Chapter 1 to Chapter 10 Short and long question bise swat 2nd years engish notes chapter wise.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #10
Q 1. What two cities John Roebling thought of connecting through the bridge?
John Roebling is a name famous in the world of engineering and innovation. He was the one who put forward the unique idea of building a magnificent suspension bridge that would connect the city of New York with the Long Island (Brooklyn). Later on, the bridge is titled as Brooklyn Bridge.
Q 2. What did the bridge building engineers throughout the world think of Roebling’s plan?
Roebling’s idea of the suspension bridge was the exceptional one as it seems to be an impossible task to be carried on. The bridge building engineers throughout the world think that Roebling’s idea was not possible to be accomplished and Roebling should forget about it.
Q 3. How did Roebling finally succeed in convincing that the project could be accomplished?
Although Roebling was discouraged by the fellows of his field but still he had a vision, he had a dream to achieve. For that purpose, he decided to have someone with him who could understand his idea and ultimately work with him to accomplish it. He discussed his brilliant idea with his son Washington who was also associated with the field of engineering.
Q 4. What happened when the project was underway for only a few months?
As the project seems to be an impossible feat, it proved as it is just in the beginning. Only few months were passed after the bridge’s construction started well, a horrible accident took place at the construction site. It severely affected the construction work of the bridge because the mastermind of the project John Roebling lost his life as well as his son Washington was injured to such an extent that not only his brain was damaged but he became paralyzed too. The accident made him bed-ridden as he was unable to have any kind of movement or communication with the people around him.
Q 5. What was the response of the people after the accident on the site?
The news spread all over the world like the fire in the jungle that the man with an irrational dream to built suspension bridge over the river died due to the accident. People responded to this news quite negatively and they started pouring in their pessimistic views about John Roebling, Washington, and their dreams. Some said proudly that they had told John Roebling and his son not to work on their plan as it wouldn’t be a practical one. Some called them crazy men with their crazy dreams. Even some others gave their statement in opposition to the idea of Roebling that it’s quite a foolish act to run after wild visions. There was hardly anyone who could speak in favor of the genius father and son.
Q 6. Unable to speak or write, what method did Washington use to communicate with his wife?
Even after becoming a handicapped person, Washington never ever thought of pushing back the idea of Brooklyn Bridge from his mind. He wanted to execute his father’s dreams. He was able to move only one finger and he made use of that to the fullest. A unique idea clicked in his mind to adopt the method of non-verbal communication. For that purpose, he used to tap his finger on his wife’s arm and gave his message.
Q 7. How did Washington communicate with his engineers for 13 long years?
After developing a distinctive code of communication with his wife, Washington started to work on the Brooklyn project once again with full zeal and zest. He tapped on his wife’s arm and gave her a message to call the engineers who were appointed by Joe Roebling for the construction of the bridge. Then he used the same method of non-verbal communication of tapping her arm to tell the engineers what to do and how to complete the project. Although it was a difficult, time-taking task and seemed irrational but the Brooklyn project completed this way in a long time period of 13 years.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #09
Q 2. The poet lists many qualities of maturity which he believes make certain adults superior to others. Select those characteristics that you feel are the most important and explain why you feel as you do.
The poet lists many qualities of maturity which he believes make certain adults superior to others. According to me, the most important ones are as followed with the reason behind their selection:
1. Sensibility: One should be sensible enough to think about the right and wrong that happen in his life. He should be able to make a difference between the true or fake relationships that surround him in order to have a peaceful life.
2. Honesty: As every one of us is well aware of the famous proverb “Honesty is the best policy”, I must say that yes it is one of the significant building blocks of the personality of any individual. If one is honest towards his own self, towards others, towards his duties and responsibilities, only then he would be able to take pleasure in his life by attaining peace of mind and self-confidence.
3. Humility: One should show a down to earth attitude in any case, either in triumph or catastrophe. It is one of those qualities which is liked by Allah Almighty too. Modesty makes a person elevated in the eyes of God.
Q 3. The poet believes that these values must be understood by all young people who wish to become truly adult. Do you agree?
Yes, I agree with the poet’s belief about the virtues that he mentioned in the poem to be understood by all young people who wish to become truly adult. I am in favor of it because almost all the personality traits are discussed by the poet in this poem which is necessary to lead a simple, tranquil and happy life. For instance, if a person is not truthful, sensible, honest and courageous, how he would be able to live a contented life.
