Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #1
Q.1) Why does the Quaid stress on youth to be continuously vigilant?
Quaid stresses on youth to be continuously vigilant because he believes that after getting freedom great responsibility rests on the shoulders of youth. In order to fight against the challenges of within and foreign enemies, the youth must be vigilant and beware all the times. Keeping in view such unfavorable circumstances, the youth need to be more vigilant and alert to overcome the difficulties and to stop our enemies from causing damage to the image of the newly established state of Pakistan.
Q.2) What, according to the Quaid, is the prime responsibility of youth?
According to the Quaid, the prime responsibility of the youth is to pay attention to their studies and to equip themselves with higher education to serve their nation in a much better way. He says that they must have a constructive spirit. Quaid gives the advice to the youth that their main occupation should be fairness to yourselves, your parents and definitely fairness to the State. He says that the youth must prepare themselves for the upcoming battle of life that lies ahead of them. Quaid has a firm belief that youth can only be a source of pride and strength to the nation only if they follow his advice with honesty and sincerity.
Q.3) Having read the text of the Quaid’s speech, what traits of character the Quaid wants to see in the educated youth?
High moral standards, constructive spirit, fairness to self, parents and State, discipline, strong will-power, seriousness, integrity, truthfulness, and unselfishness are the character traits that the Quaid wants to see in the educated youth of the newly established state of Pakistan.
Q.4) What advice does the Quaid give to the youth about the choice of career?
The Quaid gives advice to the youth regarding the choice of career by saying that they must not run after getting government jobs after completion of their degrees. He tells them clearly that though government service seems quite attractive but most of the government servants live a miserable life. He advices them to divert their attention, aims and goals to other channels, fields and avenues that would provide them more opportunities to excel in life. Furthermore, he says that there is an immense scope in technical education so youth should move towards getting it. He believes that as new industries are setting up, new banks, new insurance companies, and new commercial firms are establishing so if the youth is well-equipped with technical education they would have a wide spectrum of job to choose from. He motivates youth towards doing manual work and labour and tells them that they must not feel ashamed while doing such menial work.
Q.5) Compare and contrast the youth of today with ideal youth of Quaid-e-Azam in his speech.
Today’s youth is quite different from the ideal youth of Quaid-e-Azam. Lack of ethics, low moral values, dishonesty, attitude problem, poor work ethic, more inclination towards fashion trends and excessive use of social media are some of the things that are of great concern with respect to the modern youth of Pakistan. The youth of present times, also take less interest in their studies and show lack of regard for the elderly people. On the other hand, while talking about ideal youth in his speech, the Quaid says that they should be honest, hard working, truthful, fearless, disciplined, and serious in their approach towards education.
Q.6) Having read the text of ‘Responsibilities of Youth’, what, in your view could be the possible role of youth in crisis management of the country?
The youth of any nation is basically its pride and strength only if they are on the right path. The youth can play its constructive role in crisis management, if they are well-educated, well-trained, technically sound, hard working, and sincere. The youth has all the vigour, intellect, courage, and strength that are needed to resolve any issue or to overcome any difficult situation. Being a larger part of the society, they can help nation stand on firm grounds by becoming right hand of government under any crisis situation.
Q.7) Quaid says “Not only has Pakistan survived the shock of that upheaval than ever.” Which upheaval is he talking about?
In this statement, Quaid is talking about the upheaval of the Punjab and Delhi holocaust. In that holocaust, thousand of people including men, women and even children were butchered mercilessly and millions were forced to leave their ancestral homes thus becoming desperate, homeless souls. They then migrated to the newly established state creating a very difficult situation for Pakistan. The enemy of Pakistan tried its best to weaken it but the newly emerged state of Pakistan successfully survived the shock of this upheaval.
Q.8) Interpret and analyze the following statements from the speech:
a. “beware of the fifth columnist among ourselves.”
b. “guard against and weed out selfish who only wish to exploit you so that they may swim.”
c. “Hitherto, you have been following the rut… . All you think and hanker for is government service… . Now I want you to get out of that rut and that mentality specially now that we are in free Pakistan. “
a. The Quaid advises the youth to be well-aware of the negative and anti-state elements who always want to weaken the newly established state of Pakistan.
b. You should try to eliminate those selfish people among you who have a desire to use youth for their evil plots to damage the image of Pakistan.
c. The Quaid advises the youth not to run after government service after completion of their degrees. He says that the students have to change their mindset regarding getting a job as they are now a part of a free-state Pakistan.
