Students Can get all Short Questions, the long question of Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 11 Homeostasis English Medium.
Q.1) Define homeostasis and osmoregulation.
Answer: Homeostasis: Homeostasis may be defined as the maintenance of the internal conditions of the body at equilibrium, despite changes in the external environment. Osmoregulation: In homeostasis, organisms maintain their internal temperature within a tolerable range, which is known as osmoregulation.
Q.2) Differentiate between the adaptions of hydrophytes and xerophytes for osmoregulation.
Lives on dry land
Have broad leaves
They lack leaves
The Number of stomata is very high on their leaves to facilitate respiration.
NO stomata present
Q.3) Briefly describe how kidneys control the composition of blood.
Answer: Kidney as Homeostatic Organ:
If there are more salute in blood, kidney excrete them and retain water in the body.
If there there is more water, kidney produce more urine to remove the excess water from the body.
Q.4) Enlist materials in our diet which are more likely to cause kidney stones?
A diet containing calcium oxalate A diet containing calcium and ammonium phosphate Green vegetables Fats Dairy Product.
Q.5) Define lithotripsy?
Answer: Lithography: It is the most recent method of removing kidney stones. It is non-surgical removal of kidney stones. This technique is used to break up stones present in kidney., ureter or urinary bladder. In this method stone inside the kidney is targeted by shock waves. The shock waves break the stones into tiny pieces, which are passed out of the body in the urine.
Q.6) What is the role of the skin in thermoregulation?
Answer: Role of Skin Thermoregularization: In warm conditions, the skin provides a cooling effect when sweat is produced by the sweat glands. In this way, excess body heat escapes through evaporation. Sweating also helps in the removal of some amounts of extra water, salts, and nitrogenous wastes from the body.
Q.7) Which term is used for the disease where one or both kidneys do not perform their function?
Answer: Kidney Failure or Renal failure.
Biology Class 10 Notes Long QuestionsChapter 1 Homeostasis
Q.1) Describe the structure of kidneys in human beings.
Answer: Structure of the Human Kidney: Human beings possess a pair of kidneys They are present below the diaphragm in the abdominal cavity, on the sides of vertebral column. They are attached to the dorsal body wall. The right kidney is slightly lower and smaller than the left one. Kidney is a dark brown and bean-shaped organ (having a concave and a convex side). The concave side of each kidney is towards the vertebral column. Kidney is enclosed in a tissue called the renal capsule. On the concave side of the kidney, there is a depression called the hilus. It is the point where the renal artery enters the kidney and where the renal vein and ureter leave the kidney. A longitudinal section of the kidney shows that it consists of two regions. The outer region is called the renal cortex whereas the inner region is called the renal medulla. There are many cone-shaped areas in renal medulla called the renal pyramids. The base of each pyramid faces the renal cortex while its tip is in a cavity called the renal pelvis. The pelvis extends to the outside of the kidneys and forms the ureter. The functional units of the kidneys are called nephrons. There are more than one million nephrons in each kidney. A nephron consists of two parts i.e. the renal corpuscle and the renal 1. Renal corpuscle: It is the first part of the nephron and is composed of glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule. The glomerulus is a network of capillaries while the Bowman’s capsule is the cup-shaped structure around the glomerulus. 2. Renal tubule: it is a long tube attached with the Bowman’s capsule. It has three parts. The first part is convoluted and is called the proximal convoluted tubule. The middle part is U-shaped and is called the Loop of Henle. The last part is again convoluted and is called the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubules of many nephrons open in a single collecting duct. Many collecting ducts join together and open into the renal pelvis.
Q.2) Why do plants excrete? What are the different mechanisms through which plants excrete different substances?
