Kids Love Class 10 Biology Notes Coordination control

Kids Love Class 10 Biology Notes Chapter No 12 Coordination control Kids Love Class 10 Biology Coordination control Multiple choice questions and answers pdf, Short Questions, long Questions, and additional multiple-choice questions.

Define the following terms?

Coordination:
The cooperative working of cells, tissue. organs and systems with one another to perform a proper function is called coordination.
Stimulus:
Any change in the internal and external environment is called a stimulus. For example:
1 In animals it may smell, sight, taste, touch, and hearing.
2 In plants it may be light, water, temperature, and chemicals, etc. Receptor: Those organs which receive the stimulus are called a receptor.
Example:
Sense organs such as Eye, Ear, Nose, Hands, Tongue.
Effectors:
The organs which give a response to stimulus are called effectors.
Example:
Muscle and GIiands.

Define coordination? Describe the type of coordination in living bodies?

Ans. Coordination:
The cooperative working of cells, tissue, organs, and systems with
one another to perform a proper function is called coordination.
Types of Coordination:
There are two types of coordination in organisms.
i. Nervous coordination
ii. Chemical coordination

i. Nervous coordination:
The coordination between various organs of – the body due to neurons (nervous system) is called nervous coordination.
Nervous coordination consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Neurons are the basic unit of the nervous system. Neurons transmit information in the form of electrical signals called nerve impulses. Therefore nervous coordination is also called electrical coordination.
ii. Chemical coordination:
The coordination between various organs of the body due to chemical (hormones) is called chemical coordination.

Coordinator
Brain and spinal cord
Endocrine glands

Effectors
Muscles and Glands
Many body parts (e.g. kidneys, liver, stomach, etc) Chemical (e.g. hormones)

Nature of message
Electrical (nerve impulse)

Carrier of message
Neurons

Nature of response
Contraction of muscles
Secretion from glands
Various types (e.g. growth, osmoregulation)

Define neuron? Describe its structure and types.

Ans: Neurons:
Neurons are the basic structural and functional units of the nervous system. Neurons are also called nerve cells. It carries nerves impulse at a speed of 100 m/sec. The nervous systems of humans are composed of millions of neurons of different sizes and shape performing different functions.
Function:
Neurons transmit nerve impulses from one part to another part of the body. Structure of neurons:
Neurons are composed of three parts.
I. Cell body
II. Axon
Ill. Dendrites.

Cell body:
It is the central part of neurons. It consists of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and other cell organelles like Golgi complex, Mitochondria, Ribosome, and Endoplasmic reticulum.

Function:
It receives nerve impulse from dendrites and carries it to the axon.
It is also concerned with the biosynthesis of materials necessary for the growth and maintenance of neurons.

II. Axon:
It is an elongated, threadlike, unbranched structure that arises from one side of the cell body. Axon of a large neuron is covered by a white protective sheet called myelin sheath and has internal nodes called nodes of Ranvier. The distance between two nodes is covered by Schwan cell

Function:
It carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.

Ill. Dendrites:
These are the small fibers-like structures that arise from the cell body. Function: These carries nerve impulse towards the cell body. Tasspfrigarmasuthgbsfunction:
There are three types of neurons on the basis of their function.
i. Sensory neuron.
ii. Motor neuron.
iii. Associative neuron.

i. Sensory neuron:
Those neurons which carry nerve impulse (message) from the receptor (sense organ) to CNS (brain and spinal cord) are called a sensory neuron. In these neurons cell body is on one side, the axon is short whereas the dendrites are long.

ii. Motor neuron:
Those neurons which carry nerve impulses away from CNS to effectors are called motor neurons. The cell body is in the length of the neuron. They have long axons and short dendrites.

iii. Associative neurons:
They are also called mixed or intermediate neurons. They are present in the brain and spinal cord. They make a connection between sensory and motor neurons. They have short axons and dendrites.

Define the nerves and their types?

Ans: Nerve:
A nerve means the union of several axons that are enveloped by a covering made of lipid.
Nerves arise from the brain and spinal cord and make the peripheral nervous system Types of nerves:
On the basis of axons, nerves are classified into three types.
I. Sensory nerves II. Motor nerves Ill. Mixed nerves

i. Sensory nerves contain axons of sensory neurons only.
ii.Motor nerves contain the axons of motor neurons only.
iii.Mixed nerves contain the axons of both sensory and motor neurons.

What is the central nervous system? Explain?

Ans: Central nervous system lies in the midline of the body. It consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is located in the skull while the spinal cord lies in the vertebral column. Skull and vertebral column provide protection to the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are also protected by a triple-layered membrane called meninges.

The fluid is present between these layers of meninges known as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid is similar in composition to blood plasma. It baths the neurons of the CNS and also provides protection.

Describe the structure and function of Human brain?

Ans: Human Brain:
The brain is the most complex and advanced part of the human body. It is the coordination center present in the cranium of the skull. In animals, all life activities are under the control of the brain.
Location:
It is situated in a bony cavity of the skull called the cranium.
Meninges:
Inside the cranium, the brain is covered by three layers called meninges. Meninges protect the brain and also provide nutrients and oxygen to brain tissue through their capillaries.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):
The fluid present between the layers of meninges called cerebrospinal fluid.
Cranial nerves:
Nerves arising from the brain are called cranial nerves. There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain.

Parts of the brain:
The human brain can be divided into three parts.
I. Forebrain
II. Midbrain
Ill. Hindbrain

I. Forebrain:
The first part of brain is called Forebrain. It is differentiated into three parts.
a) Cerebrum
b) Thalamus
c) Limbic system.

a. Cerebrum:
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is divided into two halves by a groove called a median fissure. Each part of the cerebrum is called the cerebral hemisphere. These hemispheres are connected with each other by a nerve cord called the corpus callosum. The upper part of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex.
Function:
• It receives sensory information, processes it, and stores some memory for future use.
• It is also responsible for intelligence, thinking, and decision making
. The speech center is also present in the cerebrum.

b. Thalamus:
Thalamus is an oval shape structure present in the arc of the cerebrum.
Function:
It receives sensory information and carries to the limbic system and Cerebrum.
Limbic system is also located in an arc between the thalamus and cerebrum. It contains the hypothalamus; amygdala and hippocampus. At the end of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland is attached.
Function:
Hypothalamus: Temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood. Amygdale: Produce a sensation of pleasure and punishment. Hippocampus: It play role in the formation of long-term memory.

b. Thalamus:
Thalamus is an oval shape structure present in the arc of the cerebrum.
Function:
It receives sensory information and carries to the limbic system and Cerebrum.
C-Limbic system:
The limbic system is also located in an arc between the thalamus and cerebrum. It contains the hypothalamus; amygdala and hippocampus. At the end of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland is attached.
Function:
Hypothalamus: Temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood.
Amygdale: Produce a sensation of pleasure and punishment.
Hippocampus: It play role in the formation of long-term memory.

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