English notes class 12th federal board Chapter 16 to 20

English notes class 12th federal board Chapter 16 to 20, Chapter #16, #17, #18, #19, and #20. Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan, The Renaissance, Once Upon a Time, The Merchant of Venice, and King Lear.

Contents show

Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan #16

Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan #16
Archaeological Treasures of Pakistan #16

English notes class 12th federal board Chapter 16 to 20

Q 1. What are the most important archaeological sites of Pakistan? What light do they throw on the antiquity in this part of the world?

Pakistan is a country rich with the priceless remains of the past and exquisiteness of the present. Some of the most important archaeological sites of Pakistan include Taxila, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Gandhara, Bhanbore, Lahore and Brahmanabad. These sites are not only of great importance with respect to their rich culture and civilization but also due to their associations with the great preachers, monarchs or warriors of the past times such as Alexandra, Asoka, Mughals, Buddha, and Mongols. These archaeological sites throw crystal-clear light on the culture rich lifestyle of the people of the past who used to live in this part of the world some thousand years back with all glory and verve.

Q 2. What is the importance of Taxila as an archaeological site?

Taxila one of the landmark in the historical and archaeological affluence of Pakistan is situated in the North-West of Rawalpindi some thirty miles away from the city. It is not only a place rich in its culture and civilization but depicts its importance due to the close association and influence of the great personalities of the past including Alexander and Asoka, one of the greatest and most illustrious figures of the sub-continent. Taxila is also famous because of the exceptional contribution to the world’s artistic fortune i.e. the art of Gandhara which is the fusion of Buddhist art amalgamated with Mediterranean influences. It is something worthy to experience as nothing like this exists anywhere in the entire world.

Q 3. What is one of the most important aspects of the discovery of Mohenjo-Daro?

Mohenjo-Daro is one of the most significant archaeological sites of Pakistan located about sixty miles from Sukkur in Sind. One of the most important aspects of the discovery of Mohenjo-Daro is its confirmation of the existence of an established civilization in the Indus Valley region before the arrival of Aryan invaders and also the fact that more than on ethnic type was then present.

Q 4. Where is Bhanbore? What is its archaeological interest?

Bhanbore is a site of great concern and appreciation for the people of Pakistan who have a love for our history and civilization. It is a site on one of the silted channels of the Indus. It is about forty miles from Karachi and is easily accessible to the inhabitants of Karachi and the nearby major cities. It is archaeologically rich and worthy of interest. It is assumed that it is the site of Debul, where Mohammad bin Qasim landed in 712 A.D. He was the one who spread Islam in the sub-continent against the cruel Hindu rulers of that time at a very young age of 17.  

Q 5. Discuss the importance of the archaeological treasures that belong to the Moghul period.

Moghal period and its remnants have a distinctive sense of charisma that has the ability to attract anyone who has the taste for the priceless fortune of the past. The archeological treasures that belong to the Moghal period are of utmost significance not only for the citizens of Pakistan but for the people of the whole sub-continent too. It holds magnitude due to its comparative proximity of that dynasty to our own present time. Another reason that makes the archeological treasures of the Moghal period worthwhile is that their monuments, tombs, and mosques are astonishingly in a much better state as compared to any other treasures of the past time. These sites are easily accessible to everyone and are preserved in an improved condition to be admired and esteemed by all.  

Writing Assignment

Visit to an archaeological site is like travelling through that period of history. Which period of history represented by one of the archaeological sites mentioned in this essay would you like to visit if you were given a chance to travel through time-and why? Write an essay highlighting your imagined experiences.

Being a history lover, first of all, I would like to invent the machine that transports me into the past time period of our majestic Mughals. There are a number of reasons to justify my desire. The first and the foremost attraction for that time period is to experience the rich customs, culture, and tradition associated with Mughal dynasty. Secondly, the pomp and show of the Mughal emperors must be a worthwhile experience. I would like to cherish the moment of the emperors’ appearance in their royal courts. I want to see and experience the royal courts with my own eyes, where all the couturiers dressed lavishly in their appropriate costumes waiting to hear the fair verdict of the emperor against any case.
That’s not all; I would love to roam around in the well-maintained gardens surrounding the palaces of the Mughals with sparkling water fountains adding into the beauty of the lawns. The cool fresh breeze scented with the fragrance of flowers would make me feel relaxed and blissful.
Being a girl, one of my original attractions would be to observe the royal activities of the queens and princesses of the Mughal era. The way they used to beautify themselves with bedazzling jewelry adorned with precious gems and jewels. I would like to take pleasure in the delicate dance performances by the well-trained performers in the magnificent courts.
When taking a tour out of the palaces, I would love to see the intricate Mughal architecture in the form of buildings, mosques, and tombs as Mughal art and architecture is famous for their design and form.
Peace, justice, and honor that were the essential part of Mughal era would be witnessed by me as these things are not available nowadays.
The time period of Mughals was really an awesome period in the history of the sub-continent with all their grandeur and splendor and if given a chance I would love to step into the magnificent era of Mughals.  

Read more: English notes class 12th The School federal board Chapter #15


Name the various figures of speech in the following:

1) The more haste, the less speed.
2) I must be taught my duty, and by you!
3) Plead, Sleep, my cause and make her soft like thee.
4) Charity suffered long and is kind.
5) He makes no friend who never made a foe.
6) He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?
7) Let not ambition mock their useful toil.
8) To gossip is a fault, to libel, a crime; to slander, a sin.
9) Oh! What a noble mind is here overthrown.
10) Excess of ceremony shows want of breeding.
11) Why all this toil for triumphs of an hour?
12) Fools who came to scoff, remained to pray.
13) The Puritin had been rescued by a no common deliverer from the grasp of no common foe.
14) The cup that cheers but not inebriates.
15) You are a pretty fellow.
16) Hasten slowly.
17) Hail! Smiling morn.
18) Can two walk together, except they be agreed?
19) Curses are like chickens, they come home to roost.
20) A thousand years are as yesterday when it is past.
21) The prisoner was brought to the dock in irons.
22) We had nothing to do, and we did it very well.
23) Boys will be boys.
24) The cloister oped her pitying gage.
25) Lowliness is young Ambition’s ladder.
26) Language is the art of concealing thought.
27) Must I stand and crouch under your testy humour?
28) Exult, 0 shores, and ring, 0 bells!
29) He followed the letter but not the spirit of the law.
30) One truth is clear: whatever is, is right.
31) I came, I saw, I conquered.
32) Labour, wide as the earth, has its summit in heaven.
33) Just for a handful of silver, he left us.
34) They were swifter than eagles: they were stronger than lions.
35) Swiftly flies the feathered death.
36) It is a wise father that knows his own child.
37) Brave Macbeth, with his brandished steel, carved out his passage.
38) Sweet Thames! Run softly, till I end my song.
39) There is only one cure for the evils which newly acquired freedom produces and that cure is freedom.
40) Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain.
Where health and plenty cheered the labouring swain.
41) So spake the seraph abdiel faithful found.
Amongthefaithlessfaithful only he.
42) Youth is full of pleasure,
Age is full of care.
43) Like the dew on the mountain,
Like the foam on the river,
Like the bubble on the fountain,
Thou art gone and forever.
44) Can Honour’s voice provoke the silent dust,
Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?
45) Golden lads and girls all  must,
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust
46) Sweet are the uses of adversity,.
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous Wears still a precious jewel in its head.
47) The naked every day he clad When he put on his clothes.
48) 0 mischief, thou art swift
To enter in the thoughts of desperate men
49) Knowledge is proud that it knows so much Wisdom is humble that it knows no more
50) At once they rush’d
Together, as two eagles on one prey Come rushing down together from the clouds, One from east, one from west.
51) Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow,
He who would search for pearl’s must dive below.
52) The best way to learn a language is to speak it.
53) Scepter and crown Must tumble down
And in the dust be equal made
With the poor crooked scythe and spade
54) O! Solitude! Where are the charms That sages have seen in thy face?
55) I thought ten thousand swords must have leapt from their scabbards to avenge a look that threatened her with insult.
56) The soldier fights for glory, and a shilling a day.
57) His honour rooted in dishonour stood,
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.
58) They speak like saints and act like devils.
59) He was a learned man among lords and a lord among learned men.