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Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #2
Q.1) Why did the young Seagull have to join the company of his family?
The young seagull was all alone on the ledge as his parents and siblings flew away. He was quite hungry and was afraid to make a flight. But he had to join the company of his family to feed him something and also to learn the art of flying.
Q.2) Why don’t his parents, his brothers and sisters give him food?
His parents, brothers, and sisters don’t give him food because they want the young seagull to muster up courage to make a flight and search his food for himself. The seagull must learn this art of flight as it is necessary for his survival in future. If he does not learn the art of flight then he remains a coward throughout his life, thus depending upon others for food and other necessities.
Q.3) What was the attitude of the family towards the young Seagull? Was it agreeable to you or not? Explain.
All the family members showed indifferent attitude towards the young seagull. The reason was quite obvious as they wanted him to be brave so they left him in isolation and started taunting him for his cowardice. Yes, such an attitude was agreeable to me as sometimes a person learn better if he had to take decision on his own or had to perform a difficult task without anyone’s support for his survival.
Q.4) Describe in your own words the feelings, actions and thoughts of the young Seagull soon after his fall?
Answer:At first, the young seagull feels quite dizzy and is about to lose his balance as he thinks his wings are not supporting him. But when he flaps his wings and finds that he is not falling into the sea, he becomes happy and utters a joyous scream. This shows that he is no more frightened with flying now.
Q.5) What could be the author’s purpose behind writing the story ‘His First Flight?’
The author’s prime purpose of writing the story ‘His First Flight’ is to give his readers one of the important message that it is really difficult for everyone to take the first step. If a person shows courageous attitude towards taking the first step then without doubt things become quite easy for him. It is a fact of life that nothing is impossible in this world what is needed at the most is the positive, valiant attitude towards achieving the goal of life.
Q.6) Compare and contrast the attitude of the family members before and after the flight of the young seagull in ‘His First Flight.’
The attitude of the family members was very much different before and after the flight of the young seagull in ‘His First Flight.’Before the flight, the family was angry with him and they had left him all alone on the ledge. They threatened him to let him starve unless he flew. When they saw that the young seagull mustered up courage and finally made his first flight then all of them started praising him, and offered him scraps of dogfish. The feelings of joy and pride were easily be sensed in the screaming of the parents of the young seagull.
Q.7) Identify the sentence in the first paragraph of ‘His First Flight’ which shows cause and effect.
In the first paragraph of ‘His First Flight’ the sentence which shows cause and effect is:He felt certain that his wings would never support him, so he bent his head and ran away back to the little hole.
Q.8) Read any paragraph from the text to identify the main idea and the sentences that support main idea.
In the first paragraph, the main idea is reflected in the sentence “the young seagull was along on his ledge. He had been afraid to fly with them.” The rest of the sentences are quite supportive to the main idea as they are: “All of his brothers and sisters had already flown away. He felt certain that his wings would not support him. He failed to muster up courage to take that plunge. His parents are upbraiding him for he would not move.”
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #3
Q.1) What is the significance of the title of the poem ‘Good Timber?’
The title of the poem ‘Good Timber’ holds significance with respect to the message of the poem. The poet has artfully compared good timber with good men. He believes that it is not easy for both timber and men to become good without going through hard times. It is a bare fact that the more they suffer, the more they become worthwhile and beneficial for society.
Q.2) What is good timber? How does tree grow into good timber?
Good timber faces adversity and hard times with bravery. It is the one that encounters the forces of nature such as strong winds and unfavorable conditions throughout the life, due to this it becomes vital, good, and beneficial. A tree can only grow into good timber when it passes through the tough test of scorching sun, cold and hot weather, snow, rain.
Q.3) What, according to Douglas Malloch, is the fate of those people who do not work hard in life?
According to Douglas Malloch, those people who do not work hard never excel in any field of life. They can not have strong personality and can never develop their social, moral, and economic position. Such people live and die without achieving anything significant in their life.
Q.4) How can a person achieve his/her true potential in life? Illustrate it with examples from the poem ‘Good Timber.’
A person can achieve his true potential only when he faces hardships, difficulties and tough times with courage and determination. According to the poet, a man becomes strong when encounters and overcomes adversity in life. Hardships, unfavourable conditions, difficult situations polish our abilities and capabilities thus, help us in becoming good human beings. A person does not become strong if he gets everything easily without putting hard work. Douglas compares good timber with men as timber has to bear harsh winds, rain, sunshine, and snow to become good and beneficial, same is the case with men.
