English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #13

English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #13  Technology and Society of the Future (FBISE English Notes) solved exercises, MCQs, important questions, grammar, chapter overview, Study Questions Recalling, Interpreting, Extending, Writing Skills, Language Study Exercise 1, and Language Study Exercise 2.

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Technology and Society of the Future English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #13

Q 1. When did the modern science and technology begin to make progress?

Answer:
Allah Almighty has blessed man with the supremacy of brain to ponder, analyze and selects the right path for him. Since the beginning of this world, man is generating and producing things which are practical for him. Modern science and technology began to make progress in the seventeenth century but before that people have created the spectacular wonders of the world like the pyramids of Egypt without using any of the latest engineering tools or architectural plots. After the seventeenth century, the progress in the field of modern science and technology is not only evident but quite impressive too. It was the era that should be marked as a milestone in changing the lifestyle of the masses all over the world due to the amazing inventions and remarkable discoveries.

Q 2. How have modern science and technology brought a revolution in the life of human beings?

Answer:
The era we are living in is the period dedicated to the awe-inspiring work done in the field of science and technology, where at every nook and corner of our surrounding we come across a number of scientific discoveries and innovations moving around or static but still have a strong impact on our lives. Modern science and technology have brought about a significant revolution in the life of human beings with the discoveries in the field of medicine, agriculture, industry, electrical appliances, transportation, information technology, and communication. This revolution not only changed the lifestyle of people but helped a lot in saving the lives of mankind to a great extent.  

Q 3. How has science enabled man to modify his environment?

Answer:
The relationship between man and his environment is of utmost importance. The environment is a system withholding a number of organisms that depend on it for their survival and well-being. Man is the only individual to be able to build and use equipment that can modify the landscape in a very short period of time. Nature would take thousands of years to produce the same changes as the ones produced by man. Human activities in the environment strictly depend on the type of economic activity and how society is organized. In some cases, human activities aim at recovering environmental disruption. As a consequence, man can be considered as an important landscape-modifying agent. Science has enabled man to modify his environment to suit his needs and requirements necessary for his continued existence. This is the prime reason why crop farming under greenhouses is 96% effective with abnormal profits to the farmer in the long run. Before the advent of modern science, people used to believe in supernatural forces that were responsible for bringing about both positive and negative changes in their environment and lifestyle. But then with the birth of science and technology, human beings became more confident to control and modify their environmental conditions. Now, they do not consider the weather conditions as the result of supernatural, good or evil forces but they have the potential to contemplate independently, logically and scientifically to overcome the environmental hazards.  

Q 4. What did people believe in before the establishment of science and technology?

Answer:
The establishment of science and technology not only made the lives of the masses comfortable but has significantly changed the school of thought of millions too. Before the advent of science and technology, people had a strong belief in superstitions and in certain supernatural forces that they thought are responsible for controlling their future. Magic and fortune telling were those professions that were worthy of respect and fame as people consider them accurate and precise in predicting their future happenings.

Q 5. How do people think in the era of technology and science?

Answer:
Allah Almighty has blessed man with the power to think and make decisions as other creatures of this world are devoid of this humane eminence. Before the emergence of science and technology, people used to believe in superstitions and supernatural forces more but the era of science and technology awaken the inborn ability of mankind to think rationally, independently and more importantly scientifically too. Due to this optimistic change in the school of thought of man, the windows of ignorance were forced to shut off and the doors of awareness, enlightenment, and learning are unlocked to welcome mankind with open arms to unleash the hidden treasures of nature and utilize it to the maximum for the betterment and welfare of humanity.  

Q 6. Why did millions of people die in the great plague that started in 542 AD?

Answer:
The great plague that started in 542 AD swallowed the precious lives of 95 million people in an extended time period of 50 years. This all happened before the invention and advancement in the field of medicine. People were unaware of scientific medical equipment and instruments required for carrying out any major surgery.

Q 7. When and by whom was penicillin discovered?

