Chapter 3 Geography of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan history | Pakistan map
Table of Contents
Chapter 3 Geography of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Short question and long question board for kpk. Pakistan studies notes for class 12 in English.
1) Give Pakistan’s exact area in sq km and its location on the globe with reference to longitudes and latitudes.
Pakistan has an area of 796096 km2. It lies between the latitude of 240-N to 360-N and between the longitudes of 610-E to 750-E.
2) Describe Pakistan’s position with reference to her neighbouring countries, (give the length of the common boundaries shared with neighbours).
Pakistan shares its longest boundary line of 2250 km with Afghanistan in the West. This boundary line was demarcated in the year 1883 after a mutual agreement between the Afghan and the British rulers, which was named as “Durand Line.” In the south-west, a 950 km long border line separates Pakistan from Iran. Pakistan and India share a 1600 km long border in the East. Pak-China boundary is 600 km long, which cuts across the high Karakoram Range in the north. This boundary line separates the Muslim majority Chinese province of Sin Kiang from Pakistan’s northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. The narrow strip of the Afghan Territory named Wakhan separates Pakistan from Tajikistan about 20 km in the northwest.
3) What are the three main classifications of the land of Pakistan with respect to physical features?
Pakistan is divided into three major landforms with respect to physical features, i.e.
4) Write the names of the mountains (as well as mountain ranges) lying to the north-west and west of Pakistan.
The mountains lying to the north-west and west of Pakistan include the following ranges:
1) North-West Mountains:
i. Karakoram Range
ii. Himalayas Range, which includes the ranges of Shiwalik Range, Lesser Himalayas, and Greater Himalayas etc.
2) Western Mountain Ranges:
This mountain range includes Kirthar Range, Sulaiman Range, Waziristan Range, Swat, and Chitral Hills, Safed Koh Range, Hindu Kush Range.
5) Enlist the mountains forming the Himalayas Range.
The Himalayas Range is divided into the following ranges of mountains e.g.
The Shiwalik Range.
The Greater Himalayas.
6) Write a note on the climates of Pakistan.
The climate in different parts of the world is not the same. Pakistan also faces the variations in its climate. The region of northern and northwestern highlands receives abundant rainfall and snowfall. The sea breezes in Karachi, Hyderabad and other Sindh areas blows throughout the year, which reduces the effects of high temperature. Local winds in deserts are usually very hot during the daytime, which is called ‘loo’ in Pakistan. In summer, the plains are extremely hot whereas the hilly areas have pleasant weather. Likewise, in winters, snowfalls make the hilly areas extremely cold whereas the plains are less cold. The areas of Murree, Ayubia, Nathiagali, Naran, and Kaghan attract the tourists due to their pleasant summers and scenic beauty.
7) Write a note on the mountainous regions of the continental climate.
The mountainous regions of continental climate include Pakistan’s northern and northwestern mountains. These mountainous regions receive rainfall during summers. The Central region of the Western Mountains receives more rainfall e.g. Waziristan and Kohistan areas receive 250 mm per year. The air carrying water vapours gets gradually drained off towards the north and south, which causes low rainfall in these areas, e.g. Skardu in the north receives only 93 mm per year and Makran in the South, less than 125 mm per year.
8) Indicate the differences in the population between different regions of Pakistan.
The population of Pakistan is unevenly distributed due to natural factors, bad planning and faulty management of affairs. The Punjab has 7.36 crore population, Sindh 3.41 crore, the NWFP 1.77 crore and Baluchistan only 65 lac (0.65 crores).
9) Write a note on the imbalance of economic growth between different regions of Pakistan.
There is a great disequilibrium with respect to economic development. The industrial sector contributes to a major part of economic growth. Most of the industries in the province of Sindh in Pakistan are concentrated in Karachi and Hyderabad. Similarly, some cities in the province of Punjab have the biggest concentration of industrial units while some of the areas of Punjab have little or no industrial development. The Balochistan and NWFP are industrially underdeveloped although the government has declared “Hub” in Balochistan and Gadoon in the NWFP as tax-free zones and have given incentives for setting up industries, yet these provinces have to cover a long way before they come at par with the Punjab and Sindh.