Q.5) What is the central idea of the poem ‘Good Timber?’
The central idea of the poem ‘Good Timber’ is that in order to become good and beneficial one has to face hardships and difficulties in life. Both timber and man have to overcome adversity with courage and determination. Struggle is a key to success to live a perfect, valuable life otherwise both of them die without achieving anything worthwhile in their life.
Q.6) What is the rhyme scheme of the poem ‘Good Timber?’
‘Good Timber’ is one of the outstanding works of Douglas. It comprises of four stanzas, each having six lines. The poem is well-structured and follows a beautiful, consistent rhythmic pattern. The rhyme scheme of the poem is AABBCC.
Q.7) An extended metaphor is a poetic device in which two unlike things are compared in a series of lines of a poem. Give the example of extended metaphor from the poem ‘Good Timber.’
The whole poem is an example of extended metaphor as the poet has skillfully compares good timber with man. He is of the opinion that both timber and man have to go through tough times of life to become good and beneficial. If they do not do so they would not be able to achieve anything significant in their life.
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Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #4
Q.1) How is the theme of ‘From Mother … With Love’ a universal theme present in literature across all cultures?
The theme of ‘From Mother…With Love’ is a universal theme present in literature across all cultures as it all about family relations, conflict resolution and responsibility. It is a universal theme as it deals with day to day life of our society where such types of issues can easily be found in all cultures and societies. We do observe such kind of issues in our lives as mother fighting with illness, father facing worries and tensions, a young child becoming mature before time both mentally and psychologically and then finally that child taking up the responsibility on his/her shoulder quite sensibly.
Q.2) Comment on the plot of the story ‘From Mother … With Love.’
The plot of the story ‘From Mother…With Love’ is based on a simple family, who enjoys cordial relations with one another. The story begins with an ordinary morning scene where the family members are having breakfast and little chit chat. Then the story moves to the beach scenario where the conversation between dad and daughter starts. Later, comes the climax of the story when the father reveals that the girl’s mother is about to die in three months time. The events are organized chronologically. The story has a beautiful element of dialogues delivered by the characters that stimulate the emotions and feelings of the readers.
Q.3) Identify the narrator or speaker of the story ‘From Mother… With Love.’
The narrator of the story is the writer himself. He is the one who tells us everything about the characters and the happenings of the story but the dialogues by the characters also play major role in developing the whole story so it might be said that both writer and the characters are the speakers of the story ‘From Mother… With Love.’
Q.4) Analyze and comment on the character of Minta?
The major character of the story is Minta. She is a young, energetic and sensitive girl. She is a studious girl who has a desire to continue her studies at the same boarding school from where her mother gets education. She reacts quite emotionally to all the happenings around her. She is a sensible, caring girl as she is worried about her mother’s health. As the story gains pace, she behaves in a much mature way then is expected from her. Finally, after her mother’s death, she courageously takes the responsibility of taking care of her father and home on her shoulders.
Q.5) What is the conflict in the story? How is it resolved?
The story has a little web of conflicts. The conflict between Minta’s dreams and real life scenario. The conflict that exist between ideal and real world. Minta is the one who is experiencing all these conflicts in her life. Being a sensible girl, Minta reacts to all the situations and happenings in quite a mature way by overcoming the conflicts and taking up the responsibility of her home just like her mother. Hence, Minta herself resolves the conflicts.
Q.6) Where does Minta’s father take her to discuss her mother’s illness?
Minta’s father takes her down to the beach to discuss her mother’s illness and falling health. He wants to tell her everything about her mother’s illness that she has three months or less than that to survive. He wants to make her ready for the harsh and difficult things that are going to happen to her in the near future.
Q.7) Which approach would have preferred — deception or honesty — if you had to deal with similar circumstances like Minta’s mother? Give reasons for your choice.
If I had to deal with similar circumstances like Minta’s mother, I would have preferred honesty. The reason is that if a person already knows about his illness then if we would tell him that he has less time left then it provides him a chance to wind up all his matters especially those related to property or handing over other responsibilities. We have witnessed many cases that after the death of the deceased person, if he had not made his will, then fights and arguments start that sometimes may lead to taking life of one another.
Q.8) How did the vitamin pills become the symbol of responsibility?
