Most people today know Queen Isabella I of Castile for her financial support for Stuart Columbus’s voyage across the ocean. They have been present in the United States for centuries and indirectly affect the lives of millions of people today.
In fact, she formulated most of her policies in consultation with her equally astute and capable husband, Ferdinand of Argonaut, and they did not adhere to his decisions. It would be appropriate to mention both together in this book. However, Queen Isabella’s name has been chosen as the title of this article because it was her suggestions that formed the basis of their joint decisions.
(to be continued)
Isabella was born in 1451 in the town of Medellin in the kingdom of Castile (part of Spain). In her youth she received rigorous religious training and became a staunch catholic. His half-brother Henry IV ruled Castile from 1454 until his death in 1474. The Kingdom of Spain did not exist then. Instead, Spain was divided into four kingdoms.
(1) Castile, which was the largest kingdom. (2) Aragon, which covered the northeastern part of present-day Spain. (3) Granada, located in the south and covering the northern region of Navarre. In the late 1460s, Isabella, who inherited Castile, was the richest heir in Europe. Several princes asked her to marry him. Her half-brother Henry IV wanted her to marry the King of Portugal.
In 1469, when she was eighteen, Isabella deviated and married Ferdinand, despite King Henry’s opposition. Who inherited the throne of Aragon. Provoked by this rebellion, King Henry asserted his right to his daughter, Joanna. Havana’s supporters did not approve. The Sokhana war began. By February 1479, Isabella’s army had been victorious.
King John II of Aragon died the same year and Ferdinand became King of Aragon. Ferdinand and Isabella ruled over much of Spain.
In principle, the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile remained separate, and their governing institutions remained separate. But in practice, Ferdinand and Isabella combined all decisions and ruled according to their ability as the joint rulers of Spain.
In the twenty-five years of this joint rule, their basic strategy has been to establish a united Spanish kingdom under the banner of a strong monarchy. His first plan was to conquer Granada, the only Muslim-held territory. In 1481, the war began. It ended in January 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella had complete success. After the conquest of Granada, Spain’s borders became as wide as they are today.
(Incorporated the kingdom of Nadara into his realm after Elizabeth’s death in 1512).
Early in their days, Ferdinand and Isabella founded the Spanish Research Institute. There was a combination of judges, juries, prosecutors and police detectives. This institution was notorious for its sincerity and one-sidedness of its actions. Defendants were either denied the opportunity to defend themselves and were not given the opportunity to defend themselves.
They were not even presented with evidence of the charges against them, even if they were not introduced to the accuser. Defendants who denied the charges against them were severely persecuted until they pleaded guilty. According to a conservative estimate, at least 2,000 people were tied up and burned alive in the first 20 years after the establishment of the agency, with many more being given other sentences.
The head of this investigative agency was a very bigoted monk, Thomas de Torquemada, before whom Isabella herself confessed. Although the institution was under the pope, it was in fact in the hands of the king. One of the aims of this institution was to strengthen the religious monopoly and some sought to resist the monarchy.
Spanish feudal lords once held power, but the Spanish monarchs used this institution as a weapon against these arbitrary feudal lords. And so they were able to establish an absolute and strong kingdom. He also used the institution to strengthen his grip on the church.
However, the agency’s main target was those accused of religious heresy.
Especially Jews and Muslims who apparently became Catholics but secretly practiced their former religion. Initially, the agency did not prosecute Jews who confessed. However, in 1492, at the insistence of the fanatical wiremaster, Ferdinand and Isabella issued a decree that all Hispanics should either convert to Judaism or Christianity or leave their property and leave the country within four months.
This decree was a terrible tragedy for the Jews who lived near two million #####. Many disappeared before reaching a safe place. The expulsion of the country’s most tough and hard-working businessmen and artists from Spain created a severe economic crisis.
When Granada was occupied, the peace treaty established that Muslims living in Spain were free to practice their religion.
But the Spanish government soon rescinded the agreement. The peacocks revolted but the revolt was crushed. Muslims living in 1502 were forced to convert to Christianity or leave the country. The same situation that was created for the Jews ten years ago. Isabella was a devout Catholic. However, he never allowed his orthodoxy to stand in the way of Spanish nationalism.
Together with Ferdinand, he successfully worked to bring the Catholic Church in Spain under the control of the king instead of the pope. That is why “Protestant” reform did not take root in Spain in the sixteenth century.
The most important event of Isabella’s time was Christopher’s discovery of the Lambus Kane world. Castile’s kingdom funded Columbus’ expedition (however, it is speculated that Isabella pledged her jewelry to finance the expedition).
Zaibla died in 1504. In her lifetime she gave birth to a son and four daughters. Son Hawan died in 1497. The most famous of his daughters was Havana. Ferdinand and Isabella married Havana to Philip I, son of the Emperor of Austria and heir to the kingdom of Burgundy. As a result of this extraordinary royal marriage, Isabella’s grandson Charles V inherited the largest empire in all of history.
He was also elected as the Holy Roman Emperor and was the richest and most powerful man of all the European kings of his time. The territories he ruled included Spain, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, most of Italy, and parts of France. ۔
Charles V and his son Philip II were sincere Catholics who, during their long reign, used the wealth of this new world in operations against the Protestant states in Northern Europe. The marriage, thus arranged by Ferdinand and Isabella, had a profound effect on European history almost a century after their deaths.
I will now try to summarize the effects and achievements of Ferdinand and Isabella.
Through their joint efforts they succeeded in establishing a united kingdom of Spain. Its borders remained the same until five centuries ago. He established an autocratic monarchy in Spain. The deportation of peacocks and Jews had a profound effect not only on these exiles but also on Spain itself. However, his religious orthodoxy and the Court of Accountability left their mark on Spain’s future history.
The last point should be discussed. Simply put, the Court of Accountability paralyzed Spain. In the centuries after 1492, most of Western Europe experienced idolatrous intellectual and scientific advances. Spain lost it. In a society where any kind of deviant thinking could save a person from serious danger of death through court accountability.
It is not surprising that this happened anyway. In Spain, the Court of Accountability left only orthodox Catholic thought. Until 1700, Spain was a mentally backward country compared to the rest of Western Europe. Although five centuries have passed since the establishment of the Court of Accountability by Ferdinand and Isabella and one and a half hundred years have passed since its inception, Spain has not yet been able to free itself from its effects.
Furthermore, Isabella’s financial support for the Columbus campaign ensured that South and Central America would become Spanish colonies. This meant that Spanish civilizations and institutions, including the Court of Accountability, were established on a large part of the Western Cape. It is not surprising that just as Spain was mentally backward compared to most of Western Europe, so were the Spanish colonies in South America less developed than the British colonies in North America.
In deciding what rank Isabella should be considered, one must consider whether all these events would have been possible without her. It is true that the militancy was strong in Spain due to the struggle to liberate the seven-year-old Iberian Peninsula from Muslim domination. Had to choose
It was Ferdinand, and especially Isabella, who turned Spain into an inflexible religious fanatic.
It is natural to compare Isabella with the famous Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth was a capable woman like Isabella. She has proved to be a more admirable ruler due to her more compassionate and tolerant policies.
But it did not have the innovation-like nature of Isabella, nor did any of its actions have the profound effect that was manifested by the establishment of the accountability of Isabella’s court. Some of Isabella’s policies were absolutely disgusting, but The effects were similar to those of Isabella.