The establishment of trade and commerce in Portugal
The establishment of trade and commerce in Portugal in 1580 weakened the Portuguese power in the east.
Due to limited resources, the good Portuguese could not make significant progress in Muslim areas. He was followed by the Netherlands, Britain, and France, who wanted to lead the lucrative trade in goods and Africa.
The growth of trade has in a short period of time increased the presence of European nations in the African and Asian regions. At the beginning of the modern age, a power vacuum had arisen among the Muslims due to stagnation and immediate weakness, which the Western nations soon realized and intensified their efforts to gain political power.
The Netherlands gained political power as well as trade in the East Indies and eventually occupied Indonesia in the early seventeenth century. The British occupied South Asia under the guise of trade in the 18th century and established a trading centre in Malaya in 1811, annexing all the greats by the end of the 19th century. Under the pretext of protecting the sea lanes of its eastern occupations, Britain occupied the coastal areas of Aden and southeastern Arabia in 1839.