Chapter 7 Languages of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Chapter 7 Pakistan Study 2nd Year notes Languages of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Short Question Pakistan history
Table of Contents
1) What was the Quaid-e-Azam’s point of view regarding Pakistan’s national language?
Urdu was a major issue in the Indian Muslim’s struggle for national identity. Therefore, Quaid-e-Azam had made it clear in very early days after independence that:
“But let me make it very clear to you that the State language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Anyone who tries to mislead you is really the enemy of Pakistan. Without one State language, no Nation can remain tied up solidly together and function.”
2) When and where Urdu came into being?
There are many opinions regarding the formation of Urdu Language by researchers and scholars. However, the origin of Urdu language can be traced to the advent of Islam in the subcontinent. Wherever they settled, a grafting between their languages and the indigenous dialects started taking place. These mixed languages formed the raw material for the language, which later came to be known as Urdu.
3) Give the names of some of the most important 20th century Urdu poets and prose writers.
In the twentieth century, religious scholars like Maulana Abul-Kalam Azad, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, and Maulana Abul-Ala Modudi produced rich religious literature in Urdu and introduced new trends in prose writing in the twentieth century. Poets like Iqbal, Hali, and Akbar composed excellent purposeful poetry and used their pen for national regeneration.
4) What are the main literary forms used in Punjabi poetry?
Punjabi poetry is comparable to the best of the poetic works rendered in any language of the world. The traditional Punjabi poets expressed themselves through the medium of Nazm (verse) or the forms closely identical to it. These are kafi, war, tappa, dhola, doha, sathni, and ghori. Ghazal (ode) was introduced at a comparatively later stage, probably under Urdu influence.
5) Give the names of the five important Punjabi poets.
Punjabi is an ancient language spoken in the most populous province of Pakistan. The important Punjabi poets are Baba Farid-ud-Din Ganj-e-Shaker, Madhu Lal Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Bulhey Shah, Fazal Shah, Hashim Shah, Waris Shah, and Mian Muhammad Buksh are the most prominent among the Punjabi poets.
6) Enlist important Sindhi dialects.
Sindhi spoken in different parts of Rajasthan, Sindh, and Baluchistan is identified with different names. Literary and formal Sindhi standard is sahti. Dialects spoken in the lower Sindh and Rajasthan are known as kachhi, Kathiawar, and Thari. Similarly, jogali, gandavi, fikri, lasi, kaichi, Lori, and cheni are the Sindhi dialects used in different parts of Balochistan. Other famous accents are Kohistani, Saraiki, and Vicholi.
7) What do you know about the golden age of Balochi literature?
The nineteenth century deserves to be called the golden age in the history of Balochi literature. Kalhora rulers were great patrons of letters and literature. Balochi literature also benefited from this. Mirza Ghulam Muhammad Natiq Makrani was the most eminent poet of this age; he was a contemporary of Mirza Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib. During this period, Leich, Mayer, Longworth Dames, Jamait Rai, and Hetu Ram collected, compiled and published Baloch ballads and other literary works.
Long Question/ Answers
1) What role languages play regarding cultural integration and the development of a human relationship?
Language as a vehicle for Cultural Integration and Human Relationship:
Culture is defined as the sum total of the higher achievement of group life, or the human products made by a particular group of people, living in a specific area at a particular period. Of all these human products, language has paramount importance. It is through language that people express their feelings, emotions, and aspirations, and preserve their cultural heritage for their future generations.
All knowledge is acquired and imparted through the medium of language, and the language spoken in society bears the very strong imprint of the body of knowledge it meets. Words, syntax, idioms, phrasal verbs, and other instruments of speech used by the speakers of a language reflect the society of its origin. “Muhawarah” is the Urdu alternative of the English “Idiom.” It literally means a set of two or more words that have revolved around for a long period and attained a special meaning, which does not necessarily conform to the words. Languages of a society reflect the entire body of experiences the society has gained through the ages and recorded in the form of social sciences and ethical norms of the society. The best part of these experiences is transferred to coming generations and it is done through the medium of language. Therefore, language is the living history of a culture. Allama Iqbal has called the history the memory of a nation and it cannot be recorded with the use of language.
