Class 12 Pakistan Studies Notes Chapter 1 Genesis of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Short Question and Long question.
- Fsc class 12 Notes
- ICS Pak Studies Notes
- 2nd Years Pak study notes in english medium
What is meant by the term Ideology?
The term “Ideology” is composed of two Greek words “ideo” and “logos”, which means “the science of ideas.” Ideology is defined as a set of beliefs and standards, on which the collective ideals of a community, nation or millat are based. It also includes the total of principles set forth for the achievement of these common ideals.
What is Islamic theory of nationhood?
Nationhood is the state of having a status of as a separate and independent nation and the basis of Muslim nationhood depends on Islamic ideology, which means that they have a separate and distinct identity from other nations of the world based on the tenets of Islam.
Therefore, the Muslims believe that all the Muslims of the world are one Ummah and they have a separate identity from other nations of the world. This unity is the concept of the Islamic theory of nationhood.
Explain Pakistan Ideology briefly.
The term “Pakistan Ideology” refers to that set of beliefs and objectives, which formed the basis of the Muslim freedom struggle in South-East Asia. It was based on the Islamic faith and the Two-Nation Theory. The ideology of Pakistan was based on the principle that the Muslims and Non-Muslims in India were separate and distinct nations and the Muslims should have an opportunity to order their individual and collective lives according to the tenets of Islam, living as free citizens of an independent democratic state.
What the Quaid-e-Azam (RA) thought about minorities, quote a brief statement.
The Quaid-e-Azam was a great champion of human rights. While addressing the First session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, he said about minorities that:
“… You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed… that has nothing to do with the business of the state… we are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens, and equal citizens, of one state”.
Write a short not on the Simla Deputation.
The Simla Deputation has a great influence on the history of sub-continent because for the very first time, the Hindu-Muslim conflict, which was started with the Urdu-Hindi controversy, was lifted to the constitutional plan. The deputation comprised of 35 Muslims.
This delegation met the viceroy on 1 October 1906 at Simla and presented the Muslim’s demand of separate electorate before the Viceroy that is why it was called Simla Deputation.
What do you know about ‘Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind’ (Causes of the Indian Mutiny)?
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (Causes of the Indian Revolt). He rejected the common notion that Muslims, who were insecure at the diminishing influence of Muslim monarchs, planned the conspiracy of 1857.
In this book, he tried to prove that it was just an upheaval spurred by a few trouble mongers.
Moreover, the uncertain policies of the British government also paved the way for the revolt. The Muslims generally liked to label the 1857 events as “war of independence,” but Sir Sayyed always called it a mutiny.
What objectives were set for the Muslim League at the time of its inception?
The Muslims leaders of India felt that the British government was less considerate towards the Muslims as compared to the Hindus, therefore, they planned for the establishment of the Muslim League political organization. The main objectives were:
1. To safeguard and protect the interests of the Indian Muslims, to convey their demands to the British Government through the constitutional means.
2. To create the feelings of respect and goodwill for the British Government amongst the Muslims and to remove misunderstandings and misconceptions regarding the British policies.
3. To create the feeling of unity between the Muslims and other communities of the subcontinent.
The changes in the objectives of All India Muslim League were made on Quaid-e-Azam’s initiative in March 1913. The policy of unconditional subservience was forsaken in the favour of “self-government suitable for Indian conditions.”
The changes in the objectives of All India Muslim League were made on Quaid-e-Azam’s initiative in March 1913. The policy of unconditional subservience was forsaken in the favour of “self-government suitable for Indian conditions.”
Write a note on the Simla Conference.
Lord Wavell came to India as a new Viceroy after World War II. On his arrival, he announced a plan for the solution of the Indian problem. His plan was to establish an Executive Council, which will represent all Indian communities and all offices except that of the Commander-in-Chief shall be filled by the Indian members. In addition, the Muslim members shall be equal in number to the caste-Hindus. Therefore, to discuss this proposal with the Indian politicians, Wavell called a conference held at Simla in June 1945, which was known as the Simla Conference.
What were the salient features of the Indian Independence Act?
The British government passed the Indian Independence Act on July 15, 1947. The Act was framed on the principles stipulated in the Third June Plan. It provided that:
British rule over India will end on Aug. 15, 1947.
Title of the “Emperor of India” will no more form a part of the titles of British Crown after that date.
The successor states will be run under the Government of India Act 1935, adapted and modified to meet their requirements, as an interim constitution, till their respective Constitution Assemblies frame new Constitutions
Long Questions | Genesis of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
PAK-STUDIES CLASS 12TH Notes
1) Give an account of the Muslim struggle form 1857 to the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906.
Muslim struggle from 1857 to the establishment of the Muslim league 1906:
The Role of Muslims in India’s struggle for independence is a glorious episode in the history of India. In the year 1857, eight hundred years long Muslim rule over India ended. In 1858, India was given under the direct control of the British Crown and a Viceroy was appointed to represent the Crown. After the war, the British took strong measures towards Indian Muslims as they declared that the Muslims were solely responsible for the War. Muslims were rusticated from government institutions. They were far behind from English Education as introduced by the British rulers. Their economic, social, and political conditions were so poor. Therefore, Muslim Sufis and Leaders started the struggle for the freedom of Muslims of India. The important landmarks of Muslim struggle were:
1. Aligarh Movement:
After the War of 1857, Sir Sayyed believed that it was not a wise policy for Muslims to adopt an antagonistic attitude towards the new rulers of India. Therefore, he started the Muslim renaissance efforts, which are known as “Aligarh Movement.” Sir Sayyed found the solution to the Muslim problems in the British education system and advised them to make a friendly relationship with British Rulers. In 1875, he founded the Aligarh School and many other educational and research institutions. He also wrote many books and launched magazines i.e. Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq, Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind etc. to bring closer to the British rulers and the Muslims.