1)   Antithesis
2)   Exclamation
3)   Climax
4)   Transferred epithet
5)   Oxymoron
6)   Interrogation
7)   Euphemism
8)   Hyperbole
9)   Exclamation
10) Oxymoron
11)  Interrogation
12)  Transferred epithet
13)  Hyperbole
14) Oxymoron
15) Litotes
16) Apostrophe
17) Hyperbole
18) Irony
19) Hyperbole
20) Euphemism
21) Hyperbole
22) Litotes
23) Synecdoche
24) Oxymoron
25) Anticlimax
26) Interrogation
27) Climax
28) Hyperbole
29) Antithesis
30) Climax
31) Hyperbole
32) Synecdoche
33) Hyperbole
34) Litotes
35) Oxymoron
36) Climax
37)  Apostrophe
38)  Hyperbole
39)  Irony
40)  Apostrophe
41)  Oxymoron
42)  Irony
43)  Interrogation
44)  Synecdoche
45)  Metonymy
46) Oxymoron
47) Anticlimax
48) Hyperbole
49) Synecdoche
50) Hyperbole
51) Climax
52) Litotes
53) Irony
54) Apostrophe
55) Hyperbole
56) Transferred epithet
57) Hyperbole
58) Climax
59) Oxymoron

The Renaissance Chapter #17

The Renaissance Chapter #17
The Renaissance Chapter #17

Q 1. Which civilization provided the inspiration for change?

A number of civilizations share the credit for bringing about the inspiration for change throughout the history of mankind. Among them, the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations lead all the others. After them, came the turn of the Muslims to hold the flag of learning and knowledge in their firm, intellectual hands. All over the world, East was already inspired for affirmative changes such as technological, political, economical etc. Those changes inspired the Christians to a great extent and in turn, the whole western world was also stimulated for all revolutionary changes. The above-mentioned civilizations were remarkably rich with respect to skillful personnel, explorers, artisans and scholars like Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Galileo, Columbus and other people like them who helped bring about constructive change in the life of the masses.

Q 2. When new ideas were discussed, what was challenged?

It was the end of the thirteen century when the Christians had lost their resistance against the Arab Muslims. At that time, the Christians took advantage of living with Arab Muslims through new ideas and innovations from affluent Muslim civilization. In this way, the Christians were able to bring such spectacular and novel ideas and luxury goods back to Europe. That was the genuine time when new ideas were discussed and a wide range of life aspects was challenged such as spiritual, religious, social, political, financial and educational.

Q 3. What was the basis for the success of Florence?

Florence was an incredible name in the history of the world with respect to its geographical location and success tale. There were many reasons or basis for the success of Florence. Among them, geographic position is of utmost importance as Florence connects north and south of Europe. It was the place well-known for its flourished trade that gained strength in no time. As the city prospers, it invited a number of learned and skilled people towards it. That’s not all; Florence being a flourished city was also responsible for the birth of thriving banks, affluent businesses, rich citizens, artisans, artists, scholars or intellectuals.

Q 4. Give some examples of why you think traders needed to be resourceful and creative.

There are certain terms and conditions required to be followed in almost every walk of life. Same is the case with traders. From a business point of view, traders need to be resourceful, brisk, creative and competitive. The foremost reason is that businessman should be courageous enough to take a risk and develops initiative in order to benefit from profit, like the traders of Florence. Traders should always try to engage their foot in new ventures for instance in the 1300s, the traders of Florence jumped into the business of silk, wool, and flax. In order to get profit in new business and trade, the successful traders have to invest money as the traders of Florence invested money in building the textile industry by taking the risk in the field.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #14

Q 5. Why did artists flourish in Florence?

Artists flourished in Florence to a great extent as Florence turned into a flourishing democracy in a short period of time. This prosperity unlocked the corridor to the traders, artists, creative minds and talented people to flock to the city to earn their livelihood in a better way. The traders of the city seemed to be competitive, creative as well as powerful as they were ready to accept any challenge or adopt new ideas to make capital. They participated well in the race not only to expand their businesses and let others down but in order to improve their lifestyle too.

Q 6. What stirred people’s interest in the world beyond their own lands?

People of Florence were busy in their own lives to such an extent that they had no idea what lies beyond their own village in the outer world. Even they didn’t demonstrate any urge to find the hidden truths of nature on the other side of the borders of Florence. Marco Polo, a name that should be credited for bringing about change in thoughts and exposure into the lives of the inhabitants of Italy through his travel experience. He, being an explorer of the late thirteenth century made an extensive visit to China and gained insight knowledge about the culture, customs, and traditions of Chinese people. He was the one who shared his experience and tale of adventures in China with the citizens of his city and that stirred the people’s interest in the world beyond their own lands.

Q 7. How did humanism begin in Europe and what was its impact on art and architecture?

Marco Polo and other explorers motivated people to learn about different cultures, customs, flora and fauna of the world. Trade and journeying around encouraged learning. It was the time when people had a desire to get an education by spending their leisure time and money. The learned people of that time began translating manuscripts from the ancient world, revealing the truths and new areas of thoughts behind the curtain about politics, religion, science, and art. This was considered the beginning of humanism in Europe – an interest in the world and people, the desire to know more. Humanism had a huge impact on the art and architecture of that time. Before humanism, castles and manors were built for the purpose of protection but then they were built for comfort and beauty. Churches were decorated lavishly. Masons and craftspeople were told what to create. This gave a sense of creativity and arouses artistic aptitude of the people that’s why people started thinking on the solid ground of comfort and luxury to enrich their lives thus creating an impact on art and architecture of Europe.

Q 8. What made the world open up for the people of Florence?

The world made opened up for the people of Florence because of education and with the invention of printing press by Johann Gutenberg. Before that, it was quite an expensive and time-consuming task to write a book, especially in people’s own languages. This motivated more and more people to learn how to read and write effectively and efficiently. Due to the printing press, the books became cheaper and this paved a smooth path for the masses to adopt new ideas and learn new things to improve their lifestyle. In this way, the ideas spread rapidly to every nook and corner of the learned state.

Once Upon a Time Chapter #18

Once Upon a Time Chapter #18
Once Upon a Time Chapter #18

This poem is a beautiful comparison of what used to be like in the old days and what it is like now. The title clearly indicates that it is about the past.

The first three stanzas compare a way of life, a custom, or behaviour from the past with those of the present:
• The first stanza compares how people laughed in the past and how they laugh now. What is the difference?
• The second stanza tells us how people shook hands then and how they do now. What is the difference?
• The third stanza talks about the ever welcoming nature of the people of the past with a less welcoming behaviour of present people.
The next two stanzas are about what the poet has learnt:
• In the fourth stanza, the poet tells us he has learned the ways of the present day people, that is, to wear different faces on different occasions to deceive others. What does ‘wearing different faces’ mean?
• In the fifth stanza, the poet says that his greetings don’t mean what they should mean. In the last two stanzas, the poet wishes to be what he used to be:
• In the sixth stanza, the poet wishes to be what he was like before, once upon a time.
• In the last stanza, he asks his son to help him become what he used to be, to show him how to laugh, etc.

(Note: It is just a short explanation of the poem stanza by stanza.)

Q 2. Why is the poet addressing his son throughout? What is its significance?

The poet is addressing to his son throughout the poem because he wants to tell him exactly how people use to behave in the past and how their attitudes have changed in the present times. Basically, he wants to address to all his readers and tell the difference between past and the present. The poet’s address is significant because he wants to take help from his son in getting back his past joys.  

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #13


Now that you have understood the poem, write a paraphrase/explanation of the poem in your own words.

The poem written by Gabriel Okara has a common but unique theme in which a sharp contrast is evident between the behavior, attitude, and activities of the people living in the past time and the one living in the present. It is absolutely a thought-provoking poetry in which a father is talking to his son, throwing light on the past and present way of life as well as giving him advice too.

