Physics class 10 chapter no 17 short questions Pdf
Information and Communication Technology Physics class 10 chapter no 17 short questions Pdf downalod now.
Q.1) Identify the most reliable means of storing information?
Table of Contents
Answer: Following are the most reliable means of storing information: a. Audio and Video-cassettes: A magnetic tape, in computer terminology, is a storage medium that allows for data archiving, collection, and backup. b. Hard disk: A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as Hard drive, HD, or HDD) is a device that permanently stores and retrieves data on a computer. c. Floppy: A floppy disk is magnetic storage medium for computer systems. d. CD and DVD: A Compact Disc is a portable storage medium that can be used to record, store and playback audio, video and other data in digital form.
Answer: Data is simply facts or figures- bits of information, but not the rmation itself. When data is processed, interpreted, organized, structured or presented so as to make them meaningful or useful, they are called information. It may be in the form of text, sound, graphic or figure that has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who receives it.
Q.3) Why frequency band for up link and down link is different in transmission of microwaves through space?
Answer: The satellite receives transmission on one frequency band (up-link) , amplifies or repeats the signal, and transmits it on another frequency (down-link).
Q.4) What does ‘cell’ in ‘cell phone’ refers to?
Answer: A cell is typically the area (several miles) around a tower in which a signal can be received.
Q.5) Can internet be used for shopping? Give an example.
Answer: Internet can be used for shopping that is buying and selling for example giving an order online on Daraz.pk for buying shoes which will then be delivered to your door step and you pay the money to the Delivery person or credit will be deducted from your online account.
Q.6) How a flash drive is different from other storage devices?
Answer: A Flash drive is a small, ultra-portable storage device which, unlike an optical drive or a traditional hard drive, has no moving parts. Flash drives connect to computers and other devices via a built-in USB (Universal Serial Bus) Type-A plug, making a flash drive a kind of combination of USB device and a cable.
Long Questions Physics class 10 chapter no 17
Q.1) What is information and communication Technology (ICT)? Explain briefly its components.
Answer: Information and Communications Technology (or Technologies) is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing to create, access, analyze and communication, but what makes these present technologies special is that it has allowed more people to communicate faster and cheaper. ICT system is made up of these components: A. Data and Information: Data is simply facts or figures- bits of information, but not information itself. When data is processed, interpreted, organized, structured or presented so as to make them meaningful or useful, they are called information. It may be in text, sound, graphic or figure that has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who recieves it. B. Hardware:In information technology, hardware is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other devices. Hardware are the physical partsor machinery that we can touch. For example mouse, keyboard, printer, etc.
Read more: Physics class 10 chapter 15 review questions and answers C. Software: A computer needs to be told what to do, software is the applications and programming instructions that tell your computer what to do. Software enable you to use a computer for things such as playing games, writing an essay or listening to music.These are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts to store, process, transmit, receive and retrieve information in a specific manner. D. Procedures: These are set of instructions and rules to design and use information system. These are written in manuals and documents to use. These rules or methods may change from time to time . The information system must be flexible to incorporate these changes. E. Human Resource: It is people who design and operate the software, they feed input data, build the hardware.
Q.2) Explain the flow of information. Describe how information is transmitted as an electric signal through wires, light signals through optical fibres and radio waves through air/vacuum?
Answer: The flow of information is a particular view that focuses on the path and means followed by information entities. In telephone, the information path is wired in which the information flows by means of electrical signals. In radio, television and cell phone, information path is either air, vacuum, and/or seawater in which the information travels in the form of electromagnetic waves or through optical fibers through which information travels in the form of light. “Signals are electric or electromagnetic representations of data or information. Transmission is the communication of data/information by the propagation and processing of signals.”
1. Transmission of electric signal through the wire: Data or information can be transmitted and received over a wire-based communication technology. The information is converted to electrical signals at the transmitter, which is sent through wires (twisted pair, coaxial cable, etc.), and information is converted back to original form at the receivers end. Examples include telephone networks, cable television, and internet access. For example, in the figure below a simple telephone model sound (voice), is converted into electrical signals through a mouthpiece and sent through electrical wires (twisted pair) and converted back to sound (voice) through earpiece at the receiver.
Electrical wire may be used to transmit both analog and digital transmission. For analog signals, amplifiers are required about every few kilometers and for digital transmission (using either analog or digital signals), repeaters are required every kilometer, depending upon the type of wire used.
2. Transmission of the electrical signal through optical fibers: An optical fiber transmits a signal-encoded beam of light by means of total internal reflection. Total internal reflection can occur in any transparent medium that has a higher index of refraction than the surrounding medium. The information is converted int0 electrical voltage signals, this varying voltage is used to produce light. Two different types of light source are used in fiber optic systems: the light emitting diode (LED) and the injection laser diode (ILD). Both are semiconductor devices that emit a beam of light when a voltage is applied. The LED is less costly, operates over a greater temperature range and has a longer operational life. The ILD, which operates on the laser principle, is more efficient and can sustain greater data rates. The figure below shows the principle of optical fiber transmission.
