stuff his head with the things he did not understand has a great significance for every man in daily life. If we restrict ourselves to our own work and do not concentrate on the things we do not understand, many stressful problems in life can be avoided.


Chapter 7 (My Financial Career)

Q 1. What light do the following expressions throw on Leacock’s state of mind when he entered the bank: ‘looked timidly round’, ‘shambled in’?

Answer:
The expressions “looked timidly round” and “shambled in” reveal the nervous state of mind of the author. He had a feeling of anxiety, so he walked into the bank trembling and looked around in a confused state of mind.

Q 2. Why did the manager come to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal?

Answer:
The manager thought that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal because he wanted to see him alone. He presumed that he was one of Pinkerton’s men. Due to Leacock’s mysterious manner, he mistook him as a detective.

Q 3. What was the attitude of the manager towards Leacock on learning that he only wished to deposit 56 dollars in the bank?

Answer:
On learning that he only wished to deposit fifty-six dollars in the bank, the manager’s attitude was rude. He got up furiously, opened the door and called Mr. Montgomery in an unkindly loud voice, telling him to assist Leacock in opening an account and depositing money.

Q 4. What other blunders did Leacock commit after leaving the manager’s office?

Answer:
After leaving the manager’s office, Leacock committed more blunders. First, he went to the manager’s wicket and poked the ball of money at him as if he was playing a magic trick. Next, while filling the check for the withdrawal of money for his present use, he mistakenly wrote fifty-six dollars instead of six, which was equal to the total amount he had deposited.

Q 5. After this misadventure in the bank where did Leacock keep his money?

Answer:
After this misadventure of his in the bank, Leacock had neither visited the bank again nor availed their services. He kept his money in his trousers’ pocket and savings in a sock.

Q 6. Give as many examples as you can to show that Leacock was feeling completely lost in the bank all the time he was there.

Answer:
In the bank, Leacock committed many blunders which indicate that he was completely lost all the time he was there. For example, when he entered the bank, he asked the accountant that he wanted to see the manager, adding the word “alone” unconsciously. Moreover, he gave the money to be deposited to the accountant in a manner that implied that he was doing a magic trick. Lastly, while filling the check for the withdrawal of money for his present use, he mistakenly wrote fifty-six dollars instead of six, which was equal to the total amount he had deposited.


Chapter 8 (China’s Way to Progress)

Q 1. Why has the world changed its attitude towards China?

Answer:
Over time, the world has changed its attitude towards China. It enjoys tremendous popularity in the modern world today. There is a long queue of countries on the waiting list to recognize China because the awareness of the insensibility of their previous view about China is increasing with time. Another probable reason is the political guilt complex for having kept China out of the United Nations for a long time.

Q 2. Discuss Chinese agriculture system.

Answer:
In China, the agricultural system is growing rapidly through the system of communes. These communes have been further subdivided into production brigades and teams. Although a large number of people still carry out the traditional, intensive labour, agricultural mechanization is being introduced with care so as to avoid upsetting the balance.

Q 3. How does China rely on its own resources?

Answer:
In China, all the twenty-six provinces that are even forty-four hundred kilometers apart from each other rely on their own resources. They have the capacity to continue to maintain and support themselves even in case of war. They generate their own funds and do not depend upon the help of the Central government.

Q 4. Describe a day in the life of a Chinese student.

Answer:
A Chinese student gets up at 6 o’clock in the morning and performs a few chores in the house. Then, she takes breakfast goes to school at 8 o’clock which she attends till 11 o’clock. She goes home for lunch afterwards and returns to school at one thirty where she does the homework till 3 o’clock. She goes through the lessons for an hour at home, after which she relaxes listening to the radio or reading newspapers to gain awareness of the national and international situation.

Q 5. Write a note on the Chinese women.

Answer:
From a Western perspective, Chinese women lack femininity and are usually not interested in beauty products, films, literature or drugs. They hold up half the sky and are determined to work at par with men and enjoy equal rights. They enjoy the social benefits of eight hours working day, free hospitalization, nursery, and infant school and fifty-six paid holidays before childbirth, which is free of cost. Chinese women exhibit a sense of confidence, dignity, and awareness of carrying out an important role in society.

Q 6. What are the social security benefits provided to the Chinese workers?