Physical and social sciences affect the character of a language and the language, in turn, affects the academic life of the society. Languages of the vibrant and civilized societies are rich in academic traditions and vice versa in uncivilized societies.
Urdu is the product of the centuries of cultural interaction between the Hindu and the Muslim communities of India and was identified to be the symbol of Hindu- Muslim unity, but after some time it became a great issue between the two nations of the sub-continent, as Hindu tried to eliminate the Urdu language from the subcontinent. The language controversy finally became the cause of the demand that Muslims are a separate nation and have their own identity. In this way, the process that started with meager linguistic differences ended up in a total separation of the two nations.
2) Why Urdu can be the only national language of Pakistan? Enlist salient characteristic features of Urdu language.
Language is the most important aspect of culture. It is the dominant feature in determining nationality or ethnicity and the binding force, which unites people, and makes them distinct from others. Language represents a people’s heritage and identity. Urdu is the product of the centuries of cultural interaction between the Hindu and the Muslim communities of India and was identified to be the symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity, but on a particular juncture of history, the Hindus totally alienated themselves from it. This language difference caused the separation of the two nations.
The National language of Pakistan:
Urdu was a major issue in the Indian Muslims’ struggle for national identity. Therefore, Quaid-e-Azam had made it clear in very early days after independence that:
“But let me make it very clear to you that the State language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language.”
Characteristics of Urdu Language:
The features of Urdu Language are:
1. The resemblance with the regional Languages:
Urdu has a very close resemblance with all the regional languages of Pakistan. Many words used in these languages are common and all these languages are written in the same script.
2. Lingua Franca:
Urdu is recognized as the national language of Pakistan and used as ‘lingua franca’. Lingua franca is a language, which serves as a medium of communication. It is spoken and understood by people living in all areas of Pakistan.
3. The symbol of National Unity:
Urdu is the symbol of national unity, it is not the language of any particular region or a specific group of people. It is a common national heritage.
4. Assimilation of words from other Languages:
Urdu has proved itself an instrument of national cohesion because it has a close affinity with all the regional languages of Pakistan. It has assimilated many beautiful words from other languages.
5. Affinity with Other Languages:
Urdu has developed a close affinity with other languages of the Muslim world with the adoption of the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish words. Urdu has also developed a very rich vocabulary due to its unique quality of absorbing and adopting words and phrases from other languages.
6. The Language of Science and Technology:
Urdu has the potential of being developed into a perfect language of science and technology as well as the language of official use.
7. Rich Treasure of Islamic Literature:
In the history of South East Asia, Islam, Pakistan, and Urdu have been so closely related to each other that none of these can be supposed to flourish and prosper independently. Therefore, Urdu has a very rich treasure of Islamic literature. Muslims cannot achieve the ideological objectives of the state unless they give the Urdu a prominent status.
Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is known as the symbol of the Muslim nationhood in the world. The Government should take effective measures to promote the Urdu language.
3) Give an account of the stages through which Urdu passed during the process of its formation.
The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word “ordu” meaning “camp” or “army.” The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, and Afghans etc. The evolution and development of a language is dependent on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Various invasions and conquests on a place affect the development of its language. Urdu underwent various stages of development.
History of Urdu Formation:
There are many opinions regarding the formation of Urdu Language by researchers and scholars. In Sayyid Sulaiman Nadavi’s opinion, Urdu is a developed form of Sindhi. Hafiz Mahmood Shirani traced its origin to Punjabi. According to Dr. Naseer-ud-Din Hashmi, South India was the first homeland of Urdu. Other linguists believe that the Brij Bhasha spoken in the suburbs of Delhi gave birth to Urdu. It can be said that Urdu did not emanate from a single source; many other factors played a role in its formation.
Urdu language formation experienced many phases. Some of these are:
Settlement of Arab Traders: Origin of Urdu language can be traced to the advent of Islam in the subcontinent. Arab settlements existed on the southern shores of India even before the days of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W, a few centuries after the Prophet S.A.W, Muslim conquers from the west, and northwest started pouring in. The soldiers in these armies spoke Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages. Wherever they settled, a grafting between their languages and the indigenous dialects started taking place. These mixed languages form the raw material for the language, which later came to be known as Urdu.