Answer:
In the year 1927, it was the time when Alexander Fleming cracked a nut of infectious diseases with the hammer of strong discovery in the field of medicine by introducing Penicillin to the world. This was such an exceptional invention that revolutionized the framework for treating infections and severe infectious diseases by regenerating the lives of the disappointed dying souls.

Q 8. Has smallpox been eradicated once for all from the world?

Answer:
Some of the major diseases that must be held responsible for taking souls of millions from the world include smallpox, plague, typhoid, cholera, and malaria. Smallpox was not eradicated once for all from the world, it took years to eliminate it and saved the lives of the masses. It was just made possible with the discovery of various medicines and revolution in surgery.

Q 9. How people travelled from one place to another in olden days. What hardships did they have to suffer?

Answer:
Although it is a common proverb that ‘Old is gold’ but it is not always true. When it is the question of travelling or means of transportation, one can find a huge difference between the era before the invention of modern transportation and the present time with the latest means of travel. People really had to suffer hardships if they had to travel somewhere. Usually, feet were considered the most significant mode to travel from one place to another. Before the inventions of airplanes, rockets, ships etc people used to travel on foot or own animals or animal carts for travelling purposes. It took days, months or even years to reach their desired destination. That’s not all; they had to tolerate severe weather conditions too, for instance, those who had to travel in deserts had to bear the scorching heat of the sun for so long.  Travelling in olden days was just like hard-earned money as some people lost their precious lives in order to attain that.

Q 10. What revolution has taken place in the field of transportation due to modern technology?

Answer:
Due to the emergence of modern technology in the life of mankind, great advancement can be seen and experienced in almost every walk of life. The revolution that has taken place in the field of transportation due to modern technology and the efforts of mankind is simply unbelievable. The first and the foremost feature that appears due to advancement in the field of the transport system are the integration and compression of the world. This system squeezed the whole world by immediately connecting the villages to cities, countries to continents and planet Earth to the moon with an enormous network of roads, speedy railway system, an efficient ship travelling, exciting air tour, bullet speed rockets and space shuttles. Before this expansion, people had to suffer extreme hardships in travelling.  Now they are in much better condition and situation to travel to any part of the world without any hassle or fear. It is just a matter of hours, minutes or sometimes seconds that counts a lot in taking not only a single individual but a great number of people to their desired destination with ease and comfort.  One can say that revolution in the field of transportation actually gives worth and weight to valuable time which was wasted in travelling in the past times.

Q 11. Enumerate the various means of communications brought about by modern technology and science.

Answer:
Modern science and technology must be crowned for bringing the countries close to one another by inventing awesome innovations in the field of communication and thus giving a new title to the whole world as “Global Village.” The list of such discoveries is unlimited but the most universal and effective means of communications include telegraph, telephone, radio, television, print media, communication, satellite, electronic mail, and information technology. The means of communications are also the symbol of advancement and progress, the more advanced means of communication a country is having, the more advanced it is considered in the eyes of the world.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #10


Q 12. How has man succeeded in conquering the space?

Answer:
Man must be crowned for making tremendous advancement in the field of science and technology just by using his brain constructively at a right time with an accurate speed. He forced the world to reborn from the seed of desolateness to the amalgamation of civilizations. The man has not only excelled in giving almost 99.9% result on the earth but succeeded in conquering the space too with his strength of mind, passion and hard work. This all happened with the invention of rockets, satellites, space shuttles that not only proved proficient in taking the man into space but are quite helpful in gaining useful information about the outer space.

Q 13. What changes have the modern technology brought in the field of agriculture?

Answer:
Agriculture also falls in the broad spectrum of those fields that really covered a milestone in their applications, tools, machinery, mechanism, and equipment due to scientific methods and technological advancements. The modern technology brought a number of spectacular changes in the field of agriculture that not only prove beneficial to the survival of mankind but improve the condition and physical health of the land too.  
Livestock, food industry and agriculture develop by leaps and bounds and are greatly affected due to modern technology. By using new scientific innovations, people transform the condition of barren and arid lands and bring them under the plough. Dams are constructed and tube wells are installed to provide better ways for irrigation. Electricity can easily be generated in bulk due to dam construction. The agriculturists of modern times are in much better circumstances as compared to the past time farmers to increase their yield per acre according to their needs and requirements.
The invention of chemical fertilizers gives boom in the bumper production of a number of crops. Now, the agriculturists are using good quality seeds, varieties of crops, pesticides, more milk production, and processing and the preservation of food in a proper way. That is not the end; the modern technology in the field of agriculture gives liberty to the farmers to cultivate and grow vegetables and fruits out of season and can earn their livelihood throughout the year. 

