Thomas Robert Malthus
In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus, an anonymous English pastor of the past, published a short but very effective book, An Essay on the Population of Law in the Context of the Future of Society.
Malthus’s basic idea was that population growth was faster than the growth of resources. (Such as a series of numbers 1 ‘2’ 8 ’16 ․․․) while food supply increases mathematically (such as a series of numbers 1′ 2 ‘3’4’5′ 6 ․․) He added in the book, in which Malthus moderately expressed the same view, and said that population growth is indefinite, even reaching the point of food supply.
From both forms of this theory, Malthus deduced that poverty and starvation were destined for the majority of human beings. No advancement in technology as a whole can change this result. Because the increase in food supply is inevitably limited while the power of the population produces food for the youth from the power of the earth.
Can population growth not be stopped in any way? Of course it is possible. Wars and other natural disasters continue to reduce the population. But these disasters only create temporary delays in the possibility of population growth and then a terrible price. But Malthus suggested that one of the ways to stem the tide of population growth was moral restraint, which meant that older marriages, protection of virginity, and a reduction in marital intimacy were in short supply.
Malthus realistically felt that most people would not accept such a ban. He concluded that in practice population growth was inevitable, and that poverty was an unforgivable destiny for most mankind. ۔
Although Malthus himself never supported the idea of reducing the population by contraceptives, he did suggest such a strategy.
There was a natural consequence of his basic theory. The first man to publicly support the common use of contraceptives to stem population growth was the influential British reformer Francis Place (1854-1771). Wrote a book in support of contraception in 1822. He disseminated information about fertility in the working class.
In the United States, Dr. Charles Knolton wrote a book on contraceptives in 1832. The first “Majlis Hum Nawahan Wa Malthus” was formed in the 1860s. However, the number of proponents of family planning gradually increased. If Chippewa Malthus himself did not support the adoption of contraceptive measures on ethical grounds.
Malthus’s theory also influenced economic theory. Malthus-affected economists have come to the conclusion that under normal circumstances, overpopulation does not allow wages to grow beyond the normal daily wage. The well-known English scholar Deodricardo (who was also a close friend of Malthus) writes, “The natural wage of labor is the wage which is necessary to enable workers to earn a living for their descendants without losing or growing together Is.
This theory is commonly called the “constitutional law of wages.” It was accepted by Karl Marx and became an important part of his (more) theory.
Malthus’s theories also had an impact on the science of biology. Charles Darwin read “An Essay on the Law of Population” which gave him a new understanding of the theory of evolution through natural selection.
Malthus was born in Surrey, near Dorking, England, in 1766. He attended Cambridge University City Jesuit College. He was a promising student. He graduated in 1788. That same year he became an “English” pastor. In 1791 he received his master’s degree. In 1793 he became a member of Jesus College.
The first edition of his famous book was published without his name.
But it soon became commonplace, and Malthus became famous. The same article was published in detail five years later in 1803. The book was repeatedly added. It was published for the sixth time in 1826.
Malthus was married in 1804, when she was thirty-one years old. In 1805, he was assigned to teach history and political economy at East India Companies College, Haleybury.
He held this position for life. Malthus wrote several other books on economics. The most important of these, The Principles of Political Economy, was published in 1820. The book greatly influenced many later economists, especially the famous twentieth-century figure John Maynard Keynes. Later in life, Malthus received numerous awards. Two of his three children survived.
However, his generation did not grow beyond that.
Many years after Malthus’s death, contraceptives were not common, suggesting that he was not an influential figure. I think this view is wrong. The views of Malthus I have influenced both Darwin and Karl Marx. Both are prominent nineteenth-century thinkers. Second, although the policies of the neo-Maltese school of thought were not immediately accepted by the majority of the people, their suggestions were not ignored and their views did not fade.
The current family planning campaign is an extension of Malthus’ ongoing campaign in his lifetime.
Thomas Malthus was the first to draw people’s attention to the possibility that organized nations would have to outnumber their populations. Many such ideas had been put forward in the past. Malthus himself pointed out that Plato and Aristotle discussed this issue.
He also quoted Aristotle as saying, “If every person in the population of a state was given the freedom to have children as he wished, the inevitable result would be poverty.”
But if Malthus had not invented the original theory of self. Even so, owning one is still beyond the reach of the average person. Plato and Aristotle have expressed this idea in a rhetorical way, while their views on this subject have generally been ignored. It was Malthus who made it clear.
He wrote in detail about it. More importantly, Malthus was the first man to emphasize the importance of the issue of overpopulation and to bring this issue to the attention of the people.