2. Extremist Hindu Movements:
The anti-Muslim movement Arya Samaj flourished in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The movement aimed at reconverting the Muslims to Hinduism. Bankim Chandra Chatterji wrote a novel “Anand Matth”
which provoked Muslim religious sentiments. Anti-Muslim epic Band-e-Mataram was a part of this novel. In a very short time, this movement enveloped the majority of the Hindu nation and the Muslims increasingly felt the need to organize themselves to protect their separate identity.
3. The Partition of Bengal:
In the year 1905, the British government divided the province of Bengal into two parts. Since the newly created province of East Bengal had a Muslim majority, the Muslims were to benefit from this partition. Hindus launched a strong protest against this decision of the government throughout India. The province of Bengal was the main target of the Hindus.
4. The Simla Deputation and Demand for the Separate Electorate:
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk organized a Simla Deputation comprised of 35 Muslim leaders from all over India. This deputation met Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla on October 1, 1906, and presented the Muslim’s demands of which the demand of the separate electorate was the most significant. The attitude of the Viceroy was very sympathetic and encouraging.
5. Establishment of the Muslim League:
The success of Simla Deputation encouraged Muslims to establish their own political party. Therefore, “The All India Muslim League” was formed. This decision was taken at the session of the “Muhammadan Educational Conference” which was held at Dacca in December 1906. The purpose of the establishment of the Muslim League was to take up the Muslim demands with the government through constitutional means.
Muslims faced a great agony for many years after the war of 1857 because they had lost their eight hundred yearlong kingships. The new British rulers considered the Muslims for the cause of War because Hindus had collaborated with British to please them. The events from the war of freedom until the establishment of the Muslim League political party in 1906 showed the great struggle regarding the issue of recognizing the Muslim’s separate identity and although Muslims were facing many problems during all these years but they did not bow down in front of the British and Hindus and continued their struggle of recognition.
2) Give a background of the Aligarh Movement and a summary of its basic objectives.
Background of Aligarh Movement:
Indian authority shifted from the Muslims to the British hands. Therefore, in 1857, the Indian troops employed by the East India Company waged a War of Independence against the British Rulers. Their purpose was to free the country from the foreign rule but the Indian troops lost the war and the British came out victorious. The East India Company ruled India until 1858 and from 1858, the British crown ruled India directly. This great debacle shook the entire structure of South Asia’s social and political life to the depth of its roots because Muslims were held responsible for this War that aroused against the British authority. Therefore, Muslims were destroyed politically, socially and economically. Hindus, however, joined hands with British very soon and became close to the British rulers.
In these circumstances, many movements started for the betterment of Muslims and ended. One of the most Important was the Aligarh movement, which was started by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan at Aligarh. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan believed that it was not a wise policy for the Muslims to adopt an antagonistic attitude towards the British government. They advised the Muslims to adopt the policy of conciliation and friendship towards the British. The Aligarh movement gave a new vision and direction to the Muslims of India.
Objectives of Aligarh Movement:
The main objectives of the Aligarh movement were:
- To bring about the conciliation among the Muslims and the British.
- To spread modern education among the Muslims and impart the English language.
- To make the Muslims familiar with British Culture and way of life.
- To develop friendly and good neighbourly relations between the Muslims and other India nations.
The Aligarh Movement has been viewed as a movement to revolutionize the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. Sir Sayyid made great efforts for the revival of Muslim glory. He guided the Muslims to the right path and led them to reshape their future.
3) Describe and evaluate Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s (RA) services for the Muslims of India.
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s services:
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 in an aristocratic family in Mughal Delhi. He was a theologian, scholar, social reformer, educationist, politician, author, and journalist. He devoted his whole life for the renaissance of the Muslims. The main features for the achievement of his objectives were:
1. Educational Services:
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan realized that only modern education would help in the progress and development of Muslims. He visited England in the year 1869 and made good use of this opportunity by visiting the most prestigious of the British educational institutions and on his return to India, he established an educational committee. The purpose of this committee was to establish educational institutions in India, conforming to the British standard.
CLASS 2ND YEAR PAK. STUDIES NOTES (ENGLISH VERSION
i) Establishment of Schools:
Sir Sayyid opened many, schools at different places, i.e. Murad Abad (1859), Ghazipur (1862).
ii) British Education system:
Sir Sayyid visited England in the year 1869. He also visited the most prestigious British educational institutions and deeply studied the curriculum of these institutions. Later, when he returned to India, he established a committee with the name of “Khawastgaran-e-Taraqqi-e-Taleem-e-Musalmanan-e-Hind.” The purpose of this committee was to establish educational institutions in India conforming to the British standards.
iii) Establishment of the Scientific Society:
In 1863, he established ‘The Scientific Society’ that aimed to spread the knowledge through the translation of Standard English books into Urdu.
iv) Establishment of the MAO School:
Sir Sayyid established English High School at Aligarh in the year 1875, which was named “Muhammadan Anglo Oriented School.” Its model was based on Cambridge University London.
v) Establishment of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO):
In 1877, Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan laid the foundation of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh to impart modern education as well as religious education.
vi) Establishment of Muhammadan Educational Conference:
In 1886, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan laid the foundation of Muhammadan Educational Conference. The purpose of this conference was to spread the message of the Aligarh Movement to the Muslims throughout India and to motivate the Muslims for acquiring modern knowledge.