Stanza 1:
In the first stanza of the poem, the poet portraying himself as a father of a son is sorrowfully giving an explanation that how people used to greet one another in the olden days. He is of the opinion that yes, “Old is gold.” He is remembering the time when people used to laugh with their genuine hearts. They reflect true love, respect, and affection towards one another. When they laugh, their eyes used to shine just like sparkling water of the streams or the twinkling stars on a clear sky. Their heart and soul were free from any evil thoughts. But nowadays, the people use to laugh with their teeth, meaning that they are no more friendly with one another. They have fake interests and have no desire to treat others on the basis of honesty and truthfulness. He says that people use to glance at each other with ice-block cold eyes reflecting their cold, emotionless, devoid of feelings attitude.

Stanza 2:
The second stanza is again base on the foundation of meeting and greeting. The poet says that when people met each other in the past they used to shake their hands with such tenderness and warmth that it seemed that they were not only shaking their hands but were exchanging their hearts with one another too. With a heavy heart, he says to his son that Ah! Those lovely days are gone and they are no more to be experienced and cherished. Now, people use to shake their hands without their hearts with any genuine intentions to welcome others energetically. They are just focusing more and more on their personal gains keeping aside the matter of humanity and trust. Everyone is running after his own dreams, goals, and desires. The phrase “empty pockets” means that he has been stripped of all genuine happiness and has been left feeling empty and alone.

Stanza 3:
In the next stanza, the poet is talking about the hospitality which people of the past used to show towards one another. They always use to welcome their guests with open arms and wished that their guests would visit them twice or thrice again. But the people of this generation are having a word battle just to show their fake affection. If anyone gives a chance to someone to be his host, that person welcomes him once or twice or thrice and then shuts the door for him as to give a message of “no more visits.”  

Stanza 4:
In the fourth stanza, the father admits to his son that he himself learned quite well how to live a life according to present customs and traditions so to amalgamate with the deceased souls of the time. He further clarifies that people use to wear different masks on their faces according to occasion and need of the hour. He gives names to such masks as a home face, office face, street face, host face etc. Whenever the present people want to smile they smile just like a fixed portrait smile devoid of feelings and emotions in order to swindle others. He has had to fit in and now he too has the talent to put on various facades, he behaves exactly as he is supposed to act or behave under various circumstances according to the situation and existing scenario.

Stanza 5:
Coming towards the fifth stanza, the father is lamenting on his behavior that how he himself involved in such activities that always irritates him in the past but just to present himself a dynamic member of the society he has to do all that. He swiftly but reluctantly learned how to use fake expressions and phrases just to trick others and make them smile. He learned well how to laugh only with his teeth and shake hands without heart. He has also learnt how to say goodbye instead of good-riddance. He says that people are used to of using such words or phrases that make others glad but in reality they mean the opposite like ‘glad to meet you’, although now people hardly feel real gladness on meeting one another. Similarly, when people have to leave from any gathering, event or party they use to say ‘it’s been nice talking to you’, although they felt quite bored at the occasion.  

Stanza 6:
In the sixth stanza, the poet just wants to have a time-machine that rolls him back into his past when he used to be as innocent as his son. He has a desire to behave in the same truthful, sincere manner as he used to act in olden times. He wants to do a little barter trade with the present times’ hypocrisy from the past days’ innocence and sincerity, love, and devotion, merriness and satisfaction, closeness and warmth in relationships. He strongly wants to relearn all the things that he has forgotten or those washed away by the strong gusts of time in order to live a simple, contented life again and forever.

Stanza 7:
In the last stanza, the father appeals his son to tell him the way how he is living his life with virtuousness and sincerity. He also wants to express his genuine and true emotions to everyone without the touch of hoax or deception.  He wants to laugh and smile the same way as he used to do in the past when he was as naive as his son.

Exercise 1

Name the Verbs in the following sentences, and tell whether they are in the Active or in the Passive Voice.

1) The cat killed the mouse.
2) We compelled the enemy to surrender.
3} The boy was bitten by a dog.
4) The thief was caught.
5) The boy made a kite.
6) The house was burned.
7) The young man made a disturbance at the meeting.
8) The captive was bound to a tree.
9) The bird was killed by a cruel boy.
10) The sudden noise frightened the horse.
11) He is loved by all
12) The exhibition was opened by the Governor.
13) I see a dark cloud.
14) His command was promptly obeyed.
15) Some of the cargo had been damaged by the sea water.
16) Nothing will be gained by hurry.
17) The dog chased the sheep.
18) This letter was posted last night.
19) The field is ploughed.
20) The dog was teased by the boy.
21) The cat drank all the milk.
22) A stone struck me on the head.
23) The old gentleman takes snuff.
24) The money was lost.
25) The letter has just been posted.

1) The cat killed the mouse.                                         (Active Voice)
2) We compelled the enemy to surrender.                   (Active Voice)
3) The boy was bitten by a dog.                                    (Passive Voice)
4) The thief was caught.                                               (Passive Voice)
5) The boy made a kite.                                                (Active Voice)
6) The house was burned.                                            (Passive Voice)
7) The young man made a disturbance at the meeting.    (Active Voice)
8) The captive was bound to a tree.                                 (Passive Voice)
9) The bird was killed by a cruel boy.                              (Passive Voice)
10) The sudden noise frightened the horse.                    (Active Voice)
11) He is loved by all.                                                         (Passive Voice)
12) The exhibition was opened by the Governor.             (Passive Voice)
13) I see a dark cloud.                                                        (Active Voice)
14) His command was promptly obeyed.                         (Passive Voice)
15) Some of the cargo had been damaged by the sea water.   (Passive Voice)
16) Nothing will be gained by hurry.                                 (Passive Voice)
17) The dog chased the sheep.                                             (Active Voice)
18) This letter was posted last night.                                  (Passive Voice)
19) The field is ploughed.                                                  (Passive Voice)
20) The dog was teased by the boy.                                  (Passive Voice)
21) The cat drank all the milk.                                            (Active Voice)
22) A stone struck me on the head.                                    (Active Voice)
23) The old gentleman takes snuff.                                      (Active Voice)
24) The money was lost.                                                     (Passive Voice)
25) The letter has just been posted.                                      (Passive Voice)

Exercise 2

Turn the following sentences from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice.

1) The cat killed the mouse.
2) The man cut down the tree.
3) Columbus discovered America.
4) His teacher praised him.
5) The boy teased the dog.
6) The syce feeds the horse every day.
7) The police arrested him.
8) Rana was making a kite.
9) The boy caught the ball.
10) My father will write a letter.
11) I will conquer him.
12) He kept me waiting.
13) The hunter shot the lion.
14) Haris opened the door.
15) A policeman caught the thief.
16) Sohrab threw the ball.
17) He scored twenty runs.
18) Your behaviour vexes me.
19) Manners reveal character.
20) He made a very remarkable discovery.
21) Little strokes tell great oaks.
22) David will bring the pony.
23) Everyone loves him.
24) My cousin has drawn this picture.
25) We  expect good news.
26) The farmer gathers the harvest.
27) His own brother swindled him.
28) The recitation pleased the inspector.
29) Somebody has put out the light.
30) The enemy has defeated our army.
31) They sell radios here.
32) I have sold my bicycle.
33) People will soon forget it.
34) He opened the theatre only last month.
35) We prohibit smoking.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #12

1) The mouse was killed by the cat.
2) The tree was cut down by the man.
3) America was discovered by Columbus.
4) He was praised by his teacher.
5) The dog was teased by the boy.
6) Every day the horse is fed by the syce.
7) He was arrested by the police.
8) A kite was made by Rana.
9) The ball was caught by the boy.
10) A letter was written by my father.
11) He will be conquered by me.
12) He kept me waiting.
13) The lion was shot by the hunter.
14) The door was opened by Harris.
15) The thief was caught by the policeman.
16) The ball was thrown by Sohrab.
17) Twenty runs were scored by him.
18) I am vexed by your behavior.
19) Character is revealed by manners.
20) A very remarkable discovery was made by him.
21) Great oaks are told by little strokes.
22) The pony will be brought by David.
23) He is loved by everyone.
24) This picture has been drawn by my cousin.
25) Good news was expected by us.
26) The harvest was gathered by the farmer.
27) He was swindled by his own brothers.
28) The inspector was pleased by the recitation.
29) The light was put out by somebody.
30) Our army was defeated by the enemy.
31) Here the radios are sold by them.
32) My bicycle have been sold by me.
33) It will soon be forgotten by the people.
34) Only last month the theatre was opened by him.
35) Smoking is prohibited by us.