A. Step index multimode: Light from a source enters the cylindrical glass or plastic core. Rays at low angles are reflected due to total internal reflection and travel along the fiber; other rays are absorbed by the surrounding material. This form of propagation is called step-index multimode. This type of fiber is best suited for transmission over very short distances. B. Single mood: When the fiber core radius is reduced to the order of a wavelength, only a single angle or mode can pass. Single-mode is typically used for long-distance applications, including telephone and cable television. C. Graded index multimode: When the index of refraction at the centre of the core is made is higher and reduced gradually, light in the core curves helically due to variation in the index of refraction. The shortened path and higher speed allows light at the periphery to arrive at a reciever at about the same time as the straight rays in the core axis. Graded-index fibers are often used in Local Area Networks (LAN). 3. Transmission of radio-waves through air or space: Electrical signals representing information from a microphone, a TV camera, or computer (transmitters) can be sent from one place to another place using radiowaves. For transmission of a signal, radio-frequency electrical energy from the transmitter is converted into electromagnetic energy by the antenna and radiated into the surrounding environment (atmosphere,space,water). For reception of a signal, electromagnetic energy falling on the antenna is converted into radio-frequency electrical energy and fed into the reciever.
In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for both transmission and reception. ” An antenna can be defined as an electrical conductor or system of conductors used either for radiating electromagnetic energy or for collecting electromagnetic energy.”
For example sound waws produced at the radio station as shown below changed into electrical signals through microphone. These electric signals are then fed into the transmission antenna which superimposes these electric signals on electromagnetic waves and emits them, in form of radiowaves. At the receiving end, the receiver selects and amplifies this radio-wave signal. The receiver extracts the information and converts it to sound with the help of a speaker. A communication satellite is in fact a microwave relay station. It is used to link two or more ground-based microwave transmitter/receivers, known as earth stations, or ground stations. The satellite receives transmissions on one frequency band (uplink), amplifies or repeats the signal, and transmits it on another frequency (downlink). The Figure below depicts in a general way communications between one ground-based transmitter and a number of ground-based receivers.
Q.3) Describe function and use of fax machine, cell phone, photo phone and computer.
Answer: Telecommunication Devices: The machines or devices used to carry information to far off places is called telecommunication. A fax machine, cell phone, photo phone, and computer are a few examples of telecommunication.
A. Fax machine: A fax machine is designed to send as well as receive documents so it has a sending part and a receiving part. The sending part is a bit like a computer scanner, that scans only one line of a document at a time, and only in black and white. A fax machine transmits one kind of electric pulse down the phone line to represent black and another to represent white. The phone line transmits this information almost instantly to a fax machine at the other end. It receives the electrical pulses and uses them to control a printer. It takes about a minute or so to transmit a single page of writing(or a complex drawing)in a very systematic way.
B. Cell phone: Wireless phones which receive their signals from towers. A cell is typically the area(several miles)around a tower in which a signal can be received. Cell phones provide an incredible array of functions. Depending on the cell-phone model, you can: 1. Store contact information 2. Make task or to-do lists 3. Send text messages 4. Keep track of appointments and set reminders 5. Use the built-in calculator for simple math 6. Get information(news,entertainment,stock| quotes)from the internet 7. Send or receive e-mail 8. Customizable Operating Systems(Oss-software that allows users to interact with the computer system)-enable the user to download apps (a computer program designed to run a mobile device such as phone/tablet or watch) like games, GPS, watching TV, utilities, and other tools. Android, a mobile OS developed by Google, is the first completely open-source mobile OS, meaning that any cell phone manufacturer can use it in their phones for free.
C. Photophone: The photophone is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech(sound)on a beam of light. This means that the light we use will not only provide light but also act as a means of communication. Until the late 1960s, radio and radar communications were more successful than optical communications(OC).OC started to get real attention with the invention of the light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation(laser)and the laser diode(LD) in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s by the development of low-loss optical fibers (OFs) as a medium for transmitting information using light.
D. Computer: A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. There are many different kinds of computer systems. Some computer systems are very big because they are used to carry out large and complex tasks. Others are small and portable-small enough to put in your pocket-even to wear around your wrist or as a pair of glasses.
Q.4) What is email and internet? List few uses of internet in daily life.
Answer: The Internet is a worldwide system of computer networks-a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes connect directly to users at other computers).
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages (‘”mail”) between people using electronic devices.
The email has practically replaced the postal service for short written transactions. Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the internet.