10) Bring about central position Pakistan enjoys as a significant state of the Muslim world.
Pakistan is situated in the centre of the Muslim World, therefore, it occupies a central position in the Muslim countries of the world. Pakistan is located in the midst of the extensive chain of the Muslim nations spreading from Morocco in the West to Indonesia in the Far East. Appreciating this esteemed position, the Vice President of Libya Abdus-Salam Jalud during his visit to Pakistan in 1978 called Pakistan as, “The heart of the Muslim world.”
11) Enlist three main objectives of tourism.
Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family, or business purposes, usually for a limited duration. It serves three main purposes:
1. Research and fact-finding.
2. Attainment of knowledge and information
12) Under what major heads, important sites of tourist attraction can be studied.
Tourist attraction in Pakistan can be studied by three main categories.
1. Archaeological treasure.
2. Historical building.
3. Health and recreation resorts.
13) Enlist important hill resorts of the Punjab and the NWFP.
Most of the hill resorts in the provinces of Punjab and the NWFP are six to eight thousand feet high. They have scenic beauty and extremely pleasant weather conditions. Murree and Patriata are the most attractive hill stations in the province of Punjab. Ayubia, Khanaspur, and Nathiagali are the panoramic hill stations located in the NWFP within a radius of sixty to seventy km. The beautiful valleys of Kaghan and Swat also lie in the NWFP. The lake Saif-ul-Malook in Naran valley is one of the most ravishing high altitude lakes in the world. Malam Jabba and Mian Dam are emerging as comparatively new hill retreats in the same area.
14) Bring out Peshawar’s tourist importance.
Peshawar, the headquarters of the North-West Frontier Province is an ancient city. It is famous for the Balahisar Fort, engraved copper utensils, waistcoats, sandals, decorated with embroidery and glasswork. Its bazaar is filled with the mouth-watering redolence of Chapli Kababs. The Kissa Khani bazaar is now a living legend and is the most remarkable of all the bazaars.
15) Write short notes on:
Chitral, Hunza valley, and the silk route (Shahrah-e- Resham)
Chitral is the largest district located in the North West of Pakistan. In Chitral, there are three valleys, Bamboret, Rambur, and Birir inhabited by the Kafirs of Kalash. The games of polo and soccer are more popular in Chitral. A number of sports festivals and tournaments are held throughout the year.
The fascinating valley of Hunza is as full of life as the people who inhabit it. Hunza was formerly a princely state. The Hunza is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. The Hunzakuts are noted for their longevity.
iii) The Silk Route:
The old trade route between Pakistan and China is known as the “Silk Route.” This has now been revived as the Karakorum. This is one of the highest metalled roads in the world. The greatest value of the Silk Road was the exchange of culture, art, religion, philosophy, technology, language, science, and architecture.
1) In how many temperature zones Pakistan is divided, explain each.
Pakistan is divided into four major zones on the basis of temperature variation i.e.
1. NorthWestern Mountainous Region:
Winter sustains for eight months in these areas, at times mercury falls below 0°C.
2. Upper Indus Plain:
This division includes the province of Punjab and major part of the NWFP. It is extremely hot in the months of June and July, dust storms lose, tree leaves become dry and withered. In certain areas temperature goes as high as 50°c. Winters, however, are short and tolerable. At times it gets very cold and uncomfortable, but generally, the sky remains clear and the sun makes the climate pleasant.
3. Lower Indus Plain and Coastal Areas:
Coastal areas form a part of the lower Indus Plain. Due to a cool breeze blowing from the sea, in an area of about 80 km from the coast, the moderate temperature is maintained throughout the year. Temperature variations are not very sharp, for example during the first five months of the year (January to May) mercury varies from 18°C to 28°C, in Karachi. A variation of only 7°C is recorded during the rest of the year. Karachi excluded, climatic conditions in the rest of the Sindh province are similar to those in Punjab.