Answer:
All the Chinese workers get the salary equal to the monthly cost of living. In the agricultural communes, housing facility is completely free of cost for the workers. Medical treatment is also free for all workers. Male Chinese workers retire at the age of sixty, which is extendable in special cases, whereas females retire at the age of fifty or fifty-five if they do clerical work. Pensions are provided on the basis of work seniority and they vary from fifty to sixty percent of the worker’s last wage. Those who work in factories are offered meals three times a day in the factory cafeteria for ten to twelve yuan. Factories also have nurseries and kindergartens where the children are looked after for minimal charges.

Q 7. ‘It is the people and not the things that are decisive.” Discuss.

Answer:
When the writer says, “It is people not the things that are decisive, he is trying to demonstrate that the concept of the Chinese social experiment which depends exclusively on its masses for its success. Although this concept whereby the Chinese do not follow the Western pattern of giving undue importance to machines has been destroyed by modern technology, but it is still meaningful. They have not placed much reliance on material things but individual labour and workmanship which is clear proof of people being the decisive factor in the success of their country.

Q 8. “The heart of the matter is the need to root out selfishness.” Discuss.

Answer:
Mao says; “The heart of the matter is the need to root out selfishness”. It means that to make progress all of us should work for the betterment of everyone. The secret behind China’s economic progress is also based on the same principle that they work collectively for the benefit of everyone. In other words, they believe in selfless and devoted workers on whom the prosperity of their country depends.


Chapter 9 (Hunger and Population Explosion)

Q 1. What does hunger mean on a large scale as viewed by the author?

Answer:
Hunger on a large scale as viewed by the author does not mean feeling hungry for some time, but it means never having enough to eat. It is a situation where people do not have sufficient food to eat and are uncertain about their regular supply of food.

Q 2. Describe some great famines of the past.

Answer:
A large number of famines occurred in Asia in the past. The major ones include the ninety famines that occurred in North China in one century, which resulted in the death of nine and a half million people. The famine that occurred in Russia in 1921-22 killed several million people whereas ten million people died in the famine in Bengal in 1969-70. The worst famine of the century occurred in India in 1964-65.

Q 3. How do famines occur?

Answer:
Famines occur because of several reasons. The major cause of famines is the greater number of consumers as compared to the amount of food available. They are also caused because of the failure of crops due to diseases and lack of rains.

Q 4. What is the main reason for population increase today?

Answer:
The main reason for the population increase today is the increasing difference between birth-rate and death-rate. The number of people born in a year is greater than the number of people who die.

Q 5. What is meant by birth-rate and death-rate, and how do they affect the population of a country?

Answer:
Birth-rate means the number of live births in a specified area over a specific period of time while death-rate means the number of deaths in a specified area over a specific period of time. They are usually expressed as the number of live births or deaths per 1,000 people of the population per year.  They affect the population of a country as the difference between birth-rate and death-rate determines the increase or decrease in the population of a country. If the birth-rate is higher than the death –rate in a country, it would result in an increase in population. For example, in the United Kingdom, the birth-rate for 1963 was 18.2 and the death-rate was 11.6. So the population is growing at the rate of 6.6 per 1,000 of the population.

Q 6. What have public health measures to do with increase in population?

Answer:
Public health measures have a lot to do with the increase in population. In Asia and Far East, public health measures for the treatments of diseases and epidemics have resulted in the decrease in death-rate and consequently an increase in population. For example, in Ceylon, the death rate was reduced by one-third due to the discovery of DDT which killed off mosquitoes which carried malaria.

Q 7. Account for the high birth-rate in under-developed countries?

Answer:
In the under-developed countries, there is a tendency to let the population multiply unchecked. On average, a couple should be having two children only to replace themselves in order to keep the population at the same level, which is not the case in these countries. Moreover, it is extremely difficult to convince the people living in under-developed countries to limit the size of their families because they take pride in expanding their families. This results in the increase in birth-rate.

Q 8. Why is birth rate not so high in the more advanced countries?

Answer:
The birth-rate is not so high in more advanced countries because a check and balance are maintained between the birth and death rates annually. An average woman in the U.S.A has only three children, so the population increases only by almost half as compared to other countries.

Q 9. Give a brief account of the poor economic conditions prevailing in underdeveloped countries.

Answer:
The economic conditions of under-developed countries are deplorable. An under-developed country is marked by poverty, so there are beggars in the urban areas and poor farmers in the rural areas. It lacks factories and usually has inadequate supplies of electricity. It has poor roads and railways. Hospitals and schools are few and far between and most of the people are uneducated. The export products of such a country are usually raw material which is mostly subject to price fluctuations. This leaves a bad impact on their economy.


Chapter 10 (The Jewel of the World)

Q 1. Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rahman I, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa.