Uses of the InternetCommunication:
Internet Telephone (VOIP)
Exploring the world:
Exploring through satellite mapping applications (google earth)
Travel Sites providing details of places with pictures and videos
Almanacs and encyclopedias
Keeping up with events:
Keeping up to date with news and sports events. Read newspapers and watch news channel
Watching catchup television shows from main channels
Managing your life:
PAy utility bills
Keeping a calendar
Finding a new job
Study and Research Information:
Find research papers and articles
Find professional services
Watch television and movies
Watching online video
Listening to music
Look for holidays and tickets (Sports, Concerts, etc)
Q.5) What are information storage devices? Describe the use of information storage devices such as audio cassettes, video cassettes, hard disk, floppy, compact discs and flash drive.
Answer: Information can be stored by virtually any form of energy. Handwriting (paper documents), phonographic recording, magnetic tape, DNA and RNA and optical discs are all examples of storage media. Electronic data storage requires electrical power to store and retrieve data. Computer data storage is one of the core functions of a general purpose computer Electronic documents can be stored in much less space than paper documents. There are two different types of electronic data storage devices: A. Primary storage devices : Generally smaller in size, these are designed to hold data temporarily and are internal to the computer. They have the fastest data access speed, and include RAM and cache memory.B. secondary storage devices: These usually have large storage capacity, and they store data permanently They can be either internal or external to the computer, and they include the hard disk, optical disk drive and USB storage device. Some secondary storage devices are explained below.
A. Audio and Video-cassettes: A magnetic tape, in computer terminology, is a storage medium that allows for data archiving, collection, and backup. At first, the tapes were wound in wheel-like reels but then cassettes and cartridges came along, which offered more protection for the tape inside. One side of the tape is coated with magnetic material. Data on the tape is written and read sequentially. Finding a specific record takes time because the machine has to read every record in front of it. Most tapes are used for archival purposes rather than ad-hoc writing/reading. An audio cassette can store music and sounds. A video-cassette, on the other hand, is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sounds in addition. Audio and video cassettes require special devices to be played and recorded.
B. Hard Disk: A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as Hard drive, HD, Or HDD) is a device that permanently stores and retrieves data on a computer. A hard drive is a secondary storage device that consists of one or more platters to which data is written using a magnetic head, all inside of an air-seated casing.
C. Floppy: A floppy disk is a magnetic storage medium for computer systems. The floppy disk is composed of a thin, flexible magnetic disk sealed in a square plastic carrier. In order to read and write data from a floppy disk, a computer system must have a floppy disk drive (FDD). A floppy disk is also referred to simply as a floppy. Since the early days of personal computing, floppy disks were widely used to distribute software, transfer files, and create back-up copies of data because hard drives were very expensive, floppy disks were also used to store the operating system of a computer.
D. CD and DVD : A Compact Disc (CD) is a portable storage medium that can be used to record, store and playback audio, video and other data in digital form.
A DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc capable of storing up to 4. 7 GB of data, more than six times what a CD can hold. CDs and DVDs are used to hold music, data or computer software. They have become the standard medium for distributing large quantities of information in a reliable package. If you have a computer and CD-R drive, you can create your own CDs, including any information you want.
E. Flash Drive: A flash drive is a small, ultra-portable storage device which, unlike an optical drive or a traditional hard drive, has no moving parts. Flash drives connect to computers and other devices via a built-in USB (Universal Serial Bus) Type-A plug, making a flash drive a kind of combination USB device and cable.
Q.6) What are the functions of word processing?
Answer: Some of the functions of word processing software include:
1. Creating, editing, saving and printing documents. 2. Copying, Pasting, moving and deleting text within a document. 3. Formatting text, such as font type, bolding, underlining or italicizing . 4. Creating and editing tables. 5. Inserting elements from other software, such as illustrations or photographs. 6. Correcting spelling and grammar.
Q.7) How information is handled? Describe data management and its monitoring and control.
Answer: HANDLING INFORMATION Handling information is the ability to use ICT for gathering, organizing, storing, retrieving, modifying, interpreting and presenting information. It involves categories such as databases, spreadsheets, and the Internet.
A. Data management: Data management is an administrative process that includes acquiring, validating, storing, protecting, and processing required data to ensure the accessibility, reliability, and timeliness of the data for its users. Designing effective data management solutions consists of three primary activities. 1. An assessment of supply chain information needs should be conducted, including who needs the information, how it will be used and the potential actions that may be taken in response to the data. Secondly the platform best suited to supporting data collection should be selected. This may range from paper-based systems to mobile phones to sophisticated software programs. 2. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should be developed, with staff trained on how to adhere to the SOPs. Staff needs to be trained on how to use the selected tool(s) and equally importantly on how to analyze and use the results. 3. The collected data should be made available in a format that enables decision making. The format will depend on the resources available and the audience but the data should be accessible and easy to use to answer key supply chain performance options.
B. Monitoring and control: The Monitoring and Controlling process oversee all the tasks and metrics necessary to ensure that the approved and authorized project is within scope, on time and on a budget so that the project proceeds with minimum risk. This process involves comparing actual performance with planned performance and taking corrective actions to yield the desired outcome when significant differences exist. Monitoring and Controlling process is continuously performed throughout the life of a project.