The Contribution of Foreigners: In the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, the British, the French and the new Portuguese settlers and traders enriched the local languages by contributing new words and phrases to it.
The Contribution of Local Dialects: Local dialects of the Punjab, Sindh, and Deccan contributed richly to the formation of Urdu.
Tracts wrote by Muslim Preachers: In South India, the Muslim preachers wrote tracts in a simple to understand popular dialects, and these probably are the first written Urdu words.
First Published work of Poetry: Founder of Hyderabad (Deccan) and the ruler of Golkanda state Muhammad Ali Qutab Shah (1581-1611) is the author of the first published work of poetry (Diwan) in Urdu.
First Modern Urdu Poet: Wali Dakkani is generally held as the first modern Urdu poet because the language used by him is closer to modern Urdu (as compared to Qutab Shah’s language) and he also founded a new school in Urdu literature.
First Prose Work: First work in Urdu prose is Mulla Wajhi’s “SabRas” which is the translation of a Persian book.
Translations of Holy Quran in Urdu: Literary masterpieces appeared in North India during the same period. In the later period, Urdu was adopted as the language of religious literature. Shah Ismail Shaheed’s Taqviatul Iman and Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Rafi-ud-Din’s translations of the Holy Quran are excellent pieces of fluency and easy to understand the Urdu language.
Enrichment of the Urdu literature: The British rulers established Fort William College Calcutta in the year 1800, for the fulfilment of their colonial needs. The college hired the services of the renowned Urdu writers to write books in simple, standard Urdu. These books were taught to the British officers and played an important role in the enrichment of the Urdu literature.
Introduction of new Trend in Prose: In the midst of the nineteenth century, Mirza Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib introduced a new trend in Urdu prose through his simple and forthright style and expressions. In half of the nineteenth century, Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan and his companions made scrupulous efforts to enrich this tradition. In the same period, Shibli Nomani made valuable additions to the Urdu literature.
Production of Religious Literature: In the twentieth century, religious scholars like Maulana Abul-Kalam Azad, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, and Maulana Abul-Ala Modudi produced rich religious literature in Urdu and introduced new trends in prose writing.
Replacement of Persian by Urdu: At the end of the eighteenth century, Urdu had taken the place of Persian as the language of Muslim culture in India.
Recognition of Urdu in Civil Courts of British Government: Urdu was for the first time recognized as the language of civil courts of the British Government.
Official and Court Language: In the state of Hyderabad Deccan, Urdu was adopted as official and the court language.
Urdu as the Medium of Instruction: For the first time, a modern University established at Hyderabad in the year 1920 adopted Urdu as the medium of instruction for a higher level of education.
Evolution and development of any language is dependent on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Various invasions and conquests on a place affect the development of its language. Pakistan is a land that attracted many foreign races and empires during the course of its long history. Urdu language as a national language of Pakistan faced many phases in its formation and during the formation; many new dialects and words from other languages were formed into Urdu language.
4) Write a note on Punjabi.
Punjabi is an ancient language spoken in the most populous province of Pakistan. Many experts trace its origin to the ancient Dravidians of Harappa civilization (2500 BC); others relate it with the period of Mahmud of Ghazna, which are approximately 1000 AD.
Punjabi poets and prose writers have written on a variety of themes i.e. love, fiqh, folk tales and epics. Generally, Baba Farid-ud-Din Ganj-e-Shakar is known to be the first Punjabi poet. Waris Shah, Fazal Shah, Mian Muhammad, and Khawaja Ghulam Farid are among the most eminent Punjabi poets.
Punjabi poetry is comparable to the best of the poetic works rendered in any language of the world. Traditional Punjabi poets expressed themselves through the medium of Nazm (verse) or the forms closely identical to it. These are kafi, war, tappa, dhola, doha, sathni, and ghori ghazal (ode) was introduced at a comparatively later stage, probably under Urdu influence. The tradition of writing epic poetry, songs of national love and pride is very rich in Punjabi literature. It was only in the first half of the twentieth century that short story, drama, novel and criticism was for the first time introduced in the Punjabi prose. After the creation of Pakistan and after the introduction of television, Punjabi literature has entered into a new era.