Answer:
Abd-al-Rahman I was a capable and strong man who belonged to Umayyad family. Once, when he was in Bedouin camp, Abbasid soldiers reached him and his brother to kill them. They dashed into the Euphrates River. He succeeded in swimming across the river but his younger brother, who was a poor swimmer got killed. He bore great hardship and reached Palestine. In North Africa, he barely escaped assassination at the hands of the governor of the province. He kept on wandering in Africa from tribe to tribe to save himself from the spies of the enemy and reached Ceuta after a period of five years.

Q 2. How did Abd-al-Rahman deal with the governor appointed by the Abhaad caliph to contest his rule?

Answer:
Abd-al-Rahman killed the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph. He cut his head off, preserved it in salt and camphor. Then, he wrapped it in a black flag with a letter of appointment and sent it to the Caliph in Baghdad.

Q 3. What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?

Answer:
On receiving the head of the governor, the Abbasid caliph said; “Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe!”

Q 4. What did Abd-al-Rahman do to make himself strong and to beautify has capital?

Answer:
In order to make himself strong, he trained a well-disciplined, highly trained army of 40,000 or more Berbers and paid them generously to maintain their favour. In order to beautify his capital, he built an aqueduct for the supply of pure water and ordered the construction of a wall around it. He also built up a grand palace for himself with a garden outside where he introduced exotic plants. He also founded the great most of Cordova.

Q 5. Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al- Rahman III.

Answer:
Under the reign of Abd-al-Rahman III, remarkable economic progress was made by Arabs. At that time, Spain was considered as the most cultured country in Europe with Constantinople and Baghdad as one of the three cultural centres of the world. With its seventy libraries and numerous bookshops, libraries, mosques, and palaces, it acquired international fame and admiration of travelers. Under his Caliphate, Spain became one of the wealthiest and most populated lands of Europe. Beside agricultural development, weaving and leather industry, silk, glass ware, brass work and the art of inlaying and decorating steel as well as other metals like silver and gold with art patterns flourished.

Q 6. What did Al-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?

Answer:
In order to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom, Al-Hakam, who was a scholar himself patronised learning. He was generous to scholars and established twenty-seven free schools in Cordova. During his reign, University of Cordova became one of the most prestigious educational institutions of the world and attracted Muslim and Christian students from all over the world. He enlarged the mosque around the university and also established a grand library having four lakh books from all over the world.


Chapter 11 (First Year at Harrow)

Q 1. The writer says that the examiners ask questions which students cannot answer and not those which they can answer. Is the complaint just?

Answer:
According to the writer, the examiners ask questions which students cannot answer and not those which they can answer. This complaint by him is just from a common student’s point of view only, who do not work hard. He feels that the examiners were always interested not in testing his knowledge but exposing his ignorance. Through his humorous and satirical tone, the writer intends to criticise the examination system whereby his aptitude and interests are not taken into account.

Q 2. What sort of questions are asked by your examiners?

Answer:
The questions asked by our examiners are usually relevant to the subject knowledge because we have a traditional system of examination. Sometimes, they are inferential questions based on the student’s own understanding and point of view about the topic. The level of difficulty of the questions in our exams ranges from easy to difficult and complex.

Q 3. Why did not Churchill do well in examinations?

Answer:
Churchill did not do well in examinations because he felt that the examiners were always interested in exposing his ignorance not testing his knowledge. He would have liked to be examined in the subjects of his interest like History, Poetry and writing essays. On the other hand, the examiners examined Latin and Mathematics.

Q 4. How did he do his Latin paper?

Answer:
The writer could not do well in his Latin paper. He did not answer a single question even. He wrote his name on top of the page and then the number of the question. After thinking a lot, he put a bracket around the question number and could not think of anything relevant to the question to be able to write.

Q 5. Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek. Was it a gain or a loss?

Answer:
Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek. It was a gain because he got an advantage over the cleverer boys. They went on to learn Latin and Greek but he was taught English. He got the opportunity to practise English analysis with an efficient teacher, Mr Somervell, who taught it like no one else ever did.  

Q 6. What good did his three years stay at Harrow do him?

Answer:
His three year stay at Harrow proved to be fruitful because he remained in Third grade for three years, it provided him an opportunity to learn English analysis three times more than anyone else. He mastered the art of the disintegrating the structure of an ordinary British sentence, which he considered a noble thing.

Q 7. In after years how did the knowledge of English stand him in good stead?