Answer: Excretion in Plants: Plants do not possess any special organs for excretion. They get rid-off different wastes in different ways, to maintain their internal environment. The materials which plants require to excrete are carbon dioxide produced during respiration, oxygen and water released as a by-product of photosynthesis and some metabolic products like latex, resins and gums. Excretion of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen: During the day time, when active photosynthesis is going on, CO2 is retained in the leaves of plants and is used for photosynthesis. At night when there is no photosynthesis it is excreted through the open stomata of the leaves. During the day, the oxygen produced during photosynthesis is utilised in cellular respiration. The extra oxygen is released out through the stomata. A. Excretion of extra water: Plants store forge amounts of water in the vacuoles of their cells. It results in turgor, which provides support to the soft parts of the body. If plants have extra amount of water, they remove it in two ways. 1. Transpiration: During the day, plants remove their extra water by transpirotion. There are three types of tronspiration i. e. Through stomata (stomatal transpiration), cuticle (cuticular transpiration) and through lenticels Clenticulor transpirotion). 2. Guttation: Transpiration does not occur at night Some plants such as grasses use a special method to remove extra water ot night. They have small pores at the tips or edges of their leaves. They remove extra water through these pores. This water comes out in the form of little drops. This process is colled quttation. B. Excretion of other wastes: Plants use different methods to excrete other wastes. Some plants store wastes in their bodies (stems, leaves or roots) in the form of harmless crystal. Some plants store their wastes in their leaves, When their leaves fall the plant body also gets rid of these wastes. some plants excrete their wastes through special pores by applying force. For example, the rubber plant excretes latex, the Acacia tree excretes gums, coniferous trees excrete resins, and the ladyfinger excretes mucilage.
Q.3) What are kidney stones and are they formed? Suggest ways in which these stones can be removed from the body.
Answer: Kidney Stones: Kidneys filter harmful substances from the blood Sometimes, the filtered harmful substances (e.g calcium oxalate, calcium and ammonium phosphate, uric acid, etc) gather in the kidneys and make larger objects. Such objects cannot pass in the urine and are called kidney stones. Some stones may leave the kidneys and get trapped in the ureter or urinary bladder. These can then cause an obstruction in the urinary tract. The presence of more calcium oxalate, calcium and ammonium phosphates in a person’s diet (green vegetables, fats, dairy products) is the major cause of kidney stones. Extra amounts of vitamins C and D in a diet may also cause stones. The other causes of kidney stones are reduced water intake, excess uric acid in the blood, urinary tract infections, and alcohol consumption. Patents of kidney stones feel severe pain in the kidney or lower abdomen. Other symptoms of kidney stones include nausea, vomiting, burning in the urethra, frequent urination, foul-smelling urine, blood and pus in the urine and bloating. Treatment: If kidney stones are small in size, the patient is advised to drink plenty of ef water so that stones can pass through the urine. If tones are large and cannot pass éasily the patient has to undergo surgery. Patient’s kidney, ureter or urinary bladder is opened gnd stones are removed. The most recent method of removing kidney stones. It is non-surgical removal of kidney stones. This technique is used to break up stones present in the kidney., ureter or urinary bladder. In this method stone inside the kidney is targeted by shock waves. The shock waves break the stones into tiny pieces, which are passed out of the body in the urine.
Q.4) Define haemodialysis. How is it performed?
Answer: Dialysis: The cleaning of the blood of a patient suffering from renal failure (by using artificial methods) is called dialysis. In dialysis, the blood and a dialysis fluid are kept on opposite sides of a membrane. The nitrogenous wastes of blood pass through the membrane and enter the dialysis fluid. In this way, the blood is purified. Haemodialysis: In this method, blood is passed through a machine called a dialyzer. The dialyzer contains tubes, the walls of which are made of semi-permeable membranes. Blood flows inside the tubes while the dialysis fluid flows outside. Extra water and wastes diffuse from the blood into the dialysis fluid. The purified blood is then returned back to the body.
Q.5) How does a dialyzer work? Relate the function of a dialyzer with that of the kidney.
Answer: Dialyzer: The dialyzer contains tubes, the walls of which are made of semi-permeable membranes. Blood flows inside the tubes while the dialysis fluid flows outside. Extra water and wastes diffuse from the blood into the dialysis fluid. The purified blood is then returned back to the body. Kidney: Kidney filters nitrogenous and all other wastes from the blood and excrete them out through urine and also play important role in hemostasis by excreting the excess water when water concentration is high in the blood, and excrete salute when water concentration is low.