Q 14. How can we put an end to load-shedding and energy-crisis?

Answer:
Load-shedding and energy crisis are the most attention gaining issues all over the world especially in developing and underdeveloped nations. The best source that has the potential to provide unlimited energy for domestic and commercial use is solar energy. This form of energy is not only safe and potent but everlasting too. Most of the warmer countries of the world are using solar energy for limitless energy production. Scientists all over the world are trying to use the atom for peaceful purposes. If they are successful in achieving their dream, we would for sure be on a positive end of the path to eliminating load-shedding and energy crisis from the face of the earth. Thus, making the lives of mankind more comfortable to live.

Q 15. What is solar energy? Can it be a suitable substitute for fuel and coal energy?

Answer:
As the name indicates solar energy means the energy that is provided by the sun without which nothing could exist on this planet earth. For many years, it is considered one of the biggest and evergreen sources of energy only if harnessed by effectively using modern technology of the world.   The best part about solar energy is that it is abundant and freely available, at least in most parts of the world.
Solar energy has the potential to be used for domestic as well as commercial use without any hazard.
Yes, it can be said that solar energy is a suitable substitute for fuel and coal energy for a number of solid reasons which are as follows:
1. Solar energy or projects employ more workforce providing more jobs to the masses. In 2012, solar added 14,000 new jobs, up 36 percent from 2010 and the industry will add another 20,000 jobs in the following year. The fossil fuels industry cut 4,000 jobs last year.
2. Solar panels have a seen a consistent drop in prices over the last three decades. Since 2008, the cost of coal has risen 13 percent. In some parts of the market, solar has already reached parity with coal. Two-thirds of global solar capacity has been installed over the last two years. In contrast, 175 coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are expected to be shut down over the next five years. This reflects the rising costs of coal and the implementation of stricter environmental regulations.
3. Solar energy is more environment-friendly as compared to fuel and coal energy as acid mine drainage and coal sludge pollutes rivers and streams, coal dust from mining causes respiratory illness and coal combustion waste is the second largest contributor to landfills after solid waste
In a nutshell, it is evident that solar energy is an efficient competitor of coal and fuel energy.

Q 16. Atomic energy is a big source of energy. How can it be used for peaceful purposes?

Answer:
Atom is the vital component of every living being, the energy released from the atom is known as atomic energy.  Atomic energy is considered as one of the greatest discoveries of mankind that are subject to both constructive and destructive activities carried out by man. No doubt, it is really a huge source of energy that’s why nearly all the countries of the world including the under-developed or developing nations are ever-ready to utilize it to the maximum. There are numerous ways in which it can be used for peaceful purposes to facilitate humanity and improve the well-being of the masses. Following are some of the ways in which it is used for creating peace in the world:
1. The world is facing a serious issue of the energy crisis, in order to overcome it, scientist found the solution in atomic energy. It is an inexhaustible source of power that can be used in different fields of life such as agriculture, industries and in electrifying the remote areas of the countries.
2. Atomic energy can be used in the field of agriculture to a great extent. The radiation from atomic energy has the capability to improve the present varieties of fruit, vegetables, and crops. In this way, the world would relish and cherish the all-new diversity of crops. It can also be used as pesticides to kill the disastrous insects that destroy the yield.
3. The best use of the atomic energy is in the field of medical sciences where the diseases of the thyroid have been classified with the use of radioiodine.
4. It can help in easy generation and regeneration of water to produce electricity.
5. With the help of atomic energy, the problem of clean drinking water can be resolved by distilling sea-water.
6. Factories and industries are also able to improve their goods by using atomic energy.
That’s not all; there are numerous other benefits of atomic energy in various fields such as communication, transport, industry, and irrigation. So, in order to live in a world surrounded by peace, we all have to join hands together to make positive use of atomic energy rather than focusing on the negative or destructive ones.  