Answer:
In after years, the knowledge of English stood him in good stead because all those students who were capable of writing beautiful Latin poetry and pithy Greek sayings also had to come down again to common English in order to earn their livelihood.

Q 8. Write an appreciation or criticism of Churchill’s views in regard to the study of Latin, Greek and English and their value in earning a living.

Answer:
According to Churchill, the subjects like Latin and Greek were given more importance in schools while they had little utility in real life. English, on the other hand, was needed in practical life because it had a better scope and provided a better prospect of earning their livelihood.’


Chapter 12 (Hitch-Hiking Across The Sahara)

Q 1. Give an idea of the size of the Sahara. How does it compare with England?

Answer:
The Sahara is a vast desert and it stretches almost up to the complete width of North Africa. It is many times the size of England. To give an idea about its size, the writer says that if a giant is to pick up England and put it in the middle of the great desert of Sahara, it will be a difficult task to find it.

Q 2. What had Christopher’s foster mother to do with his desire to see distant places?

Answer:
Christopher’s foster mother used to threaten him to be sent to Timbuktu because he was very naughty in his childhood. Instead of alarming him, these warnings developed a curiosity and an urge in him to visit this place. In this way, Christopher’s foster mother had a lot to do with his desire to see the distant places.

Q 3. How did he manage to get a seat in the weapons carrier?

Answer:
When the lieutenant in charge refused to give him a lift because he was a civilian, Christopher showed him an expired permit from the War Ministry of France. Luckily, the officer did not notice the cancelled stamp on its back. This is how he managed to get a seat in the weapon’s carrier.

Q 4. What was the most noticeable feature of the desert city, named Ghardaia?

Answer:
The most noticeable feature of the desert city, named Ghardaia was that numerous flies swarmed everywhere, which were stickier than anywhere else. These flies covered food, making it difficult for Christopher to eat. Even the faces of children were completely covered with them as if they wore a mask of flies.

Q 5. How did they manage to drive the heavy truck in the trackless desert with its soft sand?

Answer:
Whenever the sand became too soft to bear the weight of the truck, they stopped it immediately. They used ten feet long strips of steel, placing them together in order to make a runway to drive the truck. In this way, they managed to drive the heavy truck in the trackless desert with its soft sand.

Q 6. What did the driver of the truck tell Christopher about three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert?

Answer:
The driver of the truck told Christopher about the recent case of three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert in a car with only one day’s water supply. Their car got stuck in a sand dune and three days later their bodies were found dried up like leaves. In their desperate thirst, they had even drained the radiator and oil from the crank-case of their car. In this way, the truck driver shared the grim details of the incident with him.  

Q 7. Give an account of the little town, named El Golea, and compare it with In Salah, bringing out the difference between the two.

Answer:
El Golea was a fascinating little town which appeared like an oasis where a lot of water was available. There were pools of cool water in which Christopher would take long baths and lay on the cool grass beside the pool, watching the birds eating dates. On the other hand, In Salah was far different from El Golea. It was a barren desert which was fighting for its survival and expected to be buried in the sand soon, as opposed to El Golea which had swimming pools and exotic plants and trees.

Q 8. What do you know of Professor Claude Balanguernon?

Answer:
Professor Claude Balanguernon was a wise, devoted and helping Frenchman. He adapted himself to the local traditions of Tuareg tribesmen to be able to educate them. He acted as Christopher’s guide, host, and friend, who also arranged an educated guide for him during his stay at Tamanrasset. On reaching Agades, he realised that Christopher must have been missed somewhere on the road and might be waiting there. So, he informed the Desert Patrol who sent out four trucks to visit In Abbangarit. In this way, Christopher’s life was saved because of Professor Claud’s wisdom.  

Q 9. Describe the events leading to the killing of a camel. What sort of water did they get from its stomach?

Answer:
The four travellers found all the wells on their way completely dried up. They were left with no food or water and found vultures waiting for them to die. Since they could not travel hungry and thirsty, they decided to kill one out of six camels so that they could get the flesh and liquid from its stomach. The water that they got from its stomach was a greenish fluid which was like thin blood and was too stinky to drink.

Q 10. Describe the journey through the land of Thirst and Death.

Answer:
Christopher and his companions passed the Land of Thirst and Death on their way to Kidal. It was notorious for severe sandstorms and dried-up water holes. Shortly after afternoon, the camels suddenly turned towards the right and Christopher experienced one of its sandstorms. The sand dunes seemed to be on fire and the peaks melted away. Then, it grew dark and Christopher was advised to hide behind his camel and cover his head. He felt the burning sand pierce through his clothes like needles. He was afraid of being buried alive in the sand. Fortunately, after half an hour, the storm ended but they found themselves covered by seventy-five millimetres of sand, which made them feel suffocated. Therefore, crossing the Land of Thirst and Death proved to be the most miserable part of his journey through the desert.