Q 5. Which conditional has the poet used in this poem? Does he think that his son is capable of achieving the virtues or not?
First conditional has been used by the poet in this poem. In my point of view, to some extent, his son is capable of achieving some of the virtues as it is impossible for a single individual to have all in one’s self. His father has given him advice in such a simple and easy way that the son has to put all his efforts to inbuild some of them if not all in his personality so to live a peaceful life by achieving his dreams and goals.
Q 7. Now that you have understood the poem, write a paraphrase/explanation you own words. You may title it as “Characteristics of a Mature Adult.
Characteristics of a Mature Adult
The basic theme of the poem is the advice given by the poet to his son in particular and to all human beings in general about what character traits are necessary for a person to own in order to live a successful, peaceful and contented life.
In this stanza, the poet is showing a path to his readers towards leading a life full with virtues and righteous acts. He is basically giving advice to his son but in general, it is useful for the whole of humanity if one understands it with open mind and soul. The poet asks his readers to have enough courage to accept their mistakes and be responsible for all their actions and deeds rather than blaming others for such acts. According to him, one should have trust in himself and should be concerned much about his assigned tasks. He gives the utmost stress on controlling one’s emotions under any circumstances. He gives a lesson of forgiveness to the entire mankind that one should be generous to forgive everyone including those who try to harm him at any point of life. The poet teaches his son the importance of waiting and advises him not to let lies and hatred spoil the character and persona even if the ones around him seem to be infected with them.
In the second stanza, the poet focuses on the importance of achieving aims and objectives in one’s life. He advises his son to roam in the world of dream and wonder but not to such an extent that he forgets his efforts requires for the fulfillment of those very dreams as he asks his readers to master such as modesty. Even in the face of winning and losing, never let them expose your weaknesses in front of others. He advises the readers not to let others control your behavior and one should face defeat with courage and determination to overcome next time before it influences you. He strengthens the idea that defeat in life is a must as it teaches a valuable lesson to a person. At the end of the stanza, he says that it is not an easy task to achieve your goals, aims, and dreams, sometimes people become jealous of your success and they try to create troubles for you but never lose hope and be motivated towards your aim. He says if you think your dream is crushed by someone or by nature, then no need to worry, you just have to go back and rebuild it with passion and devotion.
In this stanza, the poet throws light upon the most important aspect of one’s life i.e. risk-taking and hope realization. He gives a message to his readers that risks must be taken in life but one should not lose hope in any case rather he should give his aim a new start with full enthusiasm to overcome the defeat. According to the poet, a true man should never give up, but if he wants to achieve bigger, better goals he should be able to risk all other achievements for that purpose. Self-confidence, self-satisfaction are the roots of the tree of inner strength. That tree of inner strength only grows up tall and healthy with courage and determination of one’s own self.
In the last stanza of the poem, the poet is emphasizing on the magnitude of social interaction that even if a person gets fame or fortune, he should not become proud of them as these things never always stay with a man. What stays with the man from birth till his departure from this world is the virtuous nature that takes him into the realm of Heaven. One should mix up with the crowd around him but should never lose his individuality. The poet pinpoints the evilness of wealth by referring to its adverse effects on the nature of an individual. He warns his readers to try to stay away from it in order to live a contented life. Towards the end, Kipling stresses on the significance of time that if it slips from man’s hand it will never come back but only if the readers pay attention to his advice realistically then it is not an impossible act for them to surmount the whole world and show the real face of a man to the humanity.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #08
Q 1. What is the narrator’s job and the purpose of his journey? What physical conditions persuade him to rest for a few hours?
The answer is divided into three parts which are as follows:
Narrator’s job: The narrator’s job is to perform the duty as the chief of the material department depot. His job responsibility includes the supervision of all the ongoing construction work for the future Paoki-Chengtu Railway.
Purpose of Journey:
The purpose of his journey is to supervise the ongoing construction work at the site of the future Paoki-Chengtu Railway. He had to reach the material department at 10 o’clock in the morning in order to perform his duties and responsibilities.