Names and Dialects:
The word “Punjabi” was for the first time used by the author of the book Miftah-ul-Fiqh, written in the first half of the seventeenth century. Before that, it was referred to as Multani, Lahori, Jatki, Hindi etc. Alberuni called it ‘Al Hindiya.’ People in different areas like to call their Punjabi dialect by different names like Saraiki, Hindko, Chhachhi, Hithari, Potohari, Dhanni, Shahpuri, and Majhi etc. Saraiki enjoys a special position due to its delicate, pleasant discreet accent among these dialects. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan has established a Saraiki Research Centre and Islamia University Bahawalpur is catering master’s classes in the language.
Sufi saints like Madhu Lal Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Bulhey Shah, Hafiz Barkhudaar, Fazal Shah, Hashim Shah, Qadir Yar, Waris Shah, Khawaja Farid, and Mian Muhammad Bukhsh are the famous Punjabi poets. The history of prose writing in Punjabi is not very long. All ancient fables were composed in verse and the most prominent among these are Heer Ranjha (Waris Shah, Sassi Punnun (Hashim Shah ) Sohni Mahinwal (Fazal Shah), Mirza Sahiban (Hafiz Barkhudaar).
Pakistan is a linguistically diverse country, and Punjabi is only one of many languages that can be found in the country. The Punjabi language is known for its long history of folk literature, which is rich in traditional poetry. Punjabi language gave birth to a number of well-known poets who wrote on all manner of topics, from tragic love stories to the spiritual or historical. Therefore, its literature has gained global recognition, especially Punjabi poetry, which is noted for its meaningful and beautiful verse. The works of a number of Punjabi language poets have been translated into other languages and are read around the world.
5) What do you know about the script and literary works of Sindhi language?
Sindhi is one of the ancient languages of Pakistan. Experts are of the opinion that people used Sindhi as a language of conversation on both sides of the River Indus even two to three thousand years before Christ. After the advent of Islam, Arabic script was adopted for writing Sindhi. Sindhi is the first Indian language the Holy Quran was rendered into. Sindhi speaking people form 12% of the total population of Pakistan. 96 percent Sindhi speaking households are concentrated in the province of Sindh.
The relics found at Harappa and Mohenjo Daro reveal that the people of the old Indus valley civilization knew the art of writing. Presently, Sindhi script was devised by Abul Hasan Sindhi based on Arabic letters.
The Holy Quran was first translated into the Sindhi language in South Asia. Chuck Nama is one of the immortal works of the Sindhi literature. The period between 1050 and 1350 AD is marked with a prolific production of religious literature in the Sindhi language. The preachers of the Ismaili sect played an important role in the progress of Sindhi literature ginan, bait, sortthe, and gatha are the forms they introduced. The important poets and their literary assets in the Sindhi language are:
Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai:
Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689-1752) is admittedly the greatest poet Sindhi has so far produced. His book Shah Jo Risalo is a masterpiece in Sindhi literature. His poetry is known for eloquence, simplicity, flow, and rhythm. The dignity of labour and the higher values of life are his favourite themes. He immortalized the old Sindhi fables with the force of his pen.
Sachal Sarmast is another great Sindhi poet who composed in almost the same age, in his nine hundred thousand couplets, he used many other languages side by side with Sindhi, and these were Hindi, Urdu, Saraiki, Punjabi, and Persian. Wahdat-ul-Wajood (Pantheism) is the most favourite of his themes.
Makhdum Muhammad Hashim:
Makhdum Muhammad Hashim (1690-1761) was a religious scholar and prose writer. He wrote about 50 books in Persian and Sindhi. His books were included in the curriculum taught at Al-Azhar University (Cairo), the biggest seat of Islamic learning in the world.
Contemporaries of Makhdum Hashim:
Azizullah and Shah Latif were the contemporaries of Makhdum Muhammad Hashim. He translated the Holy Quran into Sindhi. The period covering the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century deserves to be called the golden age in the history of Sindhi literature.