4. The Balochistan Plateau:
In most parts of the Balochistan Plateau, winters are extremely cold and summers unbearably hot. Mercury drops below 0oC at terra joints due to cold northern winds, in other areas dry and bare mountains absorb heat during daytime and retain high temperature for long. The hottest points like Sibi and Jacobabad are located in this area.
2) Write an essay on “Imbalanced economic growth and regional imbalance”.
Imbalance economic growth and regional imbalances:
Enormous disparities are found among the different regions and provinces of Pakistan. Some of these are due to natural factors while others can be ascribed to bad planning and faulty management of affairs.
Factors involving in imbalance economic growth:
The factors involving in imbalance economic growth are:
1. Uneven division of the population in cities:
Punjab has 7.36 crore population, Sindh 3.41 crore, the NWFP 1.77 crore and Baluchistan only 65 lac (0.65 crores). On the other hand, Balochistan covers about 44 %of the total area of Pakistan and Punjab only 26%. This shows that the population of Pakistan is very unevenly divided. Similarly, out of the total 23 cities having a population of more than two lac, only one, i.e. Quetta is located in Balochistan. Only one out of the five most populous cities of the countries is located in the province of Sindh, the remaining four are in Punjab, these are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, and Multan.
People are migrating in great numbers from rural to urban areas due to better living conditions and more business facilities available in the cities. This trend is creating social, economic, and cultural problems. The big cities are expanding at unmanageable pace; investment is being diverted only to the urban areas. Health and education facilities are being concentrated only in big cities. Rural areas are facing the falling sort of basic life amenities; their sense of deprivation is gradually mounting.
The economists of the old school believe that disparities are a natural disaster of the process of economic development and this is the universal phenomenon. Other experts believe that this problem has no short-cut remedy; it must take its time before it cures itself. Modern economists are of the opinion that problems of urbanization and regional disparities have a permanent nature and are bound to intensify as the process of economic development progresses.
4. Province’s Separation:
Former East Pakistan is an unfortunate example; in the year 1959 annual per capita income of the province was 32 % lower than the per capita income in the west wing. This difference increased by another 10 % in the next ten years. This disparity proved to be the root cause of the province’s separation from the rest of Pakistan. This tendency needs to be checked effectively in order to prevent ominous incidents from recurring.
5. Imbalances in Provinces:
According to the latest available statistics, the province of Sindh has the highest per capita income rate in the country. It is three times higher than the NWFP, one and a half times higher than Punjab and double than that of Baluchistan. In addition to that, the imbalance between different parts of each province is also noticeable, for example, central Punjab is much more prosperous than Southern Punjab, and there is the same position in other provinces.
6. Disequilibrium in Industrial Development:
There is also great disequilibrium with respect to industrial development. Most of the industry in the province of Sindh is concentrated in Karachi and Hyderabad. Some cities in the province of Punjab have the biggest concentration of industrial units, while some of the areas in Punjab have little or no industrial development. Baluchistan and the NWFP are industrially underdeveloped. Although the government has declared “Hub” in Baluchistan and Gadoon in the NWFP as tax-free zones and have given incentives for setting up industries, yet these provinces have to cover a long way before they come at par with the Punjab and Sindh.
The provision of basic requirements has a direct bearing on economic development, which is referred to as “Infrastructure.” These basic requirements include railways, roadways, telephone, telegraph, television, newspaper, electronic networks, postal and courier services. In our case, the provinces and the cities that had better infrastructure made rapid progress in the past in respect of industrial development and per capita income. Educated and skilled people moved to big cities like Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar etc. because these cities had banks, hospitals, colleges and other educational institutions and offered better employment opportunities.