Vitamin pills became the symbol of responsibility because when Minta’s mother asked her to take care of her father and gave him vitamin pills on time, this showed that her mother was handing over her responsibility to Minta as a mature and responsible girl.
Q.9) How did Minta change over the course of the story? Limit your answer to just five sentences.
Minta, the main character of the story was a small girl. She was a sensitive-natured girl. When she came to know about her mother’s serious condition that she had little time left, she accepted the reality quite courageously. She then mentally prepared herself to face the worst situation that would be happening in her life. She sensibly took the responsibility of taking care of her father and home that reflected her mature attitude towards life.
Q.10) Why was the blue chair significant? Explain.
In this story, the blue chair was a symbol of power and responsibility. When Minta’s mother was seriously ill, and was admitted to the hospital, the blue chair on which she used to sit, remained vacant. It showed that the home was lacking someone who was mature and responsible. After her mother’s death, when Minta sat on the blue chair, this gave a clear indication that Minta had taken her mother’s place by accepting the responsibility of her home.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #5
Q.2) How coherence and cohesion is achieved in the essay ‘It’s Country for Me.’ Illustrate with examples from the text.
The writer has tactfully achieved coherence and cohesion in the essay ‘It’s Country for Me.’ The whole story revolves around the major character of the story i.e. Joel. He is a responsible, intelligent, and hard working young soul who loves to help his family members at their farm. He loves animals and likes to look after them. His aim is to become a good farmer when he grows up. Logical and verbal bridges are used by the writer to maintain a right balance of cohesion in this essay. Every paragraph of the essay has a connection with the previous one with the details that are supportive to each other.
Q.3) Explain the significance of the title, ‘It’s Country for Me’ and its connection to the theme of the lesson.
The title of the lesson ‘It’s Country for Me’ holds significance with respect to the theme of the lesson as it is related to the elements of hard work, and dignity of labour. It is all about the pleasant life people used to live in villages, by living together and sharing one another’s responsibilities with full zeal and zest. Joel considers his village a country for himself where he lives a happy, contented life with his family rearing and raising cattle.
Q.4) Describe Joel’s treatment of ‘Lamby’, the orphaned lamb and Jessica, the small dog; what does this show?
The way Joel treats ‘Lamby’ the orphaned lamb and Jessica, the small dog shows that he is a responsible, loving, and caring young child. Joel ruffles the thick fur of Jessica that shows his love towards her. Then both of them move to the barn, on seeing Joel, Lamby quickly springs up from her straw bed and drinks milk heartily. Joel loves Lamby, and Jessica and both of them love him too. Joel takes good care of them that’s why they like Joel a lot. Furthermore, Joel’s treatment to animals shows that Joel behaves just like an expert farmer who knows well how to treat farm animals with care and concern.
Q.5) Compare and contrast your daily routine with that of Joel’s. How would you rate the motivational level of your doing work with that of Joel’s?
My daily routine activities are quite different from that of Joel’s. The reason is that Joel lives in the countryside, helping his parents and family members in raising and rearing cattle on their farm. He spends more time in the fields and does great job in taking care of his farm animals along with his family. He not only studies at school but also perform various activities at his farm, thus doing hard work. I, being a city resident, just go to school and provide little help to my family by performing minor household chores. Hence, I must say that Joel’s motivational level is quite high as compared to mine.
Q.6) What skills one is required to learn if he wants to be a full-fledged farmer?
If someone wants to be a full-fledged farmer just like the Holland’s, a farmer must need certain skills. First he would need to have machine operators, and huge, powerful vehicles. He has to perform a variety of tasks by himself. He has to act like a mechanic, repairing the machine operators and vehicles, and a husbandman who knows the skill of raising livestock. He has to act as a veterinarian, looking after the cattle when they become sick. He also has to perform the duty of an agriculturalist, growing food on a large scale, as well as a business person in order to manage a farm operation, just like Joel’s father.
Q.7) In what way does Joel play the role of an adult?
Answer:Joel is just a teenager but he plays the role of an adult by the amount of work he does on the farm. In the cities, only the parents work to earn the money; but on a farm the entire family has to work together to keep the farm functioning and earn a livelihood. Each child’s labour is not only important but it is essential for the family’s well-being. Joel loves his responsibilities and working as a family. He does not wish to live anywhere else and wants to be a farmer when he grows up.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #6
Q.1) What is the dominant theme of the poem ‘Mother to Son?’