2. Social Services:
Sir Sayyid was also a social reformer and he wanted that Muslims should get an honourable status in Hindu dominant society. For this purpose, he wrote his famous books “The Causes of The Indian Revolt” and “The Loyal Muhammadans of India.” Through these books, he tried to clear the misunderstandings between the Muslims and British.
i) Causes of Indian Revolt:
Sir Sayyid wrote a book titled “Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind” (Causes of the Indian Revolt). He pointed out the weaknesses of the British Government. He rejected the common notion that Muslims, who were insecure at the diminishing influence of Muslim monarchs, planned the conspiracy of 1857. In this book, he tried to prove that it was just an upheaval spurred by a few trouble mongers. The Muslims generally liked to label the 1857 events as “war of independence,” but Sir Sayyad always called it a mutiny.
ii) The Loyal Muhammadan of India:
In 1860, Sir Sayyad launched a magazine under the title of “Loyal Muhammadan of India.” In this magazine, he highlighted the services of those Muslims who had put their lives in trouble to save the lives of British officials and citizens.
3. Political Services:
Sir Sayyid had also provided great political services for the restoration of Muslims’ status in the subcontinent, which were:
i) Two-Nation Theory:
Sir Sayyid is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation Theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims.
ii) Member of the Imperial Legislative Council:
In 1878, Sir Sayyed was nominated to the Viceroy’s Legislative Council and as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council; he took up the Indian problems very effectively with the Indian Government.
Sir Sayyid was a man of great courage. He worked throughout his life for the betterment of the Indian Muslims and tried to revive the dormant consciousness of Muslims through his educational, political and social reforms. Therefore, he is considered in Muslim history as arguably the most influential Indian politician of the 19th century.
4) Give background and reasons for the establishment of Muslim League.
The All-India Muslim League was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire. From the very start of its existence, the Indian National Congress had shown clear interest only to safeguard the rights of Hindus. Some of the Congress leaders adopted a revolutionary policy to establish Hindu Raj in the sub-continent. The success of Simla Deputation made the Muslim leaders seriously felt the need for a separate Muslim political organization. The annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held at the residence of Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dhaka on 30 December 1906. Almost all the Muslim leaders attended the meeting. At the end of the meeting, Nawab Salim Ullah felt the need of a political organization for the Muslims of the subcontinent. He, therefore, moved a resolution, which was supported by many participants, and thus the Muslims’ political party “All India Muslim League” was founded.
Causes Leading to the Formation of Muslim League:
The factors responsible for the formation of All India Muslim League were:
1. Establishment of the British System of Government:
The British Government introduced the democratic system in the sub-continent in the year 1858. Since the Hindus outnumbered the Muslims in Indian Population, they were on surer ground under the new political system. The British had already crippled the Muslims economically. Therefore, Muslims need a planned platform which can help them in their freedom from British rule.
2. Hindu Extremism:
Urdu-Hindi controversy began with the demand of Hindus to replace Urdu by Hindi as Official Language. Congress only supported Hindi and started a movement against Urdu. During the same period, Hindu extremists started programmes like the “Arya Samaj” with a purpose to reconvert the Muslims into Hindu religion.
3. Backwardness in educational and economic progress:
After the War of Independence and the rule of British, Muslims were far behind the Hindus in educational and economic progress. They need a proper organization that supports them in their education and economic development.
4. Establishment of the Indian National Congress:
The British Civil Servant A.O. Hume established the Indian National Congress in 1885. The Hindus welcomed it and joined it in great numbers.
5. Demand for Separate Electorate:
Sir Sayyid believed that the British System of elections did not suit the Indian conditions, because this will reduce the Muslims to a position of permanent slavery. He proposed the system of the separate electorate as an alternative.
6. Partition of Bengal and the Congress Attitude:
The British government divided the province of Bengal into two parts. Since the newly created province of East Bengal had a Muslim majority, the Muslims were to benefit from this partition. Therefore, Hindus launched a strong protest against the decision of the government throughout India. The Muslims were greatly disappointed to see the attitude of the Congress.
7. Change of Government in Britain:
The Liberal Party returned to power in the 1905 elections held in Britain. The Party gave a Programme of political reforms meant for India. The Muslim leaders discussed the situation and decided to make a common cause for taking up the demands of the Muslim community with the government.
8. The Simla Deputation:
In 1906, the thirty-five Muslim leaders were taken from all parts of the subcontinent. This deputation met Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla on October 1, 1906, and presented important Muslim demands to the Viceroy, which included the reserved quota of seats for Muslims in all representatives bodies and separate electorate. The Muslim leaders were greatly encouraged by the viceroy’s response.
The Muslim League was established for the protection of the Muslim interests. It took over the Muslim struggle launched by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and was successful in securing a number of demands from the Government for the Muslims. Therefore, the Muslims of India generally welcomed it.
5) Give an account of the proposals brought forward for the solution of the Indian problem at different times.
The British became the rulers of the subcontinent after the downfall of the Muslim rulers. They introduced their own policies and government systems, which created the trouble for the Indians. These problems were of very complex nature. Numerous efforts were made to work out a conciliatory formula, which would satisfy the British, the Hindus, and the Muslims at the same time. In this regard, many proposals were brought forward at different times. These proposals were:
1) Minto-Morley Reforms:
In 1909, the British government introduced a new constitutional structure to give more power to the people of India and to seek greater participation of the Indians in running the affairs of the government. This Act recognized the Muslims as a separate community and separate electoral rolls were prepared for them.
2) The Lucknow Pact 1916:
Quaid made many efforts for the rights of Muslims and due to his efforts and suggestion, the Congress and the Muslim League held their sessions jointly at Bombay in December 1915 and later at Lucknow on 30th and 31st December 1916, which concluded with an alliance between the two parties. This historical session is known as the Lucknow Pact 1916. The leaders of both parties agreed that they should cooperate with each other to bring the government to accept their demands.
