The great Chinese emperor Xi Huang Ti ruled China from 210 to 238 BC, uniting China militarily and carrying out a number of comprehensive reforms. These reforms played a key role in building the cultural alliance that still exists in China.
Shi Huang Ti (also known as Si Huang Ti in China). Born in 259 BC. Died in 210 BC.
To determine its origin, it is necessary to gain some knowledge of the historical background of this period. It was born in the late reign of the Chow dynasty, which began in 1100 BC. Seven centuries before that, the Chow ruler exerted his influence. Were lost and China was divided into many feudal states.
These feudal lords usually fought with each other.
(to be continued)
Many small rulers gradually disappeared. One of the few most powerful militant states was Chen, located in the western part of the country. The Chen rulers used the ideas of the Sharia school of Chinese philosophy to guide the formulation of state strategy. Confucius preached that human beings should rule by the moral example of a good ruler.
However, the Shari’a view was that most people could not be governed in such a way, nor could they be regulated under such concrete and impartial laws. Laws are made by the ruler himself and can be changed according to the state strategy.
Maybe because they were sympathizers of the Shariatists or maybe because their geographical conditions were different or maybe because the Chen rulers were very competent.
This particular state became extremely powerful in the Chinese states. This was the time when Chung (later called Xi Huangti) was born. He came to power at the age of thirteen in 246 BC. However, in fact it remained with him until 238 BC. The king continued to rule until he reached puberty. The new rulers hired capable generals and waged fierce wars with the rest of the feudal states.
By 221 BC, they were all open. He declared himself the sole ruler of all China. He took on a new name, insisting on the complete severance of every relationship with the past. Shi Huang Ti chose the name for himself. Which means the first emperor.
Shi Huang Ti immediately set his sights on a number of important reforms. In order to completely eliminate the possibility of anarchy, the Zhou government that led to its downfall abolished all feudal systems of government.
The whole empire was re-categorized into 36 provinces. Each province had a governor appointed by the emperor himself. Xi Huangti also issued a decree that the post of provincial governor should not be assigned on hereditary grounds. This led to the transfer of governors from one province to another a few years later. In order to eliminate the possibility that an enthusiastic governor should not try to be in power on his own.
Each province had a separate commander-in-chief who could be chosen by the emperor and dismissed at will. Third, there would be competent officials appointed by the federal government who would be responsible for maintaining balance in the administrative and military spheres. A network of fine roads was laid across the country, connecting the capital with the provinces, which made it clear to the Americans that if a civil war broke out in a province at any time, the dying troops could arrive there in time for relief.
Xi Huangti also made a correction to move the remaining members of the former elite to Basin Hong, which was his capital and where he could keep an eye on them.
However, Shi Huang was not satisfied with just political and military integration in the country. He also organized the commercial sector. It introduced a unified system of weights and measures across the country. Improved the quality of coins, improved the shape of various tools and sticks.
Supervised the construction of roads and canals. It enforced regulation and standardized written language throughout China.
The emperor’s most famous (or infamous) act was the burning of all books in China by a decree in 213 BC. The exceptions, however, were related to a few histories and to the philosophical writings of Shari’a authors.
However, all other schools of thought, including Confucian writings, were destroyed.
With this strict edict, which is probably the only great historical example of the prohibition on books, Shi Huang wanted to repeal the influence of all rival philosophies, especially the ideas of the Confucian school of thought. However, he ordered that the volumes of all prohibited books be kept in the royal library, located in the capital.
Similarly, Shi Huang Ti’s foreign strategy was sharp. He achieved extensive victories in the southern part of the country. Thus, the territories he occupied gradually became part of China. His forces also achieved success in the north and west. But he could not win the hearts of the people of these areas. It connected several existing local walls on China’s northern border to form a grand wall to prevent possible attacks on China.
That is the Great Wall of China that still exists today. These construction projects and the accompanying foreign wars forced the emperor to increase the burden of taxes on the people and he lost his public popularity. As his rebellion against the Iron Government was impossible, conspiracies to assassinate Swas began to unfold which did not bear fruit. Shi Huang died of natural causes in 210 BC.
He was replaced by his second son, Ira Shi Huang. But he was not his father. Soon the rebels broke out. He was assassinated four years later. The palace and the royal library were set on fire and the Chen dynasty was completely wiped out.
But the work started by Shi Huang Ti continued. The Chinese were happy that his dictatorial rule had ended, but a large number also wanted to revive the previous government.
The next Han dynasty maintained the administrative system established by Chen Shi Huangti. The fact is that for twenty-one centuries, the Chinese Empire remained steadfast on the lines it laid down. Although Chen’s correct laws were softened by the Han emperors, and although all Shari’a philosophy was abolished and Confucianism was restored to Korean philosophy, the cultural and political cohesion that Xi Huangti created remained intact.
The significance of Xi Huang Ti for China and the world as a whole is now clear. Western nations have always been fascinated by the enormous size of China. But for most of history, China has never been more densely populated than Europe. The only difference was that Europe was always divided into smaller states, while China was united as a larger state. This distinction was made up of political and social factors rather than geographical conditions, while various mountain ranges, such as the Inland Closure, were as prominent in China as they were in Europe.
But China’s alliance cannot be fully attributed to Xi Huangti. Numerous other people, such as Sui Wenti, also played important roles. The main character of Shi Huang Ti cannot be said.
No discussion on Xi Huang Ti can be complete without mentioning his brilliant and valuable Prime Minister Li Xu. The effects of Lee Miso’s thought on the emperor’s strategies are so profound that it is difficult to know at what rate the appreciation for the great reforms of the time should be divided. This is what can be done, as I said.
Some because he burned books. Subsequent Confucian writers have cursed Shi Huang Ti. He has been described as a dictator, a homosexual, illegitimate child, and a mediocre man. Chinese communists, on the other hand, hailed him as a progressive thinker. Western writers often compare Shi Huang Ti to Napoleon. However, it is better to compare it with Augustus Caesar, the founder of the Roman Empire. The empires founded by the young men were more or less the same size and population, but the Roman Empire lasted for a very short time.
Augustus’s Tawir Empire failed to maintain its internal unity, while Shi Huang Ti’s Tawir Empire remained. On this basis, it can be considered more effective than the former.