Exercise 3

Change the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Passive Voice.

1) We saw you and him.
2) They asked me my name.
3) We refuse them admission.
4) I bought the baby a doll.
5) They found him guilty of murder.
6) A thunderstorm often turns milk sour.
7) You cannot pump the ocean dry.
8) They saw the storm approaching.
9) He keeps me waiting.
10) They painted the house red.
11) He told me to leave the room.
12) He promised me a present.
13) I shall order the carriage.
14) The boy is climbing the cliff.
15) One may accomplish many things by a little effort.
16) I am watching you very carefully. 

1) You and he were seen by us.
2) I was asked by them for my name.
3) They were refused admission.
4) A doll was bought to the baby.
5) He was found guilty of murder by them.
6) Milk is often turned turn sour by a thunderstorm.
7) The ocean cannot be pumped dry.
8) The storm was seen by them approaching.
9) I am kept waiting by him.
10) The house was painted red by them.
11) I was told to leave the room by him.
12) I was promised a present by him.
13) The carriage shall be ordered by me.
14) The cliff is being climbed up by the boy.
15) Many things may be accomplished by a little effort.
16) You are being watched by me very carefully.

Exercise 4

Rewrite the following sentences so that the Verbs will be in the Active Voice.

1) He was praised by his father.
2) The first railway was built by- George Stephenson.
3) The horse was frightened by the noise.
4) Not a word was spoken by Latif.
5) The teacher was pleased with the boy’ s work.
6) He was taken to the hospital by his friend.
7) The town was destroyed by an earthquake.
8) The road was lined with people.
9) The president was welcomed by the people.
10) Shakuntala was written by Kalidas.
11) The building was damaged by the fire.
12) I was struck by his singular appearance.
13) The French fleet was defeated by Nelson.
14) The streets were thronged with spectators.
15) The trees were blown down by the wind.
16) We shall be blamed by everyone.
17) The child was knocked down by a car.
18) Alice was not much surprised at this.
19) He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #11

1) His father praised him.
2) George Stephenson built the first railway.
3) The noise frightened the horse.
4) Latif didn’t speak a word.
5) The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
6) His friend took him to the hospital.
7) An earthquake destroyed the town.
8) The people lined by the road.
9) The people welcomed the president.
10) Kalidas wrote Shakuntala.
11) The fire damaged the building.
12) His singular appearance struck me.
13) Nelson defeated the French fleet.
14) Spectators thronged the streets.
15) The wind blew down the trees.
16) Everyone blamed us.
17) A car knocked down the child.
18) This didn’t surprise Alice.
19) His selection will make him greatly surprised.

Exercise 5

Write three sentences with the Verbs in the Active Voice, and rewrite them with the Verb in the Passive Voice.

1) The hunter killed the tiger. (Active)
    The tiger was killed by the hunter. (Passive)

2) We are going to watch a movie tonight. (Active)
     A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (Passive)

3) Who ate the last biscuit? (Active)
    By whom was the last biscuit eaten? (Passive)

Exercise 6

In the following sentences change the Voice.

1) We elected Balu captain.
2) I saw him opening the box.
3) We must listen to his word.
4) Shall I ever forget those happy days?
5) By whom was this jug broken?
6) His subordinates accused him of various offenses.
7) One cannot gather grapes from thistles.
8) The telegraph wires have been cut.
9) Alas! We shall hear his voice no more.
10) The French surrendered Quebec to the English in 1759.
11) Without effort nothing can be gained.
12) Do not insult the weak.
13) All desire wealth and some acquire it.
14) Why should I be suspected by you?
15) Subject him to a severe examination.
16) The legend tells us how the castle received its name.
17) My watch was lost.
18) Why did he defraud you or your earning?
19) The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
20) He made his wife do the work.
21) The master appointed him monitor.
22) The doctor despaired of his recovery.
23) He was refused admittance.
24) They laughed at his warnings and objected to all his proposals.
25) The people regarded him as an impostor and called him a villain.

1) Balu captain was elected by us.
2) The box was opened by him and seen by me.
3) His word must be listened to by us.
4) Shall those happy days ever be forgotten by me?                  
5) Who broke this jug.
6) He was accused of various offenses.
7) Grapes cannot be gathered by someone from thistles.
8) Someone has cut telegraph lines.
9) Alas! His voice will never be listened by us anymore.
10) Quebec was surrendered by the French to the English in 1759.
11) One can gain nothing without effort.
12) Let the weak not be insulted.
13) Wealth is desired by all and it is acquired by some.
14) Why should you suspect me?
15) Let he be subjected to severe examination.
16) We are told by the legends how its name was received by the castle.
17) I lost my watch.
18) Why were you or your earning were defrauded by him?
19) It will be learnt by the public with astonishment that war is imminent.
20) His wife was made to do the work by him.
21) He was appointed as monitor by the master.
22) His recovery was despaired off the doctor.
23) Admittance was refused to him.
24) His warnings were laughed at by them and his proposals were objected.
25) He was regarded as an imposter and villain by the people.

The Merchant of Venice Chapter #19

Q 1. Who was Shylock and where did he live?

 Shylock was the shrewd Jew who lived in Venice, one of the famous cities of Italy. By profession, he was a usurer who had accumulated his wealth just by lending money to the Christian merchants at great interest. Due to his dishonest and treacherous nature, he was not in the good books of the people in Venice, especially in the merchants’ community.

Q 2. Who was Anthonio. Why did he hate Shylock?

Anthonio was the young, passionate and kind-hearted merchant of the city of Venice. He used to lend money to people who were in miserable condition and need financial help. The best part of Anthonio line of work was that he never used to take interest for the money he lent to the people.  Due to Anthonio’s generosity and kindness, he was loved and admired by a large number of people who directly or indirectly be benefitted from his courtesies.  
He hated Shylock as he knew it quite well that Shylock used to take a huge amount from the people to whom he lends money in the name of interest. Therefore, in this way, Shylock took advantage from the gloomy condition of already depressed souls of Venice making it hard for them to survive and thus deliberately turning their lives on the path of sadness and depression for a long run.

Q 3. How did Anthonio help the needy in Venice?

Being a compassionate and soft nature soul, Anthonio always tried his level best to cater to the requirements of the needy people of the society. Whenever someone was in need of money, Anthonio lent that person the money without any interest and that gave a sense of relaxation to the needy people as they just had to return the amount which they had taken from Anthonio and not anymore.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #10

Q 4. Who was Bassanio and why did he need money?

Anthonio had a list of acquaintances and well-wishers due to his kindness and honesty. Bassanio was the one who was nearest and dearest to Anthonio’s heart. Bassanio was a noble Venetian who loved to live a luxurious life although he had no solid means to earn his livelihood. That’s why on and off he asked Anthonio to lend him money for his expensive survival. At that time, it was the customary practice of the young men of high rank but a small fortune to live a life full of lavishness.
One day, Bassanio visited Anthonio and asked him to lend money, not for the sole purpose of his lavish survival but to present him as a wealthy and influential person in order to marry the daughter of a wealthy father who had died leaving behind all his fortune to his daughter.  He asked Anthonio to lend him three thousand ducats to furnish Bassanio as a rich and perfect suitor to that affluent lady.

Q 5. Why did Anthonio and Bassanio go to Shylock, the Jew?

After listening to the demand made by Bassanio, all of a sudden a sad expression made its appearance on Anthonio’s face as he was not in a position to pay Bassanio such a huge amount at that time. At the bottom of his heart, Anthonio wanted to help his friend by any means. So, he found the solution of Bassanio’s problem and decided to go to Shylock, the shrewd Jew usurer and asked him to lend them the desired money.
Both of them went to Shylock and presented their demand, Anthonio asked Shylock to lend them three thousand ducats and offered him any interest he wants from the merchandise contained in Anthonio’s ships on their arrival to the port of Venice.