3) Delhi proposals 1927:
In the 1926 election, Hindu Mahasabha captured Congress by defeating one faction of Congress, which is called the Swaraj Party. The new extremist leadership raised a storm of propaganda against the separate electorate and Lucknow Pact. Therefore, on March 1927, Quaid-e-Azam called a conference of Muslim leaders at Delhi to formulate alternate proposals, which are known as Delhi Proposals. At first, Hindu leaders welcomed the proposals but later began to oppose them.
4) Simon Commission:
The British government sent a constitutional commission to India at the end of 1927 under Sir John Simon to report the constitutional progress of India and to formulate recommendations for new constitutional reforms in consultation with the Indian leaders. Congress and Muhammad Ali Jinnah both boycott the commission because they wanted to include the Indians in it.
5) The Nehru Report:
The Indian National Congress held a Conference in 1928 as a reaction of Simon Commission. The endorsements of the committee are popularly known as “Nehru Report.” This report was totally against the Muslim interests and needs. However, Hindu leaders fully supported it and took it as a great achievement.
6) Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points:
In March 1929, Quaid-e-Azam called a meeting of All India Muslim League at Delhi and presented his own formula for the constitutional reform in reply to the Nehru Report. This formula was known as “Fourteen Point” in the history of the subcontinent. The Muslim League adopted this formula but Congress rejected the Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points.
7) Round Table Conference:
The viceroy of India Lord Irwin announced that a Round Table Conference comprising the British and Indian leaders would be held for a discussion on the future constitution of India. Muslims decided to attend the conference while Congress boycotted the Round Table Conference. The Round Table Conference was held in three sessions in 1930, 1931, and 1932.
8) The Government of India Act 1935:
The British government framed a constitutional bill in the light of the Communal Award and got it passed by the Parliament in 1935. This Act is known as The Government of India Act 1935. The Act came into force in April 1937.
9) Cripps Mission 1942:
The British sent a Cabinet Member Sir Stafford Cripps in India on 22 March 1942 to find a possibility of compromise between the Indian Political parties. He presented some important proposals, which were called ‘Cripps Proposals’. The Congress and Muslim League rejected the proposal.
10) Cabinet mission Plan 1946:
The Cabinet Mission was sent in India to preserve the unity of the Indian Federation at the end of March 1946. Their task was to bring about the solution of the constitutional problem of India.
11) Third June Plan:
On 20 February 1947, the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee announced that the British Government wanted to divide the subcontinent by June 1948. The new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten reached Delhi on 22 March 1947. He was assured to make a peaceful transfer of power from the British to the Indians. He began to hold talks with the political leaders of India on the partition plan. Both the parties approved the proposal of partition.
12) Indian independence Act 1947:
The British Government passed the Indian Independence Act on 15 July 1947. The act assured the principles presented in the 3 June plan. Mountbatten appointed a Boundary commission headed by Cyril Radcliff in Punjab and Bengal. The Boundary award was announced on 17 August 1947. Quaid-e-Azam was the first Governor-General and Liaqat Ali Khan was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Hindus were never pleased with the Muslims they always tried to make trouble for the Muslims. When the Muslims were facing downfall of their kingship, Hindus had joined hands with the British rulers. However, Muslims never left the struggle for freedom and at last; with the efforts of Muslim leaders, they achieved the success of Independence.
6) Give a background of the Khilafat Movement and a brief account of its major events.
Background of the Khilafat Movement:
The Muslims of India had great regard for the Khilafat (Caliphate) which was held by the Ottoman Empire. The Khilafat movement (1919-1926) was a political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India, which is related to the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the war in favour of Germany. However, Turkey and Germany lost the war. The Turkish Sultan, as Caliph of Islam, was the symbol of the unity of the Muslim World. The Muslim Loyalty to the British and their role in the English army during the war demanded that the British should keep their promise of preserving the Turkish Khilafat. However, the behaviour of the Allies during the War and their arrogant proclamations made the Muslims afraid that the Allies may take over a part of the Turkish Empire or may desecrate the Holy Muslim shrines, which were a symbol of the global Muslim fraternity. These apprehensions gave out a wave of anger and unrest among the Indian Muslims. They started a countrywide movement for the protection of Khilafat, which was known as “Khilafat Movement.”
Important Events of the Khilafat Movement:
The important events leading to the Khilafat Movement were:
1. Establishment of the Khilafat Committee:
In order to organize a mass launch, an opinion-forming campaign was formed on November 23, 1919. It was named as “The All India Khilafat Committee” and presided over by Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq.
2. Hindu Muslim Unity and Non-cooperation:
In the year 1919, the Indian National Congress decided to support the Muslim on the Khilafat issue and authorized Gandhiji to chalk out a road map for this matter. Gandhiji brought forward a programme of non-cooperation with the government, which was to be executed in four stages.
3. Khilafat Delegation:
In 1920, a delegation headed by Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar set off for London. The British government refused to meet the delegation. However, it held some meetings and explained its position to the public.
4. The Treaty of Sevres:
In May 1920, the Allied Forces decided Turkey’s fate under the Treaty made at Sevres. The Empire was stripped of its occupations in Europe and Arabia. The Treaty was named after the venue where it was concluded.
5. Non-Cooperation Movement:
Many Muslim Leaders set the Indian emotion at the fire with their speeches. An all India ‘Hartal’ was observed on the appeal of the Khilafat Committee on August 1, 1920. Gandhiji was elected leader of the Non-Cooperation Movement. The program of this movement was to boycott the courts, government servants resigned services, students all over India quit educational institutions and many of the British titleholders surrendered their titles and decorations as a protest.