The dominant theme of the poem ‘Mother to Son’ rests upon the major elements of courage, determination, struggle, and hope. It gives a clear message to the readers that one must not give up even in the hardest hours of his life. Difficulties and hurdles are part of life but only those get success who face them with courage and determination without losing hope. It is the dignity, passion, and courage of a person that helps him in climbing the stairs of hardships and setting examples for others to follow.
Q.2) What are the some literary techniques used in the poem ‘Mother to Son?’
Langston Hughes used the literary techniques quite skillfully to represent the feelings and emotions of a mother and the reality of life. Some of the literary techniques used in the poem ‘Mother to Son’ are:
The extended metaphor is used by the poet to compare the life and struggle of a mother to a staircase.
The technique of symbolism is used here by the poet as he has used “staircase” as the symbol of hardships and difficulties faced by the mother throughout her life.
The imagery of sight is used in the poem that is reflected in these lines, “Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair”, “And places with no carpet on the floor” and “Don’t you set down on the steps.”
The poet has used allusion right in the opening line of the poem such as, “Crystal Stair” which refers to Jacob’s stair from the Old Testament in The Bible.
The technique of assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in the same line, it is used by the poet in the line “So boy, don’t you turn back” with the sound of /o/ in it.
Similarly, consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds as in the line “where there ain’t been no light” with the sounds of /r/ and /t/.
Q.3) What is an extended metaphor? How does Hughes use this literary technique to illustrate the consistent struggle of mother in her life? Give examples from the poem.
Extended metaphor refers to a comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph, or lines in a poem. Hughes skillfully employs this literary technique in the poem to illustrate the consistent struggle of mother in her life. The stairs in the poem are not made of crystal, with this the poet wants to say that the life of a mother is not an easy path to tread on but the mother keeps on climbing the stairs even if they have sharp nails and splinters. She also doesn’t care about the darkness that may engulf the stairs, this shows that hardships and hurdles may appear in mother’s life but she never gives up but faces that all with courage and determination.
Q.4) In the poem ‘Mother to Son’, Hughes repeats some lines. What function does it serve in poem? Explain.
In the poem, Hughes repeats some lines, for instance, ‘life for me ain’t been no crystal clear’ and words like ‘don’t you.’ The element of repetition is used by the poet to put emphasis on the most important point/idea of the poem. Furthermore, repetition of lines gives a musical quality to the poem and also create rhetorical impacts.
Q.5) What type of imagery is used in the poem ‘Mother to Son?’ What does it suggest?
The imagery of sight is used in the poem that is reflected in these lines, “Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair”, “And places with no carpet on the floor” and “Don’t you set down on the steps.”
The imagery of the ‘stairway’ that is used by the poet provides a view of the way in which people of his time lived and the poverty faced in northern cities after the Civil War, as great number of freed blacks left the South.
“It’s had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor— Bare.”
Q.6) What is the tone of the poem ‘Mother to Son’? Support your view instances from the poem.
The tone of the poem is didactic, plain and resilient. In this poem, the poet expresses his views on the subject of life and resiliency. The mother is giving instructions to his son that represents the didactic tone of the poem, for instance, ‘So boy, don’t you turn back’, ‘Don’t you set down…’, ‘Don’t you fall now.’ With respect to resilient tone, it is reflected in these lines:
It’s had tacks in it,
And boards torn up,
And places with no carpet on the floor – Bare.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #7
Q.1) What is the dominant theme of the letter?
The dominant theme of the letter is about career choice and the steps that must be taken into consideration while selecting a career. The necessary steps for career selection include self-assessment, one’s likes and dislikes, interests, motives, and goals and knowledge and skills that are required for the chosen career.
Q.2) Why doesn’t the career expert mention any specific profession as a career?
Basically the selection of career is not as easy and simple as must of us perceive it. It is something very special that is based on personal preferences, likes and dislikes, interests and goals, knowledge and education, skills and trainings and so on and so forth. The career expert doesn’t mention any specific profession as it is and must be a person’s own decision keeping in view its pros and cons. Instead of mentioning any specific career, the career expert has given valuable suggestions and steps that if taken into consideration, are really helpful in career selection.
Q.3) Why is the decision of choice of career considered the toughest? Give examples from the text of the letter.