Q 6. Why did Shylock lend money to Anthonio?

Although there existed a silent rivalry between the two usurers of Venice named Shylock and Anthonio, still on asking Shylock decided to give Anthonio the amount demanded without even taking any interest on it. This was not due to the generosity shown by Shylock but his hidden agenda was to teach Anthonio a lesson how to treat Jews and to snatch each and everything from him including a pound of flesh from any part of Anthonio’s body. He made a plan to obliterate the image of Anthonio in the eyes of his well-wishers too.

Q 7. Who was Nerissa and whom did she marry?

Nerissa was the loyal maid of Portia. She was a faithful maid as she assisted Portia later in the play at the court. When Portia and Bassanio made a promise to marry each other, Nerissa and Gratiano, the devoted servant of Bassanio also being in love promised to live for each other’s sake and would like to marry on the same day and time when their masters would marry and tie each other in the strong bond of love, care and affection as soon as possible.

Q 8. What was the condition of the bond?

Before lending the money to Anthonio, Shylock insisted to have a bond signed by Anthonio. Thus, a bond was made between Shylock and Anthonio. According to the terms and conditions of the bond, Anthonio had to return three thousand ducats to Shylock in the time period of three months and if Anthonio proved inefficient to abide by the rule, Shylock would have the authority to cut a pound of flesh from wherever he wished to from Anthonio’s body as a forfeit.  Although, it seemed quite a pitiless bond to be undertaken but still Anthonio signed it just for the sake of his best friend Bassanio.

Q 9. Who was Portia and whom did she marry?

Portia was a wealthy heiress who lived near Venice, at a place called Belmont. She was as graceful in his appearance and character, wit and intellect that she was equal to Cato’s daughter and the wife of Brutus. She wished to marry Bassanio who was Anthonio’s dearest friend. As Bassanio inspired Portia to a great extent, she at the spot gave the verdict in favor of Bassanio as a perfect suit for her.  

Q 10. Why did Shylock refuse to take back the money he lent to Anthonio?

When Bassanio offered Shylock the money, he having malicious thoughts against Anthonio; refused to take the money he lent to Anthonio. In reality, he wanted to take revenge from him in order to teach him a lesson so next time he would not say humiliating words or insult him in any way.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #9

Q 11. What role did Portia play in the court?

When Portia heard about the ill fate of Anthonio from the mouth of Bassanio, she decided to help out his husband’s friend by playing her due role. Portia lent a hand from one of her friend who was a lawyer. He advised her some tips on how to tackle the issue of Anthonio in a successful way. She then went to the court by displaying herself as a young counselor in the appropriate apparel. She triumphantly defended the case of Anthonio and defeated Shylock badly. In this way, Portia played her role as a counselor quite well.

Q 12. How was Anthonio’s life saved?

Portia with her intellect and God gifted power to handle the issues quite sensibly saved the life of her husband’s dear friend Anthonio in an astonishing manner. She defended the case through logical reasoning and intellectual remarks and statements. When Shylock was not convinced with the rationality of the young counselor to simply take the money and let Anthonio’s life spared. Portia in the disguise of a counselor allowed Shylock to cut a pound of flesh from Anthonio’s body near the heart. This gave an immense sense of pleasure to Shylock but as he was about to carry out his brutal task by sharpening his long knife, the counselor just stopped him by saying that according to the bond you have a right to take a pound of flesh from Anthonio’s body but not a single drop of blood should fall to the ground. If this happened then Shylock had to face severe consequences for his act. As it seemed an impossible task to cut flesh without dropping the blood, that was the time when Shylock made a decision to take his money from Bassanio and throw the idea of taking Anthonio’s life from his mind.

Q 13. Was, in your opinion, the verdict of the court just and fair?

Yes, the verdict of the court was just and fair at the end in order to let down Shylock along with his evil intentions and merciless character. It was the right decision to be taken at the right time, as Shylock was not in a mood to spare the life a kind, honest Christian merchant just to satisfy his hunger for money and jealousy from the trustworthy character of Anthonio.

King Lear Chapter # 20

Q 1. How many daughters king Lear had. What were their names?

One of the renowned kings of Britain named King Lear was blessed with three daughters. Gonerill was the eldest one who was married to the Duke of Albany. Regan was at the second or middle place and was the wife of Cornwall. The youngest one was the most intelligent and loyal one Cordelia for whom the proposals of the king of France and Duke of Burgundy were waiting and staying at King’s court to hear her verdict in favor of any one of these.

Q 2. What did the old king decide to do before his death?

King Lear was blessed with long life by God as he was more than fourscore years old. Being a king, he had to look after all the government affairs and management responsibilities keenly and thoroughly. He was performing his duty as the sovereign of his land quite well but that made him worn out and weary. The old king knew it very well that soon his time to depart from this world would come and he had to leave all his wealth, property and fortune to her daughters as he had no son. So, he decided to choose any one of his daughters to endow his throne to be taken care of after his demise.  He called his daughters one by one and asked them to justify the question logically and persuasively as to what extent they love their old father i.e. the king of the land.

Read more: English notes class 12th federal board Chapter #8

Q 3. How did the king test the love and loyalty of his daughters?

In order to retire from his tiresome responsibility of ruling a vast kingdom from youth to such a ripe old age, King Lear decided to part his fortune, wealth and kingdom among three of his daughters according to their love and affection which they would show towards him. The king tested the love and loyalty of his daughters by asking them a very simple but critical question about the extent of love which they behold in their chests for him as their father, not as a king.

Q 4. Why did the king disinherit Cordelia?

Both the elder daughters of king Gonerill and Regan flattered him with their flowery conversation and false justification of their love, transported King Lear into the realm of another world, he was flying high in the air. When it was the turn of Cordelia, the dearest daughter of the king to show and symbolize her love and affection towards her father through words or actions, it disappointed the king to a great extent. Whatever Cordelia said was unbelievable to listen and bear for the king. Cordelia neither used any gratifying declaration nor any long fake speech to satisfy her father. She told King Lear that she loved him from the core of her heart and respects him too but unlike her sisters, it was impossible for her to give all her love to her father as after marriage half of the love must be the right of her husband. According to her, this was the fair and just game of love which she had to play to make her father as well as her husband happy and satisfied. This put King Lear into a rage and he by losing all his senses declared that he disinherited Cordelia from all his property, fortune and kingdom as a punishment for showing such a meager love towards him.  

Q 5. How did Gonerill and Regan treat that old king,their father?

Gonerill and Regan became delighted after each taking one-third of their father’s property and kingdom. Both of them turned selfish towards their father. When it was Gonerill turn to keep King Lear with her in the castle, she started showing the disgusting attitude towards him. According to her, he seemed to be a burden on their expense as King wanted a hundred knights to be all alert for him. Gonerill on and off threw cold looks at the old king that gave a very agitated feeling to King Lear and irritated him too. He decided to move to his another daughter Regan to spend the rest of her days peacefully over there. When he entered the palace of Regan and her husband, their servants said that the masters were tired due to travelling that’s why unable to welcome him. On the strict orders of the King, both of them appeared before the King but along with them came Gonerill too and that surprised the king. Gonerill put all her efforts to make Regan against her father and succeeded too. As Regan also gave harsh look to the old king and treated him quite badly and asked him to go back to Gonerill’s palace and live there with less number of his devoted knights.

Q 6. What role did the Earl of Kent, Caius play in the play, king Lear?