The intense cold, continuous snowfall and chilly winds are the main reasons for compelling the narrator to stop for a while and take some rest for a few hours in a shady place under a cliff. Due to hunger and cold, it is quite difficult for him to carry on his journey towards his destination. He is faltering that’s why he trips and falls badly that hurts him too. Darkness engulfs all the area around, making him liable to fall into some deep gorge. So he takes the final decision of staying somewhere to regain his lost strength.
Q 2. About how old is Cheng-yu? What does he respond when the narrator asks, “Why isn’t anybody home?”
When the narrator reaches at the doorway of a cave, he sees a child sitting on a stool with his hands on his knees, this posture of his reflects his deep thinking about something. The narrator assumes that the boy whose name he comes to know later Cheng-Yu is of seven or eight years old.
The child seems to own quick wit. As it is reflected at the point when the narrator asks from the child “Why isn’t anybody home?” The child replies in cross question form, “Aren’t I anybody, Uncle?” He, in fact, minds the remark of the narrator that suggests as if he were nobody.
Q 3. What work do Cheng-yu’s parents do? What “job” has Cheng-yu been assigned, and what explanation does he give for refusing the narrator’s advice to go to sleep?
Cheng-Yu’s Parents Job:
Cheng-Yu’s parents are very dedicated individuals and quite honest about their work that’s why they are performing their jobs in heavy snowfall. His father being a laborer opens up the mountains and drill holes for dynamite charges. Cheng-Yu’s mother serves as a traffic controller who has to stand on the narrow and dangerous road that has been blasted through the rock.
Being a responsible child, Cheng-Yu’s parents in their absence have given him the job to stay vigilantly at home i.e. the cave and take care of his baby sister Pao-Cheng.
Narrator’s advice and Cheng-Yu’s explanation:
As Cheng-Yu is performing his job for a long time, he becomes tired and sleepy too. When the narrator sees him drowsy on a small stool in the doorway of the cave, he advises him to go to bed and must have a little sleep. After listening to this, he at once shakes his head in a negative fashion and gives a thought-provoking reply that his papa and mama say that “one should never leave his post”.
Q 4. What does the narrator do in the final paragraph? What does he realize is waiting for him?
The last paragraph should get the credit for justifying the essence of the title. In this paragraph, the narrator is moved by the determination of little Cheng-Yu towards his responsibility, when he says that “A man should never leave his post.” After hearing this, the narrator’s lost spirits reawaken. He then dressed up again properly to continue his tiresome journey by buttoning up his coat, wearing the hat steadfastly on his head and then he leaves the cave with firm determination and commitment. At this point, he realizes that his job as a chief in the material department is waiting for him.
Q 5. What sort of child is Cheng-yu? What attitude does he display towards his parents and his responsibilities?
Cheng-Yu is the main character of the story. The beginning of the story reflects the narrator’s life and his struggle for reaching his destination but as the story moves further, Cheng-Yu appears to be the sole building block for attracting the readers towards the story. Although Cheng-Yu is just a young boy of seven or eight years but his personality is a true reflection of determination, sensibility, audacity, and resolution.
Attitude towards his parents and responsibilities:
Cheng-Yu possesses a strong sense of responsibility towards his parents’ advice. His attitude towards his parents represents him as an incredible submissive son as he gives preference to his duty of taking care of his baby sister till his mother’s arrival over his rest and sleep. He fully observes and practices on with the advice of his parents that “A man should never leave his post”.
Q 6. What change in mood or outlook does the narrator experience in the course of the story? What causes the change?
The story changes the mood of the narrator from pessimistic to optimistic just because of the entry and intellect of the boy named Cheng-Yu and his parents’ loyalty towards their job. Meeting the boy, observing his responsibilities for his baby sister and noticing the family’s mutual encouragement for one another has caused the change. His parents’ devotion moves the narrator significantly when he comes to know that the boy’s mother is standing steadfastly on the road controlling the traffic whereas his father is placing dynamite charges on a steep slope despite of the heavy snowfall.
When the narrator advises the child to sleep, the child refuses him by saying that his papa and mama say that “A man should never leave his post”.
This sentence of the boy changes the outlook and mood of the narrator. The narrator is really moved by the determination of little Cheng- Yu. The main cause for the change in the narrator’s mood is by seeing the boy’s attitude towards work and responsibility. The boy, for example, takes care of his baby sister as his parents have asked him to do. He even asks the narrator to be quiet when he stamps his boots for fear of waking the baby. He himself learns a great lesson that “A man should never leave his post”. He goes back in order to get the job in the material department as a chief. He is prompted to set off for his destination and perform his duty there.