The decision of choice of career is considered the toughest due to a number of reasons. At the first place, selection of right career is not an easy task. At times it happens that the career for which we spend too much of our time and energy ends up by giving us displeasure if it doesn’t meet our expectations either with respect to earning money or mental satisfaction. Career selection is something that is beyond personal preferences. The person should consider other aspects important as well such as self-assessment, likes and dislikes, current demand for the field, qualifications required to enter the field, any additional education or training required or not, its effect on him and others, etc. Hence, the long list of pre-requisites for making decision of career selection makes it one of the difficult decisions to be taken by someone in his life.
Q.4) What is self-assessment? How far is it helpful in the choice of career?
Self-assessment holds a vital place in career selection. It means that the person should be well-aware about himself. He should know about his likes and dislikes, the skills he has, the things he enjoy doing and the things he considers important for his work and life. If a person assesses himself critically and thoroughly, then this paves a way to a great job for him. Hobbies and leisure activities too, count in the process of self-assessment that must not be ignored as this can give you great insight into future career paths.
Q.5) Summarize the text of the lesson and extract the main points of the process of career choice. Now transfer the salient points of the process of career choice into flow chart and critically analyze the process.
This letter is written to help everyone in their choice of career, it focuses on specific steps that if followed rightly will help in the selection of a career. Choice of career is a tough decision so it should be taken on your own. Self-assessment and retrospection should be the first and the foremost step to be taken in this regard. After that, one should know his likes and dislikes, interests, and motives. Nothing remains constant so it must be kept in mind that what one likes today may not find it attractive after some time. Hence, one must not select a career according to the activities he likes. Then you should search the professions and fields keeping in view your interests, abilities, and capabilities. After selecting the career, one must identify the education, qualification, skills, and knowledge required for that career. Sometimes, additional certificates, diplomas, and courses are also required for the selected career. Scope and market demand for that career must not be neglected in this respect. Family, friends, and opinion by the experts or professionals hold a significant place in the selection of career. Finally, whatever decision one makes must be based on realistic expectations to avoid any disappointment and frustration in the future. If these steps are followed at the right time, after a thorough evaluation, then they really help a person in his career selection.
- 11Self- Assessment: It is one of the major steps in the process of career selection. With this, a person comes to know about his strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, interests, and motives.
- 22Selection of Fields and Professions: Keeping in view, the result of self-assessment one should look for the right fields and professions accordingly.
- 33Identification of the required education, qualification, and skills: One should get an education in a particular field that will help him in pursuing his career in the future. If a person receives the appropriate education or qualification, only then he will be able to get a job in the selected field.
- 44Scope or Market Demand: It is an important step concerning career selection. One should know about the prospects of the education or qualification receivedtoto get adjusted in the chosen occupation. If one receives an education, that is not according to market demand, then he has to face disappointment in finding a job ano a vacancy caterers to the qualification or certification he has received.
- 55Advice from Family, Friends, and Experts: If one gets advice from his family, friends, and experts, he is in a much better position to select the career that really works for him in future life.
- 66Realistic Expectations: One must not daydream about the choice of the career rather career selection must be made and an action plan should be created based on realistic expectations to avoid any frustration.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #8
Q.1) What is the thesis statement of Mannes’ essay ‘Wasteland?’
The thesis statement of Mannes’ essay ‘Wasteland’ is that:
Man is ruthlessly damaging the natural beauty of the environment by throwing waste here and there and creating air, land, and water pollution.
Q.2) How many examples of waste does Mannes cite? What do they have in common?
Mannes has given a number of examples of waste that is caused by human beings such as cans, carafe, polybags, smoke, industrial wastes, factory chemicals, debris, and other waste materials. These materials are thrown by man on land, in river, oceans and other water bodies causing air, water, and land pollution. What all these waste materials have in common is that they never become dull, never be buried, and can never be destroyed. Furthermore, they are harmful to human, plant, and animal health and cause severe damage to our environment too.
Q.3) What purpose does Mannes want to achieve? Does it work?
Through this essay, Mannes wants to achieve her only purpose to make man aware about his heinous activities of destroying nature and to help him understand the damage we as humans are causing to our environment by throwing waste material on land, in water and air. It doesn’t work to a great extent as humans have become quite insensitive to nature and have forgotten his responsibilities towards taking care of it.
Q.4) In what way is Mannes’ essay persuasive and how does it differ from a formal argument?