Q 11. Describe the stay at In Abbangarit. How did Christopher manage to get water there?

Answer:
Christopher was left alone to stay at In Abbangarit by the boy who led him to the well. It was an uninhabited place where the only building was a bordj. It was a simple mud structure with a roof and four walls. There was one hole as a window and another as a door. Water was found there but it was around forty-six meters deep, so Christopher needed to arrange for a rope and a bucket. He used a teapot as a bucket and in order to make a rope, he tied up all the available bits of cord, articles of clothing, pieces of and the wire of his recording machine together but all in vain. Finally, he managed to get water thereby twisting the strands of wire of his recording machine to the teapot. 


Chapter 13 (Sir Alexander Fleming)

Q 1. What are antiseptics and what is the antiseptic method?

Answer:
Antiseptics are those chemical substances which are used to kill germs. For example, carbolic acid is a germ killer that was used by Lister to sterilize instruments, kill germs on his hand, the patient’s skin, and even the air in the operating theatre. The main purpose of the antiseptic method is to prevent germs from entering the human body and to destroy them if they have infected the wounds of the patient.

Q 2. What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?

Answer:
The chief defect of the antiseptic method was that the chemical used to destroy germs also destroyed the white blood cells of the body. So, the practice of injecting carbolic acid into the blood was abandoned soon because it did more harm than good. The dose required to kill all the germs was strong enough to kill the patient himself.  

Q 3. What part is played by the white cells in the blood of a human body?

Answer:
The presence of white blood cells or leucocytes in blood acts as the body’s natural armour against disease. When germs enter the body, they are immediately attacked by hosts of white cells present in the blood. They fight against the germs like soldiers answering a bugle-call and destroy the germs, liberating the patient from infection.

Q 4. Give an account of the early life of Fleming.

Answer:
The great English scientist Alexander Fleming was born on August 6, 1981. He was the youngest of a family of eight, and his father passed away when he was seven. Initially, he studied in a school in his village. At the age of ten, he went to Darvel School and stayed there till he was twelve. Then, he went to Kilmarnock Academy where he stayed for two years. He moved to London afterwards and studied at the Regent Street Polytechnic for the next two years. At the age of sixteen, he took a job at a shipping firm as a clerk. He did not have enough money to study for a profession or trade until he received a share in legacy. His brother, Thomas decided that he should become a doctor so he joined St. Mary’s medical school. He passed the final examination in medicine in 1906 after which he joined St. Mary’s hospital and started his research on germs and antiseptics as a scientist.

Q 5. Describe how Fleming discovered penicillin.

Answer:
Fleming discovered Penicillin while carrying out a series of experiments on the common germ called staphylococcus. He found a spore of the mould on the culture plate which dropped from air possibly coming from a nearby kitchen. Fleming found out that the mould began to grow on the culture plate and killed the microbes around it. This was the first stage of the discovery of penicillin that took place in the summer of 1928.

Q 6. In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?

Answer:
Penicillin is better than other chemical antiseptics such as carbolic acid because it was about three times stronger than carbolic acid. Moreover, unlike carbolic acid and other chemical antiseptics, it has no toxic effect on the white blood cells or leucocytes of the body.

Q 7. What do you know of the Oxford team?

Answer:
The Oxford team was headed by Professor Howard Florey and Dr E. B. Chain. It included trained chemists as well as bacteriologists. They had all the equipment that Fleming lacked so they succeeded in the production of a practical concentration of penicillin. One of the Oxford team went to America and discovered new methods of manufacturing penicillin.

Q 8. How did they make penicillin more effective?

Answer:
Penicillin could not be used in the treatment of diseases until a means for concentrating it was discovered. So, they made it more effective by producing a practical concentration of Fleming’s formula of penicillin.

Q 9. Write a note on penicillin as a wonder drug.

Answer:
Penicillin is hailed as a “wonder drug” because it is three times stronger and effective than carbolic acid in killing germs. Moreover, unlike carbolic acid and other chemical antiseptics, it has no harmful effect on the white blood cells or leucocytes of the body. In 1943, it revolutionized the healing of war wounds of soldiers and saved countless lives.

Q 10. Was Fleming proud of his discovery?