Q 7. What ideas about work does the story convey? What else does the story suggest is valuable?
The story can be treated as a full-fledged, compiled thesis on the importance of the job and its responsibilities for an individual’s survival. It focuses on the titbits regarding how to perform job dutifully and sincerely whatever the circumstance be.
Following are some of the ideas related to work that the story throws light on:
1) The first and the foremost idea is to show utmost responsibility towards your job. One has to be committed and should not consider the work as a burden, rather than he should feel pleasure and pride in doing it as it is only the work that gives value and true identity to an individual in the society.
2) Next comes the question of such hurdles that on and off poke their head in a person’s way to divert his attention and crush his loyalty towards his job. One should have the courage to defeat them with determination. As in the story, the severe weather conditions seem to be trivial in preventing the writer’s way to carry on his journey to reach his destination as soon as possible and resume his job responsibilities.
3) The third idea that is of extreme worth is the wit, intellect and responsible attitude which sometimes showed by the younger ones more aptly as compared to the older fellows. Such behaviors or remarks by the young influence and sometimes change the way of thinking of the people too. As Cheng-Yu changes the mind of the narrator just simply saying the sentence “A man should never leave his post.”
Q 8. Do you think the story is overly moralistic? How does Tu make his story entertaining despite its rather heavy-handed message?
In my point of view, yes the story is overly-moralistic. The narrator skillfully presents the heavy-handed message regarding one’s duties and responsibilities towards his /her profession or job by saying “A man should never leave his post.” The powerful descriptive abilities of the narrator give it an amazing touch of sight and sound. The way, in which the writer narrates the surrounding, weather, workers hustle bustle, machinery operation and the insight of cave and lively gossiping with Cheng-Yu makes the story quite interesting, informative and enjoyable too.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #07
Q 1. What was the composition of the army of the Qureish that marched to Madina?
After the humiliating defeat at the battle of Badar, the Qureish wanted to take revenge for their earlier defeat in order to teach a lesson to the Muslims. For that purpose, they composed an army of 3, 000 warriors who marched towards the sacred city of Madina. Abu Sufyan served as their leader. The force was not only armed with war weapons but their women also accompanied them to raise their morale by singing inspirational songs. Along with the wisest warriors, every adult was also the competent part of the force.
Q 2. What, in the opinion of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W), was the best course of action with regard to the strength of the enemy?
Although Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was the wisest among all but he always preferred to take advice from his companions on most of the matters. When he (S.A.W.W) heard the news of the multitude of Qureish approaching Madina, he consulted his companions of war strategy. With regard to the best course of action to be taken against the strength of the enemy, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was of the opinion of staying in Madina and let the enemy besiege the city.
Q 3. What strategy did the Holy Prophet (SAW) have in mind when he thought of allowing the enemy to besiege Madina?
By proposing the strategy of enemy besieging the city of Madina, it was in the mind of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) that the Muslims were far shorter than the huge army of Qureish, so if the city would be besieged by the enemies, they must have to split their force in order to deploy at various places. As a result of this, it would place Muslims at a better position to attack at the place where the concentration of the enemy was the weakest.
Q 4. What were the two opinions regarding facing the army of the Qureish?
In order to give a relentless blow of defeat to the Qureish once again, the Muslims formed two groups possessing and presenting their own opinions. One group comprising of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) and some other wiser ones were of the opinion to stay in Madina and let the Qureish besiege the city. On the other hand, the second group was of young enthusiastic individuals who wanted to save the city and stop the army outside Madina and let the war initiate at the open place.
Q 5. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) decide finally?
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) knew it quite well that regarding the defensive strategy, his point of view would prove to be the best one in favor of the Muslims to defeat the army of Qureish. Although he (S.A.W.W) was reluctant to leave Madina but just to give weight to the decision of the fervent young ones to keep the army away from Madina, he made the final verdict to confront the enemy in the open field outside Madina.
Q 6. How did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) arrange his army at Uhud in preparation for the battle?
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) congregated 1,000 persons to take part in the battle of Uhud. When the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) gave orders to his soldiers to march towards the battlefield, 300 of the individuals proved to be the hypocrites so they refused to take part in the fight. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) then had the strength of 700 persons only. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) wisely arranged the army in such a manner that Muslim warriors took positions on the rising top at Uhud. He also ordered a band of archers to take a position at a joining mound and do not leave the position at any cost without taking permission from him.