Mirza Qalich Baig:
Mirza Qalich Beg (1855-1929) is no doubt the most prominent of the Sindhi scholars who lived in the British period. He wrote about 400 books covering a variety of subjects.
Modern Sindhi Writers:
Among the modem Sindhi writers Sheikh Ayaz, Prof. Karim Bukhsh Nizami and Asad-Ullah Bhutto are the most remarkable. Muhammad Bin Qasim Literary Society is rendering good services to Sindhi language and literature by publishing valuable books on social sciences and literary themes as well as Sindhi renderings of the important books of other languages. A number of institutions working under official patronage have done commendable service by preserving classical Sindhi literary assets in modem forms.
Sindhi spoken in different parts of Rajasthan, Sindh, and Baluchistan is identified with different names. The literary and formal Sindhi standard is sahti. The dialects spoken in the lower Sindh and Rajasthan are known as lari and kachhi. Katthiwari, jogali, gandavi, fikri, Iasi, kaichi, lori, and cheni are the Sindhi dialects used in different parts of Balochistan. Other famous accents are Kohistani, Saraiki, and Vicholi.
Sindhi literature is the richest and oldest literature in the world. Sindhi became a literary language in the 19th century. The earliest reference to Sindhi literature is contained in the writings of Arab historians. Sindh produced many scholars and poets of Sindhi, Arabic, and Persian languages. Therefore, the poets of this period have enriched the language with mystic, romantic, and epic poetry, which have gained its popularity all over the world.
6) Write a note on Pashto language, literature and poetry.
Pashto is the language of the valiant Pakhtoons settled in the northwestern part of Pakistan, on the right bank of the river Indus and the Hindu Kush mountain range. Pashto took birth nearly five thousand years back in the Afghan area, which is known as Bakht or Bakhtar and derived its name from, originally known as Bakhtu. This language later comes to be known as Pashto.
Pashto was lettered in the Kharosthi script before the arrival of the Muslims in the Sub-Continent. Saifullah replaced the old Pushto script and introduced Arabic script for the Pashto language. He also wrote a book Tazkira-tul-Aulia. Pashto alphabets are 43 in number. Although Pushto was influenced by many foreign languages like Turkish, Pali and Sanskrit, yet these influences did not make any substantial change in its Islamic character. The impacts of Hindu philosophy and mythology are nonexistent in Pashto, which are found very commonly in other languages of Pakistan.
Like most of the languages, the tradition of writing poetry is older than the writing of prose in Pashto literature. No evidence of written prose has been found prior to the nineteenth century. The most ancient Pashto written work so far discovered is “Pata Khazana” written in the half of the eighth century.
Four Phases of Pashto Literature:
The critics divide Pashto literature into four phases, i.e.:
1. First Phase: (between 8th and 15th century AD)
In this phase, the first Pashto poet Amir Crore was born. Qasidas of Gias-ud-Din Bulban and Sher Shah Suri were composed and Bayazid Ansari, a famous poet, lived during this period.
2. Second Phase (between the 16th century and 17th century AD)
Renowned Pashto writer Akhund Daryuza belongs to this age. Living Pashto legends Khushal Khan Khatak and Rahman Baba also composed during this period.
3. Third Phase: (between the 17th century and 18th century AD)
During this period, famous religious scholar Mian Omer and writers like Mullah Abdur Rasheed, Sa’adat Khan, and Qasim Ali Afridi are especially notable.
4. Fourth Phase: (18th century AD to present)
Pashto literature produced during this period is dominated by anti-imperialist sentiments, love of freedom and expression of discontentment and revolt against the oppressive foreign rule. Most notable amongst these freedom-loving poets and writers are Mohammad Akram Khadim, Fazal Mahmood Makhfi, Abdul Kabeer Khan, Gul Badshah, Akbar, Fazal-e-Rahim Saqi, Muhammad Aslam Khan Sharar, Abdul Hakeem Khan, Ahmad Shah Barrister. During 1965, Indo-Pak war Pashto poets and writers produced very effective national literature, especially poetry.
Pashto has three major dialects or accents i.e. northeastern dialect, southwestern dialect and the dialect of Zai tribes.