6. Civil Disobedience:
In November 1921, Gandhiji, the leader of the movement of Civil disobedience, called the people to break the law and disobey the government by refusing to pay taxes and by all other possible means. The Government arrested about thirty thousand people because of this call.
7. Mopla Uprising:
Moplas were a Muslim community settled on the South Indian shores. They claimed to be the descendants of the Arab traders. In the year 1921, there was a clash between the Moplas and the Hindu business lords of the area on the issues of purely local nature. These incidents provided an excellent opportunity to the British government to create the rift between the Hindus and the Muslims. This resulted in Hindu-Muslim riots and caused a great set back to the Khilafat Movement.
8. Chora Chori Incident:
In 1922, a procession of Congressmen set on fire a police station at Chora Chori. As a result, twenty-one police officers were burnt alive.
9. Civil Disobedience called off:
Gandhiji said that since the Civil Disobedience movement had deviated from its avowed path of non-violence, it was necessary to call it off. He made this decision at the time when the movement had reached its climax.
10. The reaction of the Leadership:
The entire leadership of the movement, the Hindu and the Muslim alike were stunned at this sudden decision. Most of the leaders thought that this decision was without justification and had caused a great setback to the Movement.
11. Abolition of Khilafat:
Kamal Ataturk came to power in Turkey and on March 3, 1924, he abolished the institution of Khilafat. This proclamation came as the final death below the Khilafat Movement in India.
The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained its authority. Therefore, the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction. However, this movement met a failure due to the diplomatic policies of Gandhiji.
7) Examine the impact and outcomes of the Tehreek-e-Khilafat in detail.
The members of the Khilafat movement worked to support the caliphate, a Muslim system of rule in Turkey while working against the British colonial rulers in India. The Muslims rendered innumerous sacrifices for the protection and restoration of the Khilafat Movement. Not only Muslims supported it but Hindus also favoured it and it could not be succeeded due to some reasons.
Impacts and outcomes of Tehreek-e-Khilafat:
Apparently, futile Muslim efforts to keep the institution of Khilafat alive had far-reaching impact on Indian Politics i.e.
1. Raise of awareness for freedom:
It was the first popular movement, which touched almost every part of the subcontinent. The leaders of public opinion came very close to the common person through the Khilafat platform. The Muslim’s struggle awaked the people for the achievement of Pakistan in future.
2. British thinking to quit India:
It was an important step towards the liberation of India from the shackles of British rule. The forceful expression of India’s popular sentiments against imperialism helped the British rulers to understand that it was impossible to keep India under their control forever. Therefore, they started to make their mind to quit India.
3. Turk’s Realization of their strength:
Although the Indian Muslims did not succeed in achieving their core objective, yet the Khilafat Movement did great service to the Turks who were fighting the war of their survival. The speeches and statements of the Khilafat leaders were translated and spread in Turkey. It gave the Turk soldiers courage to consolidate and strengthen their position in the areas left for Turkey after the war was over and drive the enemies out of the Turk areas.
4. Confidence and political awareness:
The moderate Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam had sympathies for Turks but they did not indulge themselves in the politics of agitation or the emotional spurred by the Khilafat leaders. They believed that no substantial success could be achieved through emotional and agitation politics. Therefore, the failure of the Khilafat Movement proved that these leaders were right, which enhanced the people’s trust and confidence in moderate politics.
5. Exposed of Hindu Mentality:
Gandhi’s sudden termination of the movement has been accounted for in different ways. Gandhi’s scheme of civil disobedience against the British created a violence wave in the subcontinent. In addition, when he felt that the rise of the Muslims would menace the Hindu rule in India, he, therefore, on a minor pretext ended the movement.
6. End of Hindu-Muslim Unity:
The Muslims realized that when they were near to achieve their success through Khilafat Movement, Gandhi betrayed them by his premature end to the movement and this caused the end of Hindu-Muslim unity.
7. The strengthen of Two-Nation Theory:
The Khilafat Movement immensely strengthened the Two-Nation Theory, which became the basis of the establishment of Pakistan.
8. The End of Khilafat Empire:
In 1924, Turks under Mustafa Kamal were consolidating their position in Turkey. They announced an end to the Khilafat. It was a great blow to Khilafat Committee members who had been campaigning on behalf of Turkey and Khilafat.
The Khilafat Movement was of considerable importance in the history of Muslim India. It was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey. Although the Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its declared objectives, it carried political awakening to large masses of Muslims. It made clear to the Indian Muslims to trust neither the British nor the Hindus, but to look to their own strengths for self-preservation.
8) What important events paved the way for the adoption of the Lahore Resolution?
The British became the ruler of the subcontinent in 1857. They introduced their own policies for running the Empire, in which Muslims faced a continuous degradation by the British and Hindus. After some time the Muslim realized that they would become a permanent minority in a democratic system of British policies and it would never be possible for them to protect their fundamental rights. Therefore, in order to protect their political, social and religious rights they first demanded separate electorates. However, due to the political developments that took place in the country, they realized that even the right of separate electorates would not be enough and they had to search for some other long-term solution. Therefore, in the month of March 1940, the Muslims of India adopted a resolution embodying their national objectives and expressing their firm commitment to make all efforts for the achievement of these objectives. Thus, the Lahore resolution is considered the most significant landmark in the history of Muslim’s freedom struggle. The important events and factors that led to the adoption of this resolution were:
1. Two- Nation Theory:
The basic reality behind the idea of Pakistan was that Islam possessed a distinct and distinguished civilization from all other nations of the world. Their spiritual and national aspirations could only be realized in a state, which would be Islamic in nature. The Muslims could live there as free citizens and in accordance with Islamic injunctions.