Writing

The students will be asked to write an essay on “Technology and science are blessings for humanity”.

Answer:
No doubt, Science and technology are the blessings for humanity. Before scientific inventions and discoveries, people used to believe in superstitions and good or evil forces that seem to govern their lives to a great extent. But as science and technology started poking their heads from the world of fallacy, people got to know the hidden mysteries of nature and experience relieve in their lives. It doesn’t happen all at once, but scientists and engineers spent a great number of years in hard work to present their inventions and discoveries in front of the world to appreciate and effectively use them.
Some of the extraordinary blessings of science and technology for mankind are as follows: 

Science and medication:
During the last decades, the medical field has been witnessing many modifications brought about by the latest technologies to cure people with more efficiency and accuracy. In the past diseases like malaria, smallpox, plague etc took the lives of millions of people just due to the factor of non-availability of adequate medication for the cure. But nowadays, doctors and scientists have joined hands together for the treatment of various diseases like cancer, tuberculosis, arthritis etc. With the invention of x-ray machines, ultrasound, laser technologies it becomes quite easy for the doctors to start the treatment as soon as possible.  

Science and communication:
The invention of communication technologies helps greatly in making the people well aware of not only about their surroundings but about the whole world just with a single click. Among all the means of communication such as radio, television, print media etc, information technology is supposed to be the latest and most promising one. It has invaded the life of each and every individual. All the daily routine of people now depends on sophisticated electronic kits.

Science and transportation:
Science and technology shrink the time and distance just because of the spectacular invention in the field of transportation. It is not only possible to travel on the land, in the air and under or above water but one can easily unleash the truths about the moon, space or other planets through rockets, space shuttles etc.

Science and agriculture:
The field of agriculture also observes a number of great discoveries such as modern tools and equipment, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides, out of season farming etc. This makes the lives of people worthwhile.  Now people are in a much better position to increase dairy production, grow improved crops etc.

In a nutshell, it is evident that without science and technology people are unable to experience such ease and comfort as they are enjoying now.


Exercise 1

In the following sentences (1) pick out the Adverbs and tell that each modifies: (2) tell whether the modified word is a Verb, an Adjective, or an Adverb; (4) classify each Adverb as an Adverb of time, place, manner, degree, etc:-
 

1) He was ill pleased.
2) Try again.
3) He is too shy.
4) We rose very early.
5) I am so glad to hear it.
6) Cut it length wise.
7) Too many cooks spoil the broth.
8) That is well said.
9) Once or twice we have met alone.
10) Have you heard this before?
11) Father is somewhat better.
12) I am much relieved to hear it.
13) The patient is much worse today.
14) She arrived a few minutes ago.
15) She was dressed all in black.
16) Her son is out in China.
17) He could not speak, he was so angry.
18) You are far too hasty.
19) The secret is out.
20) He is old enough to know better.
21) You need not roar.
22) Wisdom is too right for a fool.
23) I see things differently now.
24) Rome was not built in a day.
25) Do not crowd your work too closely together.
26) The patient is not better today.
27) Put not your trust in princes.
28) He has been shamefully treated.