Answer:
No, Fleming was not proud of his discovery because he was a very modest person. He strongly objected the idea that penicillin was a man-made invention. He said he did not deserve the gratitude offered to him as penicillin was made by nature and he had only discovered it by chance.

Q 11. Why couldn’t penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?

Answer:
Penicillin could not be discovered in the research laboratories of America because their culture plates were never contaminated to make the growth of penicillin possible. The reason behind this was that the air was too pure and there was no way for the spores of a common mould to enter and contaminate the culture plates.

Q 12. Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?

Answer:
Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. Like Pasteur, he opened a whole new world of science. He founded the antibiotic treatment of disease. He encouraged others to seek new antibiotics and inspired all research workers to be on the lookout for them. Out of these researches came new drugs made by Nature and discovered by man. At present, streptomycin is the best known of these drugs. In this way, Fleming’s discovery of penicillin led to the discovery of newer and more effective germ-killers which are not harmful to the white blood cells present in the blood.  ‘


Chapter 14 (Louis Pasteur)’

Q 1. Describe the early life of Pasteur.

Answer:
 Louis Pasteur was born in Dole in the Jura district of France in 1822 in quite humble circumstances. His father had been a soldier in Napoleon’s army and had received great honours for his bravery and loyalty. When he was two years old, his family moved to Arbois, where he was sent to school at Communal College. At first, he did not take interest in studies but he soon developed the passion for work. He graduated in Science and Arts from the college at Besancon. Pasteur got the strength of his character and love for his country from his father.

Q 2. Give some instances of Pasteur’s patriotism.

Answer:
Many instances indicate that Pasteur was more of a patriot than a scientist. For example, in 1848, when Europe was politically upheaved, Pasteur enrolled himself in the National Guard. Moreover, when he found out that donations were being collected for the motherland, Pasteur gave away all the money he had, which was one hundred and fifty francs. He applied for the enrollment again in 1870 while France was on the verge of war with Germany. However, to his disappointment, the military authorities refused to enroll him because he was partially paralysed at that time.

Q 3. What do we mean by spontaneous generation?

Answer:
Spontaneous generation means the rapid growth of germs in an automatic way. Before Pasteur’s experiments on the spontaneous generation, scientists firmly believed that some of the living beings take birth from pre-existing non-living organisms. This is known as the theory of spontaneous generation. Pasteur did experiments and proved that it was not possible.

Q 4. How did Pasteur prove that spontaneous generation was not a fact?

Answer:
Pasteur proved that spontaneous generation was not a fact by conducting experiments. He found out that if a substance is sufficiently heated to destroy all life and the air in contact with it is filtered so that it is free of germs, then the substance does not alter because bacteria do not develop in it.

Q 5. Describe the importance and popularity of the silkworm industry in France. What help did Pasteur render in curing the silkworm disease in his country?

Answer:
The importance of the silkworm industry in France lies in the fact that keeping of silkworms was the chief home industry of the peasants. Every family set up the best room in the house for rearing silkworms and women would get up at night to feed the worms with fresh mulberry leaves and check if the temperature of the room was appropriate. Their social greeting was not asking each other how their silkworms were doing, which clearly speaks of the popularity of the silkworm industry in France. Pasteur rendered great help in curing the silkworm disease in his country by discovering its causes, such as over-crowding, uncleanliness, over-heating etc. He also suggested the remedy to cure the disease. Hence, Pasteur compensated the national loss of forty million francs with his efforts.

Q 6. How did Pasteur discover the treatment for the cattle disease, Anthrax?

Answer:
Pasteur discovered the treatment of the cattle disease, Anthrax by cultivating anthrax bacillus in a way that it became mildly poisonous. He injected it into the animal’s blood. As a result, its body developed a protective system and it indicated very few symptoms of the disease.

Q 7. How did Pasteur discover the method of making vaccines?

Answer:
When Pasteur returned to his lab after a holiday, he found all the cultivations of the germs to be either dead or dying. He injected various birds with those dead or dying germs and found that the birds showed a few symptoms of illness, but recovered. Then, he injected birds with fresh germs of chicken cholera and he was amazed to see that they showed mild symptoms of the disease, while those birds, which had not been injected with exhausted germs, died. In this way, Pasteur discovered the method of making vaccines in 1879.  

Q 8. Give an account of Pasteur’s treatment of Hydrophobia and how he cured the first patient suffering from it.