Forms and Classical Poetry:
Tappa is the oldest Pashto poetic form. Poetry, which was transferred from one generation to another without being recorded in black and white for generations, is found in forms like char baitey, Tobey, badley, and nemkai. Khushal Khan Khatak is held in highest esteem among the Pashto poets. His works are superb pieces of poetry as well as an excellent treatise on the politics of his age. He is a true representative of Pathan national pride, while Rahman Baba generally reflects on themes of purely religious nature. Hameed Baba is another ancient Pashto poet. Ahmad Shah Abdali is one of the leading Pashto poets and founder of modern Afghanistan.
Pashto has a long history as a literary language and after the creation of Pakistan, Pashto language, and literature started flourishing on modern lines. Pashto has gained its importance and it is now being used as a medium of instruction in the educational institutions in the Tribal areas and NWFP.
7) Write a note on Balochi poetry.
The descent of the Balochi language is traced to the ancient language spoken in South East Asia several thousand years before the birth of Christ. Old Balochi was most probably only a spoken language. Balochi is a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the main language of Balochistan in the province of Pakistan. It is estimated that about 7 million people speak Balochi as their first or second language.
Balochs were divided into clans and tribes a few centuries back and had all the characteristics of the pre-Islamic Arab society. The ancient Balochi literature consisted of folk songs and poems about tribal conflicts and romantic themes. Every Baloch tribe had its own poet who composed exaggerated accounts for young heroes of the tribe, which were known as Qasida. They also condemned the enemy in poems called ‘Hajve’. Since Balochs did not know the art of writing and they had no script, the poetry created was not written. It just passed down by word of mouth and has almost been forgotten with the passage of time. Therefore, most of the literature created in that period falls in the category of epic poetry. The linguists believe that Balochi belongs to the family of Aryan languages.
Division of Balochi Poetry:
Balochi poetry can be divided into four kinds, i.e.
Epics: poems about the historical pedigree and lineage of the Baloch tribes.
Narratives of Wars: It took place between the tribes, poems in the praise of heroes (qasidas) and condemnation of the enemy (hajiyyat).
Romantic Poetic Forms: Romantic poems and lyrics, ghazals, ethical poems and brief poems like lullaby (loli) romantic songs (dastangh) etc.
Elegies and Narrative Events: Elegies (marsia) and long narratives of events in poetry (masnavis).
Balochs living in bare and barren, sun-baked hills have a very fertile arc prolific mind. The poetry they produced was simple in form but strong in impact. This gave a faithful description of the Balochi way of life. This arose from the hearts and made a direct appeal to the hearts of the listeners. It made a great portrayal of the events.
Golden Period in the History of Balochi Literature:
Nineteenth-century deserves to be called the golden age in the history of Balochi literature. Kalhora rulers were great patrons of letters and literature and they affected the Balochi literature. The Persian impact during this period further intensified. Mirza Ghulam Muhammad Natiq Makrani is the most eminent poet and a contemporary of Mirza Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib. During this period Leich, Mayer, Longworth Dames, Jamait Rai, and Hetu Recollected compiled and published Baloch ballads and other literary works.
Meer Chakar and Hammal Rind are the most celebrated of the classical Balochi poets. Hani Shah Murid is an excellent Balochi classic. Sayyed Muhammad Taqi Shah Taib, Mast Tavakkali, and Gul Muhammad Zaib are rated very high amongst the classical Balochi poets. Mir Muhammad ‘Anqa a mid-twentieth century poet rendered meritorious services for the cause of Pakistan. Most notable amongst the modern Balochi writers and poets are Muhammad Ramazan, Gul Khan Naseer, and Azad Jamal-ud-Din.
History of the Balochi script, which is based on Arabic letters, is not very old. Standard Balochi script was finalized after the creation of Pakistan by amending the script already in use.
Development in Balochi Literature:
Balochi literature entered a new phase of development after independence. Balochi script was given its final shape, first Balochi journal was published in 1960. Radio and television played an important role in the promotion of the language. Government patronized Balochi through educational institutions and the Balochi Academy. Poems, short stories, and plays were written in Balochi language. The language is now being taught at all levels of the schools and colleges of the province and the Balochistan University.