Answer:
1) He was ill (Adjective) pleased.  (Adverb of degree)
2) Try again. (Verb)          (Adverb of manner)
3) He is too (Adverb) shy.  (Adverb of degree)    
4) We rose very (Adverb) early.   (Adverb of degree)
5) I am so (Adverb) glad to hear it. (Adverb of degree)
6) Cut it lengthwise. (Verb)          (Adverb of manner)
7) Too (Adverb) many cooks spoil the broth.     (Adverb of degree)
8) That is well (Verb) said.      (Adverb of manner)
9) Once or twice (Adverb) we have met alone.   (Adverb of degree)
10) Have you heard this before? (Adverb)       (Adverb of time)
11) Father is somewhat better. (Adjective)   (Adverb of manner)
12) I am much (Adjective) relieved to hear it.   (Adverb of degree)
13) The patient is much (Adjective) worse today.     (Adverb of degree)
14) She arrived a few (Adjective) minutes ago.   (Adverb of degree)
15) She was dressed all (Verb) in black.   (Adverb of manner)
16) Her son is out (Verb) in China.   (Adverb of place)
17) He could not speak, he was so (Adverb) angry.  (Adverb of degree)
18) You are far too (Adverb) hasty.   (Adverb of degree)
19) The secret is out.  (Adjective)       (Adverb of degree)
20) He is old enough to know better. (Adjective)    (Adverb of degree)
21) You need not (Verb) roar.    (Adverb of manner)
22) Wisdom is too (Adverb) right for a fool.    (Adverb of degree)
23) I see things differently now. (Verb)   (Adverb of time)
24) Rome was not (Verb) built in a day.    (Adverb of time)
25) Do not crowd your work too (Adverb) closely together.   (Adverb of degree)
26) The patient is not better (Adjective) today.      (Adverb of manner)
27) Put not (Verb) your trust in princes.  (Adverb of manner)
28) He has been shamefully (Adverb) treated.    (Adverb of manner) 


Exercise 2

Form sentences to illustrate the use of the following words (1) as Adjectives, (2) as Adverbs

very, near, ill, only, clean, long, late, early, fast.


Answer:
very: He used to take his music lessons very seriously.                            (As Adjective)
It had been a long day and he was very tired.                                 (As Adverb)

near: My teacher lives near my house.                                                          (As Adjective)
He seems to be quite stressed as his exams are drawing near.       (As Adverb)

ill: His father fell ill and died soon after.                                                       (As Adjective)
My cousin lives in an area ill-served by public transport.                   (As Adverb)

only: It was the only thing that I could do under such circumstances.     (As Adjective)
         This automobile is only available in the continent of Europe.           (As Adverb)

clean: It is my responsibility to keep the room clean and tidy.                   (As Adjective)
           I clean forgot about calling my sister-in-law.                                   (As Adverb)

long: He quickly walked down the long passage of the castle.                      (As Adjective)
          How long have you been waiting?                                                          (As Adverb)

late: This government school was built in the late 1970s.                              (As Adjective)
Maryam’s birthday card arrived three days late.                                     (As Adverb)

early: My uncle’s project is still in the early stages.                                      (As Adjective)
   As usual, I woke up early this morning.                                                (As Adverb)

fast: Ahmed is a fast learner.                                                                            (As Adjective)
        The water is rising fast.                                                                             (As Adverb)


Exercise 3

Compare the following Adverbs.Suddenly, often, near, loud, hard, wisely, patiently.


Answer:

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
suddenlymore suddenlymost suddenly
oftenmore oftenmost often
nearnearernearest
loudlouderloudest
hardharderhardest
wiselymore wiselymost wisely
patientlymore patientlymost patiently

Exercise 4

1) He invited me to visit him (often).
2) I am determined to yield this point (never).
3) I know the answer (already)
4) We have seen her (just, in the square)
5) I have to reach the office (by 9:30, usually)
6) Will he be (there, still))?
7) I shall meet you (this evening, in the park)
8) The train has left (Just)
9) “Can you park your car near the shops? “Yes, I can (usually).”
10) You have to check your oil before starting (always)
11) He is in time for meals (never).
12) We should come (here, one morning)
13) He has recovered from his illness. (quite)
14) She goes to the cinema (seldom) 

Answer:
1) He often invited me to visit him.
2) I am never determined to yield this point.
3) I already know the answer.
4) We have just seen her in the square.
5) I usually have to reach the office by 9:30.
6) Will he still be there?
7) I shall meet you in the park this evening.
8) The train has just left.
9) “Can you usually park your car near the shops? “Yes, I can.”
10) You always have to check your oil before starting.
11) He is never in time for meals.
12) We should come here one morning.
13) He has quite recovered from his illness.
14) She seldom goes to the cinema.


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