Q 7. What instructions did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) give to the band of archers who were ordered to take up position on a mound?
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was only a great ruler but also proved to be an excellent commander and war planner. After giving the description of their places, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) elucidated the duty and responsibility to the warriors and band of archers that had to take up positions on and at the adjoining mound of Uhud. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) instructed the band of archers not to leave their posts under any circumstances; they win or lose, without his consent.
Q 8. What did the archers do when they saw the enemy retreating in defest?
Wealth has such a charisma that sometimes it just makes the person blind. In other words, one can say that greed is a lust. The same happened with the obedient Muslims too. On observing the Qureish retreating in defeat they forgot the orders and instructions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) to stay at their place. The archers left their posts hurriedly in order to collect booty with other Muslims.
Q 9. What changed the course of the battle of Uhud?
The course of the battle changed quite dramatically and unexpectedly. When the band of archers showed their greediness towards wealth or weapons by leaving their positions without the approval of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W), Khalid bin Waleed (commander of the Qureish army) took advantage of this situation. He rushed with his cavalry and attacked from behind killing ten of the Muslims. They were now in a better position to surround and attack the Muslims not only from the rear but from the front too.
Q 10. What was the confusion regarding the companion who bore resemblance to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W)?
Among many others, a sahabi Mas’ab bin Omair (R.A) fought bravely with the enemies but fell at last. He had some physical resemblance with the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W). When the Qureish saw him dead, they shouted ecstatically that Muhammad (S.A.W.W) had been killed. On the other hand, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) while fighting with the army was wounded and fell in a pit where other dead bodies of his followers were lying too. This was the confusion that generated due to the resemblance of Ma’sab bin Omair (R.A) with the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W).
Q 11. Who took the wounded Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) out of the pit to a safer place?
Hazrat Ali (R.A) the son-in-law, cousin and passionate companion of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was the one who noticed the absence of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) first from the battlefield. He started searching him around the place where he saw the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) last. When he reached there, he saw Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) lying in a pit. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was wounded during the fight that’s why it was quite difficult for him to come out of the pit by himself so Hazrat Ali (R.A) with the help of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) and Hazrat Umar (R.A) took him out of the pit. Then the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was safely lead to a safer place away from the battlefield.
Q 12. Who did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) charge to launch a counter attack?
After getting hurt, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) had to take a decision to send someone for the counter-attack as the battle was still going on between the Muslims and the army of Qureish. Hazrat Ali (R.A) received the honor for performing that job and showing his passion for the grandeur of Islam. Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) gave him the responsibility as he knew it well that Hazrat Ali (R.A) was not only ardent to have a fight with the enemy but had the valor to bash the army courageously too.
Q 13. Who did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) send his own sword to continue fighting?
While combating violently with the force of Qureish with full zeal and zest, Hazrat Ali (R.A) broke his sword. On knowing this, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) ordered someone to take his sword and give it to Hazrat Ali (R.A) to continue the fight. From then onwards, the fierce attack of the Muslims forced the enemy to move back from the battlefield.
Q 14. What did Abu Sufyan boast about when leaving the battleground?
Abu Sufyan who was the commander of the army of Qureish although felt ashamed by the defeat but he tried to conceal his disgrace of crush by giving it another look. At the time of leaving the battlefield, he showed off by saying that we have taken our revenge from the Muslims for the defeat at the battle of Badar and he gave threat too that next time when we face any confrontation with the Muslims, we would completely obliterate them.
Q 15. How was the mistake of the archers a tactical mistake?
The blunder of the archers was a tactical mistake from the strategic point of view. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) deployed the band of archers at the mound which was an important post for their defense from the enemy. They had to stay there under all circumstances as per directions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W). The act of leaving of their post till next order from the commander resulted in a heavy loss which changed the outcome of the battle.
Q 16. What did the companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) learn from the battle of Uhud?
It is not a wise act to disobey the instructions of your leader; otherwise, sometimes you have to face unfavorable outcome. After leaving the post and observing its result in the form of chaos, the companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) learnt from the battle of Uhud a valuable lesson not to disobey the instructions of their leader whatever the circumstance is. They never even think of disobeying the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) in the future.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #06
Q 2. Do you think such a world is possible? If not, why not?