The Earl of Kent was a trustworthy and faithful servant of the king. He played his due role throughout the play. When King Lear announced that he would disinherit Cordelia from all his wealth and fortune, the Earl of Kent tried his level best to convince the king to give a second thought to his decision, but the king didn’t listen to him. Rather than the king gave orders for the banishment of Earl of Kent from the land of Britain. When the king went to Gonerill’s palace to live with them, being an honest person the Earl of Kent disguised himself in order to assist and stay close to his master so to provide him maximum security and comfort. He introduced himself as Caius to the king and said that he is an ordinary man. The Earl of Kent taught a ruthless lesson to the steward of Gonerill on showing the cold-blooded attitude towards the old king.
When the king left the palace of Regan after being humiliated, he started his journey on a stormy night towards the unseen destination; at that time too the Earl of Kent Caius stopped the king for taking such a weird step.  He was such an honest person that he refused the offer of the Duke of Albany to rule the kingdom with Edgar. He rejected it by saying that with the death of his master, he considered himself a lifeless person too as his sole job on this earth was to serve the king.

Q 7. How did Cordelia take care of her father in his last days?

Cordelia even after being disinherited from his father in the beginning still played the role of a caring, affectionate daughter as the play further moved on. When Gonerill and Regan mistreated their father with their cold attitude and disrespectful behavior, the old king became so distressed, disheartened and disappointed that he left the palace of Regan and moved into the wilderness. After roaming into desolateness, he lost his sense and started behaving like an insane. This made the Earl of Kent gloomy so he managed to take him to his dear youngest daughter Cordelia. On seeing her father in such a pitiable and miserable condition, she called the best of the best physicians of her French kingdom and asked them to give extraordinary treatment to his father to bring him to a sensible life again. She even offered all her gold and jewels to that physician who proved himself in recovering her beloved father back to the life of a normal person. When the king recovered from his lunacy, Cordelia asked for forgiveness from her father and kissed him to show her true love, compassion, and warmth.

Q 8. Who was Edmund and whom he wanted to marry?

Edmund was the natural son of the late Earl of Gloucester. He was a shrewd individual that why he became successful in disinheriting his brother Edgar, the lawful heir from his earldom. Edmund became earl himself due to his sinful plots and actions. Due to his spiteful nature and evil characteristics traits, he was a perfect suit either to Gonerill or Regan as they both were as wicked and shrewd as Edmund.

Q 9. Why did Gonerill decide to kill Regan by poison?

After the death of her husband the Duke of Cornwall, Regan showed her intentions to marry the Earl of Gloucester. This made Gonerill jealous of Regan’s proceedings to snatch earl from her. Gonerill’s envy from her sister grew wild to such an extent that she decided to take the life of her dear sister and kill Regan by giving her poison.

Q 10. Why did Gonerill put an end to her life?

Being jealous of her sister Regan, Gonerill made an evil plot in order to get rid of Regan who showed her desire to marry earl of Gloucester after her husband’s death. Gonerill decided to take her sister’s life with the help of poison. Her wicked plan was sensed by her husband so he imprisoned her for her cruel thoughts and action and her hidden love and passion for the earl that was not at all acceptable by the Duke of Albany. The punishment and imprisonment given to Gonerill by her husband and failure to get her love, Gonerill lost her senses and in wrath put an end to her life with her own dear hands.  

Q 11. Who ascended the throne of Britain after the death of King Lear?

After the death of King Lear and his three daughters, it was a difficult task to select the appropriate one to ascend the throne of Britain. The Duke of Albany, the husband of Gonerill being guiltless in all his acts and not involved in the murder of Cordelia, was always against the wicked attitude of his wife towards her father. He never motivated his wife to show ingratitude, malice and cold behavior towards King Lear, her father. It was due to his kind nature, innocent acts and true spirit that he ascended the throne of Britain and run it as successfully as King Lear.

Q 12. How should old parents be treated specially in their old age?

Parents are one of the greatest blessings of Allah Almighty. They strive really hard throughout their lives to provide ease and comfort to their children. They are not only responsible for their food and clothing but have the duty to provide them with a good education in order to make them civilized members of society. Therefore, when parents turn old after fulfilling all their duties and responsibilities sincerely, it comes the turn of their children to fulfill all their needs and requirements wholly and obediently.
Parents upon reaching their ripe old age should be treated with love, care, kindness, affection, humbleness, and devotion. Kindness towards parents holds the first place in the gentle treatment of the old parents. Hazrat Ibn Abbas narrates the following Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

“Dutiful and good-natured children who cast one loving and affectionate look at their parents, receive from The Almighty blessing equivalent to one approved Hajj (pilgrimage).”  (Muslim)
It is not less than sin for the children who disrespect their parents at old age, shout at them and think them as a useless thing at their homes devoid of emotions, feelings or sensible thoughts. As it is said in the Holy Quran:
“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour.”
Children should show mercy towards their old parents and consider it their duty to obey, respect and honour them. Parents should be given free hand to participate in all the important affairs of the house. They should not feel outcast in the four walls of their own home.
We as children should not forget the times when we were so young to talk or convey our messages, tumble while taking little steps, unable to clean our face, satisfy our hunger or feed ourselves, that was the time when parents hold our hands with tender love and made us learn various activities that always help us out in our future lives. It is there in the Quran that:
“And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was small.’
If old parents become sick, ill or injured, it is the duty of their children to take care of them with heart, soul, and money too.
In a nutshell, it is evident that parents are not a burden on their children but are a means towards Heaven or Hell. If children treat them with respect, love, and kindness, they would definitely go to Heaven as their parents pray to Allah for their success in this world and hereafter too. On the other hand, the children who disrespect their old parents and treat them badly have to bear the horrific fire of the H

Q 13. “Greed is the root of all evils” does this maxim apply to Gonerill and Regan, the daughters of King Lear?

Yes, the maxim “Greed is the root of all evils” applies to Gonerill and Regan in its true sense. It was their greed, lust, and avarice that made them cold-blooded towards their father who trusted them more than his dear daughter Cordelia. Their evil minds and wicked plans to snatch each and everything not only from their father but from Cordelia too forced them to face the irony of fate.

Both of them disrespected their father, Gonerill turned disloyal towards her husband and Regan too right after the death of her husband showed her utmost desire to marry Earl of Gloucester just to become richer than her other two sisters. That’s not all, yes it is the greed of power, wealth and fortune that parted the two loving souls of the sisters and so Gonerill tried to perform the evil, cunning and merciless act to kill her sister Regan by giving her prison to get rid of her. She knew it well that her death paved her path towards her marriage with the Earl of Gloucester. But the Duke of Albany sensed her evil thoughts and imprisoned her for showing unfaithfulness towards him and that forced Gonerill to take her own life.

Q 14. How was Cordelia rewarded for her innocent nature?

After the demise of Gonerill and Regan, it became evident that all the kingdom, wealth and fortune that King Lear left behind would definitely go to Cordelia being the only survived soul of the legacy. But it was not acceptable to the Earl of Gloucester who had evil desires to hold the king’s throne. In order to get rid of Cordelia, he put her in prison for the rest of her life. Heaven didn’t want to see such an innocent soul bearing injustice, torture and misery took her to itself in her blooming youth. In this way, Cordelia a name of honesty, trust, truthfulness, sympathy, and compassion was rewarded for her innocent nature.

Q 15. How can we lead a life free of greed and avarice?

Life, as we all know, is given to us for once from Allah Almighty. To live a life according to principles of Islam and sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW) is of utmost importance as only it would benefit a man on the Day of Judgment. But Alas! People are focusing more on the matters of this life as compared to the life hereafter. It is quite a difficult task to lead a life free from greed and avarice in today’s materialistic lifestyle. People are running after making more and more money. That’s not all; they have a lust not only to get money but to accumulate it as much as possible for their future use. Although it seems an intricate task to carry out but not at all an impossible one to achieve and lead a contented life in both the worlds. Here are some suggestions which if carried out with honesty and truthfulness must give birth to a simple, greed free, contented life:

The first and the foremost need of the hour is to get in-depth knowledge about the lifestyle of our beloved Holy Prophet (SAW) and other prophets or Caliphs so to know how they led their lives according to the principles of Islam. Islam does not say that one should live a simple life to the extent that it goes back to Stone Age, rather it only stresses on having a modest life so that the greed and lust of getting more and more may not make one to forget about its real life, i.e. hereafter. A Muslim should be reasonable and just in every matter of life, like in one`s dressing, behavior, keeping and building nice relationships with family members and relatives, and in overall society etc. When one has understood the basic theme behind adopting self-control in life, it would eventually lead to a life free from greed and avarice.
Treatment of Greed according to Imam Jafar Sadiq (AS), “I guarantee for the moderate that he will not see poverty.”
Amir al-Momineen (AS) said: “Greed is the key to the trouble and carries man to hardship. It causes him to commit sin.”
Secondly, we should learn how to be thankful to Allah for all his blessings which He has given to us neglecting our sins, crimes, and dishonesty. If Allah does not give you anything that you wants in your life or any comfort that others are enjoying but you don’t, then always try to throw that comfort or luxury out of your mind as soon as possible by showing strong faith on Allah Almighty and His will.
Therefore, it must be said that to live a life free from greed or avarice just depend on the will power of an individual and his strong belief on Allah Almighty that whatever he has given to him or not given to him is in the best interest of that individual.