Answer:
Pasteur tried taking some of the nervous tissue of an animal, which had died of the disease. He weakened it by exposing the spinal cord of the rabbits to dry air until after fourteen days, it was found harmless. When he introduced the attenuated spinal cord into dogs, they became immune to hydrophobia. In this way, Pasteur discovered the treatment for Hydrophobia. He cured the first patient suffering from hydrophobia, who was a boy, named Joseph Meister bitten by a mad dog two days before the treatment started. He brought him to Paris and injected him with the vaccine for ten days until he was cured.

Q 9. How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists? Give an account of the discoveries.

Answer:
The fame of Pasteur’s discoveries stirred up other scientists to try similar methods for the cure of other diseases. Between 1880 and 1890, they discovered the germs of consumption, diphtheria, typhoid, lockjaw, cholera, and Malta fever. In this way, Pasteur was able to show the way to other scientists. His discoveries include the vaccination for the silkworm disease and penicillin for the cure of wounds and vaccination for the treatment of human diseases like anthrax and hydrophobia.


Chapter 15 Mustafa Kamal)

Q 1. What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World War I?

Answer:
The attitude of the Turkish government was slavish towards the Allies. A government formed from the old Liberals was in power in Istanbul. Its members and Padishah himself were eager to cooperate with the Allies. However, they believed that the best interest of the nation was in showing loyalty to the Armistice and co-operation with the occupying forces of the conquerors.

Q 2. Why  was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?

Answer:
Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to control the increasing number of the little encounters in the streets of Anatolia from Kiyazim Karabekar along with the undefeated personnel of the Ottoman Army against the Allied control officers. These encounters were causing great fear among the Allies and the people of Istanbul. Being a capable soldier, Mustafa Kamal was the most suitable man to be sent as the representative of Padishah and deal with the situation on spot.

Q 3. What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?

Answer:
The Turkish patriots were infuriated by the intention of the Allies to partition of the Ottoman Empire. All of them were enraged by this foreign occupation of the richest and most essentially Turkish of their provinces. Turkish patriotism got a new direction, so a flame of indignation started burning in their hearts.

Q 4. Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia.

Answer:
During his stay in Anatolia, Mustafa Kamal met Ali Faut who was the commander of small army corps in Ankara. At a secret meeting of patriots, he made a plan to fight against the Greeks and the Allies. They planned that first of all guerilla bands would hold up Greeks. Meanwhile, the Patriots would build up the National Army without any assistance from the government. Later, Mustafa Kamal set out to tour villages. He asked people to fight against the foreign occupation and appointed representatives in every place to form centres of patriotic revolts.

Q 5. Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?

Answer:
When Mehmet heard of Mustafa Kamal’s activities, he felt that he was working against his government. Therefore, after he realised that he was a threat to his throne, Mehmet ordered Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople as soon as possible.

Q 6. What  was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?

Answer:
Mustafa Kamal replied to Mehmet by sending him a personal telegram. He urged him to join him in Anatolia and take lead to fight against the Greeks and all foreign enemies himself in order to save his throne. In response to Mehmet’s order, he said that he was determined to stay in Anatolia until the nation won independence.

Q 7. How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?

Answer:
Mehmet tried to regain Anatolia for himself by tact. He did not want the patriots to continue their activities against the Allies, so he called for a government pleasing to them. He asked them to put Mustafa Kamal’s ideas into practice and not to stand in opposition to the Padishah at the same time. They could not imagine their state without a Sultan, whom they considered the shadow of God. All of them agreed to the offer and Mustafa Kamal was left alone.

Q 8. Why did his plan fail?

Answer:
In spite of being abandoned by the patriots, Mustafa Kamal kept fighting for the parliament in Anatolia himself. Mehmet suggested that it should sit in the upland town of Ankara, where it could be centrally situated, well protected, free, and independent of Turkish Allies. However, the Sultan’s plan failed and Mustafa Kamal defeated him.

Q 9. What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?

Answer:
The terms offered to Turkey by the Allies were those of making peace with Mehmet IV. A small and helpless Ottoman Empire was to be entirely under the supervision of the Allied powers. All the Arab provinces were to become Mandated Territories. Entire Eastern Anatolia was to become a part of the state of Armenia around Izmir, which was to be a large Greek district. Cecilia was to go to the French. The Ottoman capital was to be an international centre under the control of Britain, France, and Italy. Under these terms, only the surroundings of Istanbul were to remain a part of the once extensive “Turkey in Europe”.

Q 10. Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat.