In my point of view, the world that the poet describes in this poem can never ever be possible to witness. There are a number of reasons to support my thought. If I move stanza by stanza then in the first two, the poet dreamt to have a land that is in full swing of enjoying love and peace all around and where no man intrudes into the life of another. Such type of world remains a dream because the people of the world we are living in are getting too much greedy and materialistic that everyone wants to have the luxuries of life. From need fulfillment, the world is treading on the path of luxury enjoyment. People are making plans for how to make the life of others miserable either snatching their things or lives.
Love to oneself is getting more popular as compared to love for others or mankind. No one in this world has Freedom in its true sense nor would we be having in the future because of materialistic lust and power mania. In the third and fourth stanza, the world the poet visualized can never exist because it is predicted that if a third world war broke out, it would be for the water, one of the basic natural resources. Poverty and the wretchedness of the people are the topmost thought-provoking issues of this world. People are into fight and war not only on the basis of caste, color or creed but on the basis of the difference of opinion, sects, ideology, resources, and power.
I want to conclude by saying that the world we are living in is thirsty for brotherhood, love, and peace and has a hunger for modesty, equality, and humanity but none of us are trying to feed our planet Earth with anyone of its desires.
Q 3. Now that you have understood the poem, write a paraphrase/explanation of the poem in your own words.
The basic theme of the poem is the existence of such a world where every individual has the right to feel joy and comfort, enjoy natural resources, experience freedom, peace and love without the thought of greed, lust, destruction, poverty, desolation, and deprivation.
In this stanza, the poet is sharing his dream about a world where every individual respects every other individual by heart and soul. No person ever tries to intrude into the personal affairs of his neighbour, friends or relatives. People would live a cozy life in complete harmony wearing the warm blanket of love and peace. The earth turns into a valley of love where peace makes its way to reach and knock at the door of every individual to be delighted and feel comfort. .
In this stanza, the poet is again giving stress on his demand of having his dream world where every one of us rejoices the freedom of talk, walk, thought and action. People do not involve themselves in such activities such as greediness, bribery, envy, massacre, killing etc which are the prime sources of creating chaos and disturbance in one’s life and have a direct or indirect influence on a person’s social, moral and psychological well-being. The above-mentioned activities also darken one’s soul and blacken one’s heart to such an extent that nothing comes in his way to achieve his vicious objectives.
The third stanza is devoted to one of the major problems of this world that every one of us is residing in a self-created prison where every individual is a slave of one or other kind of discrimination like of colour, caste, nationality, language or religion. The poet wants to own a world where no such form of discrimination exists and every person has complete right and authority to make use of Allah’s blessings freely and blissfully.
In the last stanza, the poet puts forward a demand from poverty and despair to hang them in front of the judge of joy and on the altar of peace so everyone can have a life bursting with joy, serenity, love, honesty, and compassion. He considers joy like a pearl because of its worth and purity. He dreams such a world not only for himself but for the benefit of the whole human race.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #05
Q 1. Who are the people Nelson Mandela is addressing and what is the occasion?
Nelson Mandela is addressing to the people of both South African and international community. There were heads of different states and other dignitaries including distinguished guests, comrades, and friends at the auspicious occasion. It was the brightest day in the life of the black people of South Africa who got independence from the white people after a meticulous and extensive struggle. This was the oath taking ceremony of Nelson Mandela when he was elected democratically as the first President of South Africa on May 10, 1994. facilities in order to live a peaceful life.
Q 2. What figurative language does Nelson Mandela use to communicate his profound feelings of patriotism and sense of belonging to his homeland?
Nelson Mandela is a name that can never be forgotten when it comes to the movements solely fought for the rights of the black people. He was a much-celebrated leader of South Africa. He uses the most beautiful and moving language to express his feelings of patriotism and sense of belonging to his homeland. His best approach is the use of similes to put forward his objectives and reflects his love for his land. He says, “Each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria and Mimosa trees of Bushveld”. He says, “Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal”. He was a great orator. It seems that he has full communication power and skills to motivate his people and convince his spectators. for their rights and this will turn into an echo which will be heard clearly in every nook and corner of the American society.
Q 3. What was the situation like in South Africa before this very celebration of liberty and glory that Nelson Mandela is speaking about?