2. Hindu Extremism:
The Muslims had lived with the Hindus as neighbours and compatriots for about one thousand years. Therefore, Muslims could not expect good neighbourly treatment from the extremist Hindus, who had already made it clear that the Muslims had no place in India. They should either embrace Hinduism or quit India.
3. Iqbal’s Allahabad address:
Allama Iqbal delivered his presidential address at the annual session of the Muslim League, which was held in December 1930. In this address, he declared that the northwestern part of the Indian sub-continent was predominantly Muslim and form a distinct and separate national entity and their rights in any future constitution should be determined in this light.
4. Oppressive Congress Rule:
Congress ministries were formed in seven out of eleven Indian provinces and worked from 1937 to 1939. The bad governance and the oppressive rule of the Congress ministries created a general discontentment and despair among the Muslims, which resulted in the demand for a separate Muslim homeland.
5. The popularity of the Muslim League:
The Quaid-e-Azam kept persistently in touch with the Muslims during the oppressive Congress rule. He was successful in realizing the Muslims that they will lose their identity if the Congress were entrusted authority to rule the whole of India. Therefore, due to the Quaid-e-Azam’s efforts the Muslim League that had failed to attract the Muslim masses in 1937 elections, emerged as the sole representative of the Muslim nation in 1945-46 elections.
6. The desire for an Islamic State:
The Muslims were conscious of the fact that Islam is a complete code of life. They want to give it a practical shape, which was not possible without the establishment of a separate Islamic state. Therefore, they passed the Pakistan Resolution after meditating for many years.
The Lahore Resolution has a great significance in the history of Pakistan. With the passage of this Resolution, the Muslims of the sub-continent changed their demand from “Separate Electorates” to a “Separate State.” This Resolution rejected the idea of a United India and the creation of an independent Muslim state was set as their ultimate goal. It gave new energy and courage to the Muslims of the region who gathered around Quaid-e-Azam from the platform of the Muslim League to struggle for their freedom.
9) Elaborate salient features of the Lahore Resolution.
The Lahore Resolution was presented in23 March 1940 by the Bengal Chief Minister Maulvi Fazal-ul-Haq. Later it was commonly known as Pakistan Resolution. It is undoubtedly the most important event that changed the course of Indian history and had deep marks on the history of the world.
Salient features of Lahore Resolution:
The Lahore Resolution embodied minimum demands regarding the political status of the Muslims in Southeast Asia. The Muslims resolved in unambiguous terms that they would only accept a constitutional formula, which satisfies the following Muslim demands:
1. Disapproval of Federal Scheme:
The Federal scheme formulated in the Government of India Act 1935 is unsuitable for the Indian conditions. The Indian Muslims will never accept it.
2. Establishment of Independent States:
It was clearly stated that a constitution accepted for the Muslims of India should be based on the following principles:
“Geographically contiguous units be demarcated into regions…. In which the Muslims are numerically a majority, as in the northwestern and eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.
3. Safeguard for Minorities:
In the newly established Muslim and Non-Muslim states adequate constitutional safeguards should be provided to minorities with their consultation for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, and administrative rights and interests.
4. The extent of State Sovereignty:
The Resolution authorized the Muslim League Working Committee to draft a detailed constitutional scheme in the light of the principles stipulated in the Resolution, this scheme shall ensure that the states created under this scheme have full control over defence, foreign affairs, communications, customs, and all other necessary subjects.
The Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal by passing the Pakistan Resolution and instead of seeking an alliance with the Hindu community, they set out a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.
10) Analyse the Lahore Resolution and determine its place and role in the history of our freedom movement.
The Lahore Resolution:
In 1940, the Muslim League held the annual session of meeting at Minto Park, Lahore from 22nd to 24th March 1940. On 23 March 1940, the Bengal Chief Minister, Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq, moved the famous ‘Lahore Resolution’ and it was passed by the participants universally. This meeting was remarked as the Lahore Resolution. Later it was called the Pakistan Resolution because Pakistan came into being on this resolution. In this Resolution, Quaid-e-Azam explained the historical background of the political problem in the subcontinent. He said that “……….. under the plea of the unity of India and one nation, which does not exist, it is sought to pursue here the line of one central government. We know that the history of the last twelve hundred years has failed to achieve unity, and has witnessed India during the ages, always divided into Hindu India and Muslim India….. Muslims are a nation according to any definition and they must have their homeland. We wish to live in peace and harmony with our neighbours as free and independent people.”
The most notable features of the Lahore Resolution were:
1. Word “Pakistan” was nowhere used in the text of the Lahore Resolution.
2. The Resolution did not demand one Muslim state in clear terms. The ambiguity, which was caused due to the use of plural “States”, was removed later at Madras session of the Muslim League held in 1941. A resolution adopted at this session clearly stated that the Muslim League stood for only one sovereign independent Muslim state.
3. The boundaries of the Muslim state or states were not defined in the resolution. Words like units, regions, and zones were used instead.
4. The Resolution was originally called “Lahore Resolution” but later it came to be known as ‘Pakistan Resolution’. This name was given by the hostile Hindu press and was readily picked up by the Quaid-e-Azam.
5. In the coming years, the Lahore Resolution was referred to as the sole document formulating Indian Muslims unanimous national demands. The points, which were left ambiguous in the Resolution, were later clarified in another resolution adopted by the Muslim Representatives Convention held at Delhi in 1946.