Mannes’ essay ‘Wasteland’ is persuasive in nature because Mannes has used the technique of repetition and questioning to put emphasis and divert our attention towards the reaction of our action. This means that Mannes is persuading the readers to take care of the environment only if we want to live in a healthy environment. This essay is different from a formal argument because in this essay Mannes has not directly and plainly talked about waste material, pollution and its impact on environment.
Q.5) In paragraph number five, Mannes write: “There will not be one beach, one hill, one lane, one meadow, one forest free from the debris of man and the stigma of his improvidence.” Is it an accurate statement or exaggerated? Explain.
The above-mentioned statement by Mannes is not an accurate one, but one can say that it is the exaggerated statement. The reason for this exaggeration is that Mannes want people to acknowledge their mistake of polluting the environment and destroying the natural beauty. She wants the readers to pay heed to nature and must take care of it before it would be too late and we just have to repent on our actions in future.
Q.6) Who is Mannes’s audience? What assumptions does she make of it?
Mannes’ audience of this essay is all the human beings. She is basically addressing to all human species to understand their responsibilities towards taking care of the environment and natural beauty. She wants to make it clear to the general public that their activities are causing severe damage to the environment and they should look into this affair as soon as possible and must play constructive role in saving the world’s natural beauty.
Q.7) Why does Mannes use such a short paragraph (paragraph No. 7)? Why does she not merge it with the longer paragraph that follows?
Mannes uses such a short paragraph (paragraph No. 7) as she wants to put emphasis on her questions and want to awake the sleeping sense of thoughtlessness of the readers. With this approach, she wants the readers to imagine and visualize the horrible sketch of the world when we were long dead and what would be left behind by us for our generations to come either heaps of debris, filth, polluted environment, ruined nature, or maybe sunken treasure. She does not merge it with the longer paragraph that follows to show the importance of the questions being asked.
Q.8) Is Mannes argument based on emotion or factual evidence? Illustrate.
Though Mannes argument is based on factual evidence but she has not given simple evidences to support her viewpoint instead she has used emotional language, words, and phrases. The reason of this is to put emphasis and to make readers attentive towards the burning issue of pollution and the barbaric role of man in destroying nature and environment all over the world.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #9
Q.1) What arrangements were made by Navasard for the coming home of Arshak?
Navasard was very excited when he heard the news that Arshak had come back to the village after a long period of ten years. He then decided to give a warm welcome to the young, educated Arshak. Nava said first went to the orchard to pick watermelons and figs. He took the white lamb with him as he had saved it for some special occasion. After returning home with the stuff, Navasard quickly started arranging and cleaning the things of his home so Arshak would feel good. He cleaned the home, swept the yard, terrace, and the floor by sprinkling water, laid the table with the table cloth he borrowed from the neighbor, shook out the rug, covered the couch, and put a pillow on it.
Q.2) Why was Navasard so excited at the arrival of Arshak?
Navasard was so excited at the arrival of Arshak because he was the only son of his brother and sister-in-law. He went to Moscow for higher studies. He had come to the village after a long span of ten years so Navasard was quite enthusiastic to meet his nephew after such a long time.
Q.3) Describe the plight of Navasard after the departure of Arshak without meeting him.
When Navasard came to know and seen by himself that Arshak was leaving the village without meeting him, he felt very dejected as he was not expecting such kind of rude and insensitive behaviour from his nephew. He felt as if the roof had come down on his head. When he was going back to his orchard, his eyes became sunken, his back seemed more stooped than ever and his unsteady gait was just that of an old man.
Q.4) What is the central idea of the story ‘The White Lamb?’ Is this theme relevant to our culture as well?
The central idea of the story ‘The White Lamb’ is that when someone attains high status or gains wealth, fame or fortune, his attitude and behaviour usually change. The same happens in this story when Arshak after getting higher education and gaining wealth comes back to his village, he simply forgets his past life and does not give importance to his old uncle who has taken care of him just like his own son after his parents’ death.
Yes, this theme is quite relevant to our culture as well. Now and then, we witness this harsh reality that when any of our friends or relatives get higher education or good job or become wealthy, he usually forgets or even ignores his relatives or friends that are not fortunate enough to have such blessings in their lives. At this point, he gives more worth to these inanimate things than to family, relatives or friends.
Q.5) Write down the plot of the story ‘The White Lamb.’
The plot of the story is well-organized, powerful and good as all the events take place in an integrated, coherent manner. The plot is enriched with the flavors of conflict, growth of characters and climax. It has an element of suspense and thrill as well that keep the interest level of the readers high till the end of the story.