The situation in South Africa was quite deplorable before this very celebration of liberty and glory that Nelson Mandela is speaking about. One can easily identify absolute discrimination between the communities on the basis of caste and colour. No peace and harmony could be seen in the country. Many laws and measures were designed to oppress the rights of black people. They had no right to live freely. They were oppressed and maltreated. The “Apartheid” was a system of racial segregation in South Africa. The black people were deprived of their citizenship rights. They were no longer citizens of their country. Black people were living in the bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations. There was a complete racial, sexual and ethnic segregation. There was no hope left in the eyes, hearts, minds, and souls of the blacks of South Africa due to the above-mentioned subjugated elements.
Q 4. What emancipation and liberation is Nelson Mandela speaking about?
Nelson Mandela focussed on two major issues in his speech i.e. emancipation and liberation.
Nelson Mandela is speaking about “Political emancipation”, which they have achieved after a long struggle against apartheid system. He was elected democratically the first black president of South Africa in 1994. In the former political system in South Africa, only white people had full political rights. Black people were forced to live away from white people. Now all the people will enjoy full equal rights in South Africa. All the communities will live together with equal opportunities. He is speaking about emancipation from racism and racial oppression. He along with countrymen is celebrating the victory of justice, peace and human dignity.
Nelson Mandela also gives the guarantee that from now onwards all the people will enjoy complete liberty who were continuously suffering the intense bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. He is speaking about the liberation movement of black people of South Africa when he became successful in dismantling the country’s apartheid system.
Q 5. What does Nelson Mandela mean by South Africa being once the “skunk of the world”?
At the end of his speech, Nelson Mandela uses the phrase “skunk of the world”, which means that once the people of South Africa were hated by other communities as skunk are hated by the people. This phrase further throws light on the significant feature that South Africa was once the most despicable and disgusting nation of the world. The people of South Africa were given no respect or love by the rest of the world because of malicious ideology and practice of racism. All over the world, the people looked at them with scornful eyes and hatred expression on their faces. Due to “Apartheid System”, South Africa not only went through poverty, deprivation, racial and gender discrimination but it was rejected with disrespect and thus isolated by the countries of the world.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #04
Q 1. Who does Dr. King refer to by the epithet, “great American?”
The “great American” that Martin Luther King refers to at the beginning of his speech is Abraham Lincoln. There are two ways that you can see this. First, King makes an oblique reference to Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. He says that it was “Five score years ago” that the “great American” lived. This is a reference to Lincoln’s phrase “four score and seven years ago” in the Gettysburg Address. Second, King then says that what happened 100 years previous was the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation. This was signed during the Civil War by President Lincoln, thus committing the Union to the idea of freeing the slaves.
Q 2. After reading the first paragraph, can you guess what the Emancipation Proclamation might mean?
Emancipation proclamation might mean to free all Negroes from second class citizenship. This decree was first presented by Abraham Lincoln on 1 January 1863. It further put emphasis on giving equal rights to the Negroes of United America. As the Negroes suffered intense hardships for a long period of time in the state so now they should get freedom from all kinds of confinement. In fact, this proclamation served as a ray of hope to millions of black slaves that soon they would be getting equal rights after a long exhausting period of subjugation and injustice that was done to them by the whites of the nation.
Q 3. How does King describe the life of the Negro in the US one hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation?
Even after one hundred years of Emancipation Proclamation declared by Abraham Lincoln, the life of the Negroes residing on the land of America reflected no specific change in the lifestyle, liberty or rights. According to King, one hundred years have passed but still, the Negro is not enjoying complete freedom, his life is still wandering on the path of malicious discrimination and the Negro is still dragged towards the prison of isolation with the hands cuffed by unseen chains of humiliation. Still, the Negroes are forcefully pushed to spend their lives in the hell of poverty and are kept away to have and enjoy the facilities and luxuries of life as others are enjoying to the fullest. This is not the end, the situation is worsened by the fact that the Negroes are restricted to the far end of the privileged society of America and they are made to feel that they are the forbidden or hopeless class of the society. This discrimination ruthlessly affected them not socially and morally but psychologically too.
Q 4. Why is 1963, according to Dr. King, not an end but a beginning? A beginning of what?