Feudalism is an important factor responsible for keeping rural society backwards. Almost all industrialization took place in urban areas and the agriculture sector made rapid progress in the regions where large landholdings (Jagirdari or feudalism) did not exist. E.g. Lahore, Faisalabad, etc. the feudal lords made all possible efforts to put obstacles in the way of human development and did all they could to keep areas under their control as backward as possible
Another factor that interposed barriers in the way of progress and development was bureaucracy. High government functionaries provided facilities in the areas of their priority. Pakistan always faces budget deficits; to control the budget deficit and restrict inflation, monetary cuts have to be levied.
The state of affairs may prove explosive for the national life, but the imminent disaster cannot be averted by taking resources to merely cosmetic remedies. In order to bring about substantial change, a comprehensive social and political transformation is required. The broadening of the economic base of the society will strengthen the deprived classes and weaken the oppressors. Economic development can only take place in an environment of peace and tranquillity. We should follow the tradition of the Holy Prophet S.A.W, which was set at Hudaibiya. The Prophet S.A.W granted all the demands of the opponents, fair or unfair, in order to achieve peace for his people.
3) Bring out the impact of climate on human life.
Climate is the long-term pattern of the weather of a certain region over the period of 11 to 40 years generally. It is measured by weather conditions i.e. temperature, humidity, rainfall, winds etc. The difference between Climate and Weather is a measure of time. The weather describes the conditions of the atmosphere over a short period e.g. from day to day or week-to-week whereas the climate of a region is the average weather pattern in a specific place over a period of years.
Impact of climate on human life:
The climate in different parts of the world is not the same. Pakistan also faces the variations in its climate such as:
Rainfall and Snowfall:
The region of northern and northwestern highlands receives abundant rainfall and snowfall. Therefore, people build houses with sloping roofs to make them safe.
The sea breezes in Karachi, Hyderabad and other Sindh areas blows throughout the year, which reduces the effects of high temperature.
Local winds in deserts are usually very hot during the daytime, which is called ‘loo’ in Pakistan.
Variations in Summer and Winter’s Weather:
In summer, the plains are extremely hot whereas the hilly areas have pleasant weather. Likewise, in winters, snowfalls make the hilly areas extremely cold whereas the plains are less cold.
The areas of Murree, Ayubia, Nathiagali, Naran, and Kaghan attract the tourists due to their pleasant summers and scenic beauty.
4) What is the importance of Pakistan’s location from the geographical and strategic point of view?
Pakistan is located in the midst of the important countries of Asia such as Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India. Pakistan shares 592 km long border with the People’s Republic of China in the northeast. In the northwest, the 2250 km long Durand line separates Pakistan from Afghanistan. Pakistan also shares the 800 km long border in the south-west with Iran and nearly 1600 km long border with India in the east. In addition, the Arabian Sea lies in the south of Pakistan.
Geographical and Strategic Importance of Pakistan:
The location of Pakistan occupies specific importance not only in South-Asia but also all over the world. Pakistan is a key source to establish the link between the East and the West. Pakistan is situated in a region, which has great political, economic, and military importance.
1. Central Position in the Muslim World:
Pakistan occupies a central position in the Muslim countries of the world. Pakistan stretches a long chain of Muslim countries from Morocco in the West to Indonesia in the Far East. Therefore, the Vice President of Libya Abdus-Salam Jalud visited Pakistan in 1978 and appreciated this esteem position as “The heart of the Muslim world.”
2. Importance in World Politics:
Pakistan came into being only two years after the termination of the Second World War. In the post-war period, the USA and the USSR had emerged as superpowers. These two countries struggled hard to win the support of the smaller countries of the world and enhance their respective spheres of influence. Pakistan allied itself with the U.S. during the Cold war era against the USSR and became the frontline state in the alliance of states formed by the USA to contain Russian expansion. Pakistan has also joined the anti-Russian military alliances, i.e. SEATO and CENTO founded by America.