Q.6) Is there any conflict in the story ‘The White Lamb?’ If yes, how is it resolved?
Yes, there is a conflict in the story ‘The White Lamb.’ It arises at the moment when Navasard reaches home and comes to know that Arshak has gone to chairman’s home without any obvious reason, he becomes quite curious about that. This conflict reaches its climax when Navasard waits for Arshak till the end of the day and he doesn’t make his appearance at the old man’s house. Navasard thinks about the reasons of Arshak not coming to home but finally the conflict is resolved the next day when he is informed about the departure of Arshak without meeting him.
Q.7) How would you resolve the conflict if you were the author of ‘The White Lamb?’
If I were the author of the story, I would resolve the conflict by bringing Arshak back to home in a happy mood. Navasard and Arshak would have nice conversation with each other after ten years, they would enjoy the shashlyk, hold talks and discussions about the past life; the time they both have spent together right there in the village in the same small house. And at the end, Arshak would give Navasard a nice, expensive present as a token of his love.
Q.8) Compare and contrast the character of Navasard and Arshak.
Navasard is an elderly man who is kind, caring, loving, and sympathetic. He shows great love to his nephew Arshak whose parents died when he was a little child. He sold almost all of his wealth to provide financial help to Arshak so he can get higher education in Moscow. He, himself lives in his own small village home, taking care of the orchard. He misses Arshak a lot as he has not met him for the past ten years. When he comes to know about Arshak’s arrival to the village, he becomes very excited. On the contrary, Arshak is an ungrateful, thankless young man who shows arrogant attitude towards his uncle, Navasard. He spends time in the village, meeting and visiting other people there but does not think of meeting his old uncle with whose efforts he has get success in his life. Though he has become an educated, wealthy person but he forgets all moral and social ethics. He has also lost his emotional attachment to his village, childhood home and to his one and only uncle as well. He stays at the village and then silently leaves without even seeing his old benefactor.
Swat Class 11th English Notes Cha #10
Q.1) What is the theme of ‘The World is Too Much With Us?’ And how is it developed in the poem?
The theme of the poem rests on the bare fact that people of today are so much engrossed in their worldly affairs that they have no time to cherish the beauties of nature spread around them. The major theme is developed in the beginning that goes on till the end of the poem. The use of figurative language is skillfully employed by the poet that highlights the main idea that though nature is a source of spiritual pleasure but it is neglected by mankind due to rat race for material gains.
Q.2) What is the tone of the poem ‘The World is Too Much With Us?’
The tone of the poem is quite sorrowful as the poet is feeling sorry for the nature that how it is being ignored by the man. He is worried about the insensitive nature of the people that how they are indifferent towards nature and have adopted materialistic approach. Wordsworth is pretty much dissatisfied by the loss of nature and human negligence towards the beauty of it.
Q.3) What has made people insensitive to the beauty of nature?
The materialistic approach towards life has made people insensitive to the beauty of nature. Man is too much busy in his own material world that he simply has no time for nature. People consider that their prime duty is just to work and earn money and they give secondary importance or even no importance at all to leisure time that is spent in nature. The same pain is also being felt by W.H Davies as he says in his poem ‘Leisure’ “A poor life this if, full of care. We have no time to stand and stare.”
Q.4) What literary devices has been used by Wordsworth that give richness to the meaning of the poem?
The literary devices that has been used by Wordsworth giving richness to the meaning of the poem are as under:
Personification: He has used personification as he says, ‘sea that bears her bosom to the moon’, ‘sleeping flowers’, ‘suckled in the creed outworn’, and ‘the winds that will be howling at all hours.’
Allusion: This literary device is used by Wordsworth as he has taken references from Greek mythology like Proteus and Triton.
Simile: The only simile used in the poem is that of ‘sleeping flowers.’
Assonance and Consonance: The device of assonance has been used in the line “Or hear Triton blow his wreathed horn” as the sound of /o/ is repeating. Similarly, consonance can be observed by the repetition of sounds /s/, /f/, and /t/.
Q.5) What is personification? Pick out some examples of it from the poem ‘The World is Too Much With Us.’
Personification is a type of metaphor and a common literary tool. It is when you assign the qualities of a person to something that isn’t human or alive, such as nature. Wordsworth has used personification in this poem at several places, for example:
1. Sea that bears bosom to the moon;
2. The winds that will be howling at all hours,
3. Sleeping flowers