Importance of the Lahore Resolution:
The adoption of the Lahore Resolution was a significant landmark in the history of Muslim India. The reasons for its importance are:
1. Through the Resolution, the Muslims of India set their national objectives and expressed their determination to make all efforts for the achievement of these objectives.
2. Representatives of the Muslims from all over India attended the Lahore session. Events in the following year proved that Muslims had full confidence in the Muslim League.
3. The Muslim League in the election manifesto took up Pakistan as the core issue. The Muslim rallied around the Muslim League in great numbers and the same party which had failed to attract people in the 1937 elections, now emerged as the sole representative of the Muslim Nation all over India.
4. The Lahore Resolution gave a direction to the political struggle of the Muslims, and within a short span of seven years’ time, the Muslims were able to achieve their cherished goal, which was to get an independent Muslim State, i.e. Pakistan.
11) Give a brief account of the Cripps Proposals. How did the major political parties of India react to these proposals?
The British were alarmed due to the military setbacks during the early years of World War-II and felt the need for Indian support. Therefore, the then Prime Minister of Britain, Sir Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to explore the possibilities of a compromise with the Indian political parties and support for their efforts in World War II. Sir Stafford Cripps discussed the matters with the Indian leaders and published his proposals on March 30, 1942.
Proposals of the Cripps Mission:
The important proposals were:
- A Constitution Assembly consisting of Indian representatives shall be formed at the termination of the war.
- The Union was to be given a dominion status. This implied complete internal independence within the framework of the British Commonwealth.
- The provinces would be given the right of establishing their own governments.
- The princely states could also participate in the Legislative Assembly.
- The election for provincial Assemblies would be held after the end of the war. These Assemblies would elect members of the Constituent Assembly in a number equal to one-tenth of their respective strength.
- The British government would continue to run Indian affairs until the termination of War.
- The suggestions were to be accepted or rejected as a whole and there would be no amendments.
The reaction of major Political parties:
The major Indian Political parties, i.e. the Muslim League and the Congress rejected the Cripps proposals. The Congress demanded the immediate transfer of rule to the elected representatives, which the formula apparently promised because the Congress knew that the Government was under great stress due to war engagements and it was an excellent opportunity to build pressure on British to quit India. The Muslim League also rejected the scheme because it had no clear vision of establishing Pakistan as an independent Muslim State.
The Cripps Mission was an attempt by the British government for the support of India during World War-II. However, the proposals presented by this mission were rejected by the major political parties because Gandhi wanted an undivided India with full control over defence while Muslim league wanted a separate Pakistan. Thus, it failed and could not get the desired results.
Pakistan Studies Short Questions Notes Pak Studies FSc Part 2
12) Write a note on the elections held in 1945-46.
The 1945-46 elections were the most significant elections in the history of Indian sub-continent. The first Simla Conference had broken down on 14 July 1945 on the controversial issue of the representative culture of the All India Muslim League. Therefore, after World War II in 1945, the British government announced that the elections of the Central Legislature were held in December 1945 and the Provincial Legislatures would be held in February 1946. He also declared that after the elections the political parties would constitute Ministers in the Provinces. The Congress and Muslim League adopted different manifestoes. Congress endorsed the manifesto of United India whereas Muslim League election manifesto comprised two major issues, i.e.
- The Muslim league was the only political party that had a right to represent the Indian Muslims.
- Pakistan was the sole objective the Muslim League strived to achieve.
Results of the Elections:
The results of the elections made the Congress annoyed and upset. Because Muslim league won all the seats in the Central Assembly, which were, reserved for the Muslims and 446 out of 495 Muslim seats in the Provincial Assembly. Thus, the Muslim league won these elections in the Muslim constituencies. This heavy turnout in favour of the Muslim League manifested Muslim voters’ confidence in the Muslim League as a sole political party that represented their interest. Therefore, they supported whole-heartedly its demand for Pakistan. Thus, the results of elections 1945-46 virtually divided India into two. Later, a Convention of the Legislative Assemblies for the elected members on Muslim League’s ticket was held in Delhi from April 7 to 9 in 1946. While addressing the Convention, Quaid-e-Azam made it clear that the Muslim League stood for two independent Constituent Assemblies, i.e. one for Pakistan and the other for the rest of India.
The elections of 1945-46 have a big role in the achievement of Pakistan. The election results were enough to prove that the Muslim League under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region and Hindus and Muslims could not be united in the subcontinent.
13) What was the Cabinet- Mission Plan? How did the Congress and the Muslim League react to it?
Cabinet Mission Plan:
The British Government sent three senior British Cabinet members in India in March 1946 to fulfil the promise made during the 1945-46 elections, which was to preserve the unity of the Indian Federation. The delegation flew from London and arrived in Delhi on March 24, 1946. The Cabinet Mission discussed the matters with both Political parties. The representatives of Congress, i.e. Gandhi and Maulana Abul-Kalam Azad took a plea for the preservation of Indian Union and the introduction of a federal form of government while Quaid-e-Azam as representative of Muslim League claimed that Pakistan was the only possible solution of the Indian problem. The difference of opinion between the two major political parties was substantial. Therefore, the Mission tried to make an effort to bring about the reconciliation between the Congress and the Muslim League. The Cabinet Mission held seven sessions but no result could be achieved.
The Cabinet mission announced its own proposal after the declaration of failure to bring about the parties to a conciliatory formula on 16 May 1946 and cleared that these were final, and could not be changed. The Mission hoped that if these proposals were implemented, the rights of the Muslims and other minorities would be fully safeguarded within the framework of an Indian Union. The Congress and Muslim league were free to accept or reject the proposal as a whole.