Q 16. Write a story to illustrate that “Greed is a curse”.

                                Title: “Greedy fisherman met his ill destiny”
A long time ago, there lived a fisherman named Shaukat near the coast of River Indus in the province of Sindh. He was a middle-aged thin individual with a thick curved moustache and black beard. He was neither tall nor short. He used to wear a big floral turban on his head to protect him from the sun throughout the hot days of summers. He lived with his wife and a six years old son in a small cottage made of bamboo sticks. He was in this business of fishery since his childhood as his forefathers also had the same profession to earn their livelihood. It was his routine ritual to woke up early in the morning, offer his prayers, take his breakfast that was a simple bread with a spoonful of homemade butter along with a hot delicious cup of cardamom tea. He was satisfied with his life.
Some years back, his father on his death bed revealed a secret to him that the river is quite rich with delicious abundant fish in the middle. But he advised him never ever dare to go to the middle of the river especially towards the west as there reside some dangerous, man-eater sharks too. He made a promise to his father that he would never go to that side of the river.

 One day, he was sitting quite depressed. On asking, he said to his wife Salma that he had a desire to see their son going to school and getting the education for his better future. He added by saying alas! We are not that much rich to afford schooling of our son. Salma said that don’t worry and have faith in Allah Almighty he would definitely help us.
After some days of this conversation, one of his best friends came to meet him. Shaukat shared his desire with his friend. He said that don’t be sad, you would turn rich if you would go to the middle of the river and caught some unusual fish in bulk and sell them into the city. Shaukat knew the fact and the promise he made to his father but he turned blind with the lust of wealth that he threw the promise and fear out of his mind. The very next day, without telling anything to his wife, Shaukat set out his journey towards the middle of the river; the dwelling of sharks.
He caught plenty of unique, delicious fish in abundance in just a few hours of his struggle. He was quite happy on his achievement that he started weaving his dreams about his better lifestyle soon to come. All of a sudden, two sharks appeared from nowhere showing their dreadful sharp teeth ready to attack their prey. They were so furious that they didn’t give a single moment to Shaukat to do something for his defense. In not more than ten minutes, the brutal sharks tore Shaukat into hundred pieces making the sparkling river water rippling with the blood of Shaukat.  

Moral: Greed is a curse.

Writing Skills

Q 1. Write the character sketch of King Lear.

King Lear was a clear depiction of kindness, cruelty, passion, sympathy, arrogance and insensibility.  He was such a complex person that no one knew exactly what’s going on in his mind.
Personality: King Lear was fourscore years old. Being the ruler of Britain, he had a load of responsibility on his shoulders. He had white long hair and beard that are the clear indication of his age through the illustrations. He used to wear expensive clothes bejeweled with dazzling and precious gems. That’s not all; he wore a robe too over his clothing that gave an awesome look to his appearance. Although the king reached a ripe age still his health was fabulous, he was not at all fragile looking old man. His headdress was also lavishly adorned with gems and jewels.
 Characteristics traits: King Lear seemed to be an honest person at the beginning of the play as he wanted to divide his wealth, fortune and kingdom among his three daughters. But as the play moves further, it was apparent to the readers that he was a sort of person who appreciated the ones who flattered him with their sweet tongue and flowery conversation.
He was unable to differentiate between the true love of Cordelia and fake appreciation by his daughters Gonerill and Regan. He being egoistical became furious on the statement of Cordelia about her love towards her father and in turn, disinherited Cordelia from all his kingdom and riches without even giving a second thought to his decision. He was such a short-tempered king that he gave orders of banishment of Earl of Kent, one of his faithful servants talking in favor of Cordelia. He soon came to know who was honest to him and whose not, when both of his elder daughters threw him out of their palaces. He was sensitive too that’s why it was impossible for him to bear such kind of disrespect from his daughters that he lost his senses and became lunatic.

Q 2. What do you know about the characters of Gonerill and Regan, the selfish daughters of King Lear?

Gonerill and Regan apparently seem two names with two souls residing in two bodies but they are alike in their character traits and behavior. One cannot find much difference between the characters of both the selfish daughters of King Lear, Gonerill and Regan. Let’s throw light on the characters of the daughters of the King one by one:
Gonerill: The name itself describes the character traits of the eldest daughter of King Lear Gonerill as she was as clever as a vixen and as wicked as a witch. She was not only greedy for power, wealth and strength but always had a desire to let down her other two sisters as much as possible.
She knew quite well how to ensnare her father in her love through fake speeches and flowery words. She convinced her father that she was the one who loves him the most and thus became successful in getting one-third of King’s land, wealth and fortune.
Right after grabbing the riches from her father, she quickly changed her attitude towards her father from kindness to cruelty, love to hatred, honor to disrespect, mercy to brutality. She showed a cold attitude towards her father, the old king and considered him a burden on her expense.  She literally threw her honorable father out of her palace.
That’s not all; she also turned Regan against her father by telling her the forged tales of his behavior and conduct. The last plot of Gonerill’s wickedness appeared almost at the end of the play when she decided to get rid of her own sister Regan by giving her poison just to marry Earl of Gloucester who was an affluent person. But her shrewdness took her to another path where dejectedness and guilt welcomed her with open arms and forced her to take her own life by killing herself.

Regan: Regan was not less than her elder sister in flattery and evilness. She too influenced her father and showed her intense love to him by uttering long sweet talk.  She was also successful in getting one-third of King’s wealth and fortune.
She treated her father as Gonerill treated him at her palace with disgrace and selfishness. She asked her father to leave her palace and live somewhere else.
Regan too showed her avarice for more riches and fortune and thus wanted to marry Earl of Gloucester after her husband’s death but she didn’t get success as she was murdered by her own loving sister Gonerill.

Q 3. Describe why do you like Cordelia. What were her chief qualities?

Cordelia the youngest daughter of King Lear is the most likable character of the whole play due to a number of qualities that justify her innocent character wholly and truly:
True devotee: Cordelia was so pure in her feelings of love, care and affection towards her father that she didn’t say a word that would just please her father but was merely a lie. Although she knew it well that the more she would flatter her father, the more share she would be getting out of his father’s kingdom.  But she was not that sort of youth.
Moderate: Cordelia was not at all a greedy daughter of her father like her two elder sisters. Even after listening her father’s verdict against her disinheriting her from all the fortune, she never showed any disrespect to her father except the tears that fell down from her eyes not due to being disinherited but just because of her father’s mere trust on her.
Compassionate and Generous: As soon as Cordelia received the news of her father’s terrible condition, she sent her army to bring her father to the palace. She called the best physicians of her kingdom and ordered them to make her father as fit as before and she would give all her gold and jewels to the one who would do that.
Cordelia had an angelic touch to her persona that had a power to magnetize anyone towards her.

Q 4. Write the summary of the play “King Lear”?