3. The Leadership of the Third World:
Pakistan is a great patron of the unit of the third world countries. It could not attain a respectable position amongst the non-aligned and the third world countries due to its unconditional loyalty to the American block. However, when Pakistan adopted a policy of non-alignment, its image has been recovered in the Third world countries. Afterwards, the President of Pakistan represented the Muslim world at the Havana Conference of non-aligned countries in 1979. In 1980, he was given again the honour of addressing the UN General Assembly as the representative of the entire Muslim world.
4. Anti-Expansionist Stance:
Pakistan is situated among the great political, economic, and military powers such as China and Russia. Although Pakistan had insufficient resources, it took a firm stand against the expansionist designs of the Soviet Union and offered sustained resistance to the Russian intrusion in Afghanistan. Therefore, the world appreciates the role of Pakistan in defeating the designs in Afghanistan, which led to the dismemberment of the Superpower.
5. Centre for trade and Transit Routes:
Pakistan is located in the centre of the region and has rail links among the countries of the Far East and Iran, Turkey, and Europe. The air and seaports of Karachi offer a central transit point between the European and the Asian State. Pakistan’s warm water seaports remain operative throughout the year.
7. Transit Facilities for Afghanistan and the Landlocked Central Asian States:
Pakistan extends transit trade facilities to Afghanistan and Central Asian Republics, i.e. Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan because all these republics are landlocked and located away from the ocean. Therefore, they have to pass through Pakistan in order to access the Arabian Sea. Pakistan has also religious, cultural, and economic relations with these Islamic States.
Pakistan has a remarkable and central place in the region of South Asia and the history of Pakistan proves that Pakistan was a self-sufficient geographical unit, which always maintained a separate geographical entity. It has also maintained deep economic and social ties with all the regions. Therefore, it is a great centre of trade and industry. Thus, the location of Pakistan carries immense importance in South Asia.
5) What is the importance of the Central Asian States with reference to their relationship with Pakistan?
Importance of the Central Asian states with reference to their relationship with Pakistan:
Pakistan was created in the days when the Supreme Soviet Empire was enjoying a position of command in world affairs. The Soviet Union occupied an enormous area, larger than any other state in the world. Pakistan did not share boundaries with the Soviet Union. The Afghan territory, known as ‘Wakhan’ separated Pakistan only through a 20 km small strip from the Soviet state of Tajikistan. In the year 1989, the Soviet Empire was dismemberment because of defeat from Afghan and Pakistani forces. The states that made a part of the Soviet Union were liberated. Russia is the most important of these states.
The Muslim-majority states that formed part of the defunct Soviet Empire are now independent. The most important of these are Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. These Muslim states taken together are referred to as the Central Asian Muslim States. Pakistan has friendly relations with Afghanistan and all the Muslim States. Afghanistan and most of these Islamic states have no access to the sea. Coastal areas of the defunct Soviet Union are extremely cold and water in the sea remains frozen throughout the year.
Transportation through the sea is the cheapest means of conducting import and export of goods. No country in the world can maintain a favourable balance of trade without the help of maritime trade facilities. Pakistan is gifted with the warm water seaports and these seaports remain operative throughout the year. Pakistan maintains two fine seaports i.e. Karachi and Port Qasim. Other seaports i.n. Ketty Bandar and Gwadar are under process.
Pakistan extends transit trade facilities to Afghanistan and the Central Asian States in the same manner as it did in the days of the defunct Soviet Empire. Goods consigned for these states are first unloaded from ships at Pakistan’s seaports and reloaded on road transport to reach their destination in Afghanistan, Russia, and the other Central Asian States. During the last decade of the twentieth century, an enormous network of motorways was planned with a purpose to expedite and expand the transit facilities.
The relations between Pakistan and Central Asia are very friendly. Pakistan is an ideal route for Central Asia’s international trade. Pakistan’s Gwadar and Karachi seaports can provide ideal port and transit facilities for the Central Asian republics to establish their trade links with the outer world for the benefit of the entire region. The exchange of high-level visits has been an important aspect of relations between Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics. These have contributed to better understanding and closer cooperation, and the momentum in these visits is continuously growing.