Cabinet mission proposals:
The major proposals of Cabinet Mission Plan were:
1. Indian Union:
India would be a Union comprising British India and the Princely states. The Union government would control foreign affairs, communications and taxation.
2. Grouping Scheme:
Provinces would be divided into three groups formed under the following formula, i.e.
i) Group A:
Six Hindu majority provinces
ii) Group B:
Three Muslim majority provinces
iii) Group C:
Two Muslim majority provinces.
3. Internal Independence of the Provincial Groups:
Members of the Constituent Assembly shall be divided into three groups and shall frame a constitution for their respective groups. After the date of first elections held under the constitution, each provincial legislature shall be given a chance to decide whether it wanted to remain a part of the group or quit it.
4. Establishment of the Interim Government:
The plan further envisaged that an interim government should be formed at the centre until the formation of the constitution and its implementation. After ten years, the provinces should have the right to change their constitutional position.in this government, all-important portfolios, including the Ministry of Defense should be held by the Indians.
The reaction of Cabinet Mission Plan:
The Cabinet mission Plan failed to get its objective that was to create an understanding between the Muslims and the Hindu leaders. Gandhi interpreted the plan as ‘an appeal and advice’. The Muslim League Council met on 3 June 1946 and decided to accept the plan. Although this plan did not clearly provide the demand for Pakistan but it gave a little hope that it would be able to achieve its objectives through constitutional means.
14) In what circumstances the 1946 Interim Government was established, what fate did it meet?
Formation of an interim government:
The formation of an Interim Government was the first step towards the implementation of the Cabinet Mission Plan. It was announced by the government in June 1946 that the government shall be formed even if one of the two major Indian Parties, the Muslim League or the Congress decides to abstain. The Muslim League agreed to join the proposed interim government but the Congress declined to join the interim government. The Viceroy should have invited the Muslim League to form the government after the refusal of Congress but he failed to keep his promise. On this betrayal, the Muslim league decided to withdraw its approval of the Cabinet Mission Plan and announced “Direct Action” policy.
Although the Congress had not accepted the Cabinet Mission, yet on August 12, 1946, the Viceroy invited Pandit Nehru to form the interim government. The Muslim League protested against this decision and called the Muslims to celebrate 16 August as the “Direct Action Day.” The Muslims throughout India were appealed to protest and the Muslim dignitaries having British titles were asked to surrender their titles to register the protest against the government. The appeal had a great effect on Muslims and they expressed their resentment through protest rallies and processions taken out in all parts of India. The Hindus were so furious that they attacked the Muslims and thousands of people were killed in Calcutta in Hindu-Muslim clashes. Under the circumstances, the Government realized that it would not be possible to form a government while keeping the Muslim League out of it. Therefore, the Government invited the Muslim League to join the process of Interim Government. Thus, on October 26, 1946, five Muslim League Ministers took oath at the office. Liaqat Ali Khan acquired the position of the finance department to control all other ministries and departments. The budget presented by Liaqat Ali Khan was a hard hit at the interest of the money lords with whose financial support, the Congress was run.
15) Give a background account of the Third June Plan; also give its salient features.
On 20 February 1947, the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced in the British Parliament that:
- India shall be given independence by June 1948.
- If the Constituent Assembly fails to frame the constitution within the stipulated time limit, the British government shall decide if the powers are to be transferred to a central government or central provincial governments.
- The Viceroy Lord Wavell was replaced by Mountbatten.
The new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten reached India on 22 March 1947. He discussed matters with the political leaders of India and convinced them that it was not possible to keep India united for a longer period of time. Therefore, Mountbatten presented the partition plan. Both the parties approved the proposal of partition and Mountbatten flew to England to get the plan approved by the British Government. On his return, the Viceroy announced the partition plan after the approval of all the major Indian political parties on 3 June 1947.
Salient Features of the Third June Plan:
The main points of the 3 June plan were:
- The British government shall not impose its own constitution on India. The Indian Constituent Assembly shall frame a constitution under which the government of the Indian Union shall be run. This Constitution, however, shall not be mandatory for the units unwilling to adopt it. These units shall be allowed to form Constituent assemblies to frame constitutions of their own choice.
- The Provincial Assemblies shall be entitled to decide which of the two Constituent Assemblies their respective provinces shall join. The Plan stipulated different formulas for the provinces of the Punjab, Bengal, NWFP, Baluchistan and for the district of Sylhet in East Bengal.
- The Princely States were also offered an option to join either of the two states, by keeping in view their geographical position and other conditions or to remain independent by making treaty arrangements with either of the two successor states.
- Powers were to be transferred by the British to one or two successor states with “Dominion Status” during the same year.
Indian independence Act 1947:
The British Government passed the Indian Independence Act on 15 July 1947 to give legal shape to the Third June Plan. The act assured the principles presented in the 3 June plan. It provided that:
- British Rule over India will end on August 15, 1947.
- The title of the “Emperor of India” will no longer form a part of the titles of British Crown after that date.
- The successor states will be run under the Government of India Act 1935. It could be adopted and modified according to meet their requirements, as Interim Government, until their respective Constituent Assemblies frame the Constitution.
Emergence of Pakistan:
Pakistan emerged on the map of the world on August 14, 1947, as the largest Muslim state in the world. The Quaid-e-Azam took over as the first Governor-General of Pakistan and with this, the freedom movement of the Muslims of India entered a new phase.
The Third June Plan is a remarkable event in the history of Pakistan because the British government finally decided to divide the country into two separate states. The Third June Plan materialized the dream of Muslim Leaders of a separate state for the Muslim of the Subcontinent and bestowed them with the aim state of Pakistan on August 14, 1947.