Answer:
On the 21st August 1921, Greeks attacked the Ottoman Empire. The two brave people confronted each other and fought almost man to man for fourteen days under the burning heat of the sun. Mustafa Kamal was the commander-in-chief of Turks, who dominated the Greeks. By the 4thof September, the Greeks were at the end of their strength. On 12th, they crossed Sakarya and began to withdraw and until the end of August 1922, they were clearly defeated. So, Mustafa Kamal and his army moved forward toward the Mediterranean.   

Q 11. Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul.

Answer:
The departure of Mehmet from Istanbul took place on November 17, 1922, when a British motor ambulance which stopped by at the side-door of the palace where Mehmet was staying. The luggage was brought out of the palace and placed in the car. Mehmet appeared as an elderly man and a British Officer took his umbrella as he entered the vehicle. The door was then closed and the ambulance drove away. This is how the last of Sultans, Mehmet went on his way to exile. 

Q 12. Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to:

(i) the position of women, 
(ii) removal of illiteracy, 
(iii) change in dresses, 
(iv) adoption of the Roman script and 
(v) the industrial and economic development.

Answer:
After gaining power, numerous reforms were introduced by Mustafa Kamal for the Turkish nation. With reference to the position of women, Mustafa Kamal abolished veil in 1925 because he believed that veil hindered the education of women. He stressed upon the rights of women in terms of higher education at par with men. As for the change in dresses, the old national headdress called Fez was replaced by the hats. Wearing of hats was made compulsory for men. Mustafa Kamal abolished the old script, declared the adoption of the Roman script and demonstrated the new script himself. His educational reforms for women and demonstration and implementation of the new reforms led to the removal of illiteracy. As far as industrial and economic development is concerned, he initiated the construction schemes for railways and motor road. He also encouraged the expansion of heavy industry and organization of banking system.

Q 13. Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation builder.

Answer:
The work of Mustafa Kamal as a nation builder is praiseworthy. He brought changes to all branches of Turkish life. During his time, the mental and political development of the Turkish nation was on the same level as that of Western Europe in the mid-eighteenth century. Within a few years, they reached the height of success achieved by Europe over a long span of one hundred and fifty years. Thus, the Turkish nation owes its democratization, awakening of their spirit and liberation of their power to Mustafa Kamal.


Chapter 16 (A Dialogue)

Q 1. What type of news was there in the newspaper?

Answer:
While sitting in the college library, two students read the newspaper in which news related to child abuse caught their attention.

Q 2. Why did Farasat and Saleem become sad after reading the news?

Answer:
Farasat and Saleem became sad after reading the news because it is of child abuse. This seems to be a second of its kind during that week. This news made them dejected as the cases of child abuse were increasing on daily basis. 

Q 3. Describe the four categories of the child abuse.

Answer:
Child abuse can be categorized into four categories, these are neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Children can face any of the above-mentioned abuse within their own family, in the community or in an institutional setting. The abuser may be someone a child may know or he is a total stranger to the child. He can be an adult or another child of the same age.

Q 4. How can we overcome child abuse?

Answer:
Child abuse is one of the grave issues of the present times. Child protection is a complex and multi-dimensional concept. It is a right of every child and young person to grow up in a safe and stable environment. There is one such solution to overcome the menace of child abuse is that to provide full support tot he families to provide for the physical, social and emotional needs of children and young people.

Q 5. What are the basic rights of children in Islam?

Answer:
Children enjoy a number of rights in Islam. They have the right to be fed, clothed and protected until they reach adulthood. It is the basic right of every child to get a quality education and a safe and sound environment at home to become a stable and civilized member of the society.

Q 6. What are the threats to the children living in war-zones of the world?

Answer:
There are a number of threats to the children living in war-zones of the world. A great number of child casualties are witnessed in such areas resulting from explosive weapons as the children consider weapons as their toys. Explosives may limit access to safe places for children and their families. As soon as the children reach the age of eight, they usually join military groups. Sometimes, they do this to escape from poverty, defend their community or just to take revenge from their oppressors.

Q 7. How can parents, teachers and media perform their duties to eliminate this evil of child abuse from the society?

Answer:
With the alarming and growing danger of child abuse, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of not only parents but on teachers and media too. Parents should consider it their first and the foremost responsibility to provide adequate education to their children. Girls must be educated as educating a girl simple means educating a whole nation. Free and compulsory education should be provided by the government to every child. Teachers can also play a constructive role in this regard. They are the ones who can make it clear to their students that they should not trust anyone, not even their close relatives. Child’s parents can also get an alert from teacher’s side in this respect. 

Read more: Lahore Board Class 11 English Notes Chapter 1 to 13

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