King Lear ruled his kingdom for a long time so he decided to retire from his job by distributing his wealth and fortune among his three daughters. Gonerill and Regan became successful in influencing their father with their flattery words and expression and thus each got one-third of King’s wealth and fortune. On the other hand, Cordelia being truthful, honest and loyal to his dear father was unable to convince him that’s why the King disinherited her from his wealth and riches. The king of France married Cordelia in France without any riches. The Earl of Kent asked the King to re-think about Cordelia’s fate. After listening to this, the King banished the Earl of Kent from his kingdom. Gonerill and Regan treated their father quite badly after having their share. The Earl of Kent returned to serve his honorable master in the disguise of an ordinary man named as Caiuse. The climax happened at Regan’s palace when the King being over-burdened with the insensitive, cold and humiliating attitude of his daughters went out in the wilderness and lost his senses. The Earl of Kent sent that news to Cordelia. She then sent her army to bring her father to her palace where she showed utmost concern towards her father’s health and condition. Due to her efforts, King Lear regained his lost strength and sense too. Gonerill and Regan being greedy for power and wealth wanted to marry Earl of Gloucester.  Considering Regan a hurdle in achieving his wicked objective, Gonerill made a plan to kill her by giving her poison. The Duke of Albany, Gonerill’s husband imprisoned her where she felt guilty of her acts and took her own life. Cordelia also received an unfortunate fate when she was put in prison till her death by the Earl of Gloucester. The Earl of Gloucester killed himself in the fight with his brother.  Earl of Kent refused to ascend the throne by saying that his sole duty on earth was to serve his master faithfully and with the demise of his master he considered his own death.

Exercise 1

Writing thesis Statements -1

Directions: Most of the following thesis statements are unacceptable because they are too broad or too narrow. Label each thesis acceptable or unacceptable. Then revise each unacceptable thesis to make it suitable for an essay of about 250 words.
 Abbottabad is a nice place to visit.
Theses statement:
Its nearness to beautiful summer resorts, its cultural variety and the absence of a language barrier make Abbottabad an attractive choice for a family vacation, especially, during the summer.

1. The lack of health insurance is ruining everyone’s life.
2. A microwave oven used 70 to 80 percent less electricity than a conventional oven.
3. Pollution is ruining the world.
4. Finding a good apartment can be difficult.
5. Some people dislike travelling.
6. Some people like science fiction movies and some people prefer other kinds.
7. Many things can be done to make our city better.
8. Some colleges are modifying their financial aid programs.
9. Although most of us would rather not consider the possibility of our homes catching fire, we must prepare our families for such an emergency.

1. The lack of health insurance is ruining everyone’s life. (Unacceptable)
Thesis statement: Health insurance not only provides ease to the one holding it but also a major cause in ruining the health of the insurer. This becomes a source of extra burden on the health insurance companies too.
2. A microwave oven used 70 to 80 percent less electricity than a conventional oven. (Acceptable)
3. Pollution is ruining the world. (Unacceptable)
Thesis statement: Pollution is one of the vital basics in destroying the natural beauty of the earth. It is causing a number of diseases among the populace of the whole world thus, creating an unhealthy environment and a terrible place to live on in the years to come.  4. Finding a good apartment can be difficult. (Unacceptable)
Thesis statement: An appropriate dwelling is necessary for everyone to live a contented, happy, tension-free life. But sometimes it seems a complex task to find a good apartment, especially in the cities. Sometimes it’s a matter of rent, sometimes improper ventilation and sometimes the floor on which it lies.
5. Some people dislike travelling. (Unacceptable)
Thesis statement: Travelling is one of the best leisure activities of a number of people of this world. But, there exists a group of individuals too to whom travelling is just the wastage of time, money, energy and resources.
6. Some people like science fiction movies and some people prefer other kinds. (Acceptable)
7. Many things can be done to make our city better. (Unacceptable)
Thesis statement: All of us have some duties and responsibilities as a civilized member of our society. A number of steps can be taken by every one of us not only to beautify our surroundings but also to do make our city one of the best and desired a place to live.
8. Some colleges are modifying their financial aid programs. (Acceptable)
9. Although most of us would rather not consider the possibility of our homes catching fire, we must prepare our families for such an emergency. (Acceptable)

Exercise 2

Directions: Write thesis statements for the following topics. Be sure that each topic is suitably narrow for an essay of about 250-300 words and that the thesis statement shows a purpose and a point of view. Follow the example.

Topic: How the development of close malls has changed shopping
Thesis statement: The development of closed malls has led to a revolution in the way people shop, we can shop easily at night and in rough weather, we see a greater variety of goods than in any single store, and we are encouraged to think of shopping as fun rather than as a chore.
 1. Topic: Talent
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

2. Topic: Someone I Can Count On
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

3. Topic: Travelling Alone
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

4. Topic: Happiness
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

5. Topic: College Life
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

6. Topic: Breakfast
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

7. Topic: A mountain Resort
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

8. Topic: My Grandparents
Thesis statement:______________________________________________

9. Topic: A Personal Loss
Thesis statement:______________________________________________ 

10. Topic: Choosing A car
Thesis statement:_______________________________________________

1. Topic:
Thesis statement: People all over the world are bestowed with a number of skills, capabilities, and talents that differentiate them from others or make them superior to one another. Talent has no boundaries, origin, nationality or religion. The talent of anyone should be appreciated so to give it vigor and cherish the valor of the individual.  

2. Topic: Someone I Can Count On
Thesis statement: There are many people around me who have a significant place in my life but the one to which I can count on is my mother. She is not only my mother but my friend as well. She not only caters my needs but resolves my problems too. I have to give her respect through my love, care, and affection.

3. Topic: Travelling Alone
Thesis statement: Travelling alone can be an interesting experience. In this way, an individual gets plenty of time to ponder and see the splendid nature spread all around him. There would be no fatigue to luggage or schedule to follow when someone travels alone.

4. Topic: Happiness
Thesis statement: Happiness is a feeling that is reflected in someone’s behavior, attitude or actions either by wearing a big smile on the face or by whistling a blissful tune. It does not depend on the luxuries of life but has a strong connection with the inner contentment of the individual. One should cherish the moment of happiness that appears in his life.

5. Topic: College Life
Thesis statement: College life is of utmost importance in the life of an individual. It is the time when one has to just focus on his studies without the tension or worries of running a house or fulfilling the needs or requirements of his dependants. College life means life is full of vigor, experiences, enthusiasm, learning, and delight.

6. Topic: Breakfast
Thesis statement: Breakfast, person’s first meal of the day holds vital importance. It should be such that to provide sufficient energy to the person till his lunch time. Skipping breakfast means losing a handful of liveliness, bliss, enthusiasm, and interest in a number of things that lay in front of a person throughout the day.

7. Topic: A mountain Resort
Thesis statement: To have some leisure time for your own self is a difficult task of today’s busy lifestyle. But if someone really wants to spend a good time with his family and friends then a mountain resort must be a perfect choice. It not only changes the mood of the person but revitalizes him for the rest of his days.

8. Topic: My Grandparents
Thesis statement: Grandparents are one of the greatest blessings of Allah Almighty. My grandparents are truly the asset of my life as they help me out whenever I got stuck somewhere, they groomed my personality in a polite way. Living under the umbrella of their love and care makes me strong enough to face any challenge daringly and cherish any success vigorously.

9. Topic: A Personal Loss
Thesis statement: Gain and loss are present in everyone’s life. But a personal loss is the one that shivers not only the mind and soul of the individual but alters his mood, attitude, and behavior too. It can either be a loss of a dear one or loss of any materialistic thing.

10. Topic: Choosing a car
Thesis statement: Car is one of the greatest inventions that revolutionized the mode of travelling. Choosing a car for one’s self is of utmost importance as it depends on a number of factors to be put under consideration before making a purchase for instance price, condition, model, comfort, manufacturing etc count a lot.

Exercise 3

When does the plane leave?
Robert:What’s the time?
Emily:Ten past two, dear.
RobertWhen does the plane leave?
Emily:Not until a quarter to four.
Robert:Why did we get here so early?
Emily:Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
Robert:Where’s my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
Emily:It’s there, dear, between your feet.
Robert:Oh, yes. Here it is! Emily! Where are you going?
Emily:I’m going to ask that gentleman what they are announcing over the loudspeaker.
Robert:Which gentleman, Emily? Who is he?
Emily:I don’t know. But he looked as though……

Not until a quarter to four.