Martin Luther King was well aware that although the civil rights movement had provided a focus on racism and discrimination, what had been accomplished thus far was not nearly enough to solve all of the problems the United States had in these areas. He was looking forward to a time when people would be judged by “the content of their character,” rather than the color of their skin, but he knew that marches and demonstrations and even the civil rights legislation that would come in 1964 were not going to completely solve the problem. For example, as recently as the 1960s, it was illegal for a black man and a white woman to marry in Virginia. Research suggests that white people are better at concealing their racism, it is alive and well. Martin Luther King understood very well that his era was just a beginning and the beginning of the time when there would be no discrimination made by the people on the basis of colour or creed.
Q 5. What is Dr. King’s advice to the black people while marching on the road to freedom?
Dr. King was a great advocate of equality and brotherhood which he wanted to have for his people living in the society of America. He advised black people not to be guilty of unlawful deeds which they have committed or not while marching on the road to freedom. He addressed the American Blacks that they should continue their struggle until they would cherish equality, peace, and brotherhood in America. Freedom is their right but they must avoid all kinds of aggression. He said that they should fight for their rights without causing physical violence which may cause hostility and hatred. He insisted his people to acquire their rights in a peaceful manner. He said, “We must keep dignity and discipline. If they keep on struggling in a disciplined way, they will achieve their aims. They should not involve themselves in such activities which are against the interests of the state.”
Q 6. When will they, the Negro, be satisfied or not satisfied, according to Dr. King?
Dr. King made it clear to the people that the Negroes will not be satisfied until and unless their demands would not be fulfilled. He listed their demands such as the chains of hatred, racial discrimination, injustice, and inequalities will be broken, they should enjoy equality, peace, and brotherhood in America. He further added that they will not be satisfied until the constitution of America fulfills its promise for giving them equal rights, justice and freedom to all the Blacks. According to Dr. King Negroes will never be satisfied until they are the victims of police brutality. They will not be satisfied until they find accommodation in luxurious metropolitan hotels. They will not be satisfied until they are given the right to cast their vote. Last but not the least, till the achievement of equal social status and civil rights, they cannot be satisfied.
Q 7. Dr King speaks repeatedly of his dream. What is his dream?
In this speech, King sets out a dream that he has for American society and he speaks of it repeatedly so to put emphasis on his viewpoint. that he has for American society. The basic idea behind his dream is that there should no longer be racism and racial discrimination in the United States. During King’s time, racial discrimination was legal in the United States. King dreamed of a time when such discrimination would not be legal. He also dreamed of a time when there would not be any racism. As he put it, he dreamed of a time when people would not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. He had a firm belief that all men are created equal so they should get equal rights and amenities for the best of their survival.
Q 8. What does Dr. King mean by “This is the faith with which I return to the South?” What faith? Faith in what?
Dr. King has started his freedom campaign with a strong faith in his aptitude and the power of the Black American. He was sure that they will achieve their aims in a short period of time. He has faith that one day, the chains of hatred, racial discrimination, injustice, and inequalities will be broken. He has a faith that the new sun will rise with the rays of hope in the form of liberty, equality, peace, and brotherhood. He has faith that one day, all discriminations and inequalities will have to leave their land willingly or unwillingly. He has a strong faith in attaining brotherhood and togetherness. He has a faith that his great effort will soon bear sweet fruits of freedom, justice, and equality. He has a faith that one day his dream will come true and black people will get their appropriate position in American society. His faith’s ultimate destination will be the time when everyone will be hearing the charismatic music of liberty, justice, and equality all over America.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #03
Q 1. Stephen Crane, in “The Blades of Grass,” uSes an interesting personification to express the idea that the best deeds are those done without a thought of reward:”Truly virtuous are those who are virtuous, not for fear of punishment or hope of reward, but for the love of virtue “This poem has the structure of a narrative with a dialogue between God and blades of grass. The setting is Heaven:
- Read the first stanza. What does God ask the little blades of grass? What do the blades of grass say in response?
- Read the second stanza. What does the little blade of grass say when it is addressed by God? Why was God moved by the blade’s answer?
1) In Heaven, in front of God stood three little grass modestly while looking down at the ground. God benevolently asked them, “What have you done?” In response, one of the blades musters up the courage to have a talk with the mighty God. It decided to narrate its life by talking about the merits of life.
2) One of the little blades spoke first to God and said, “My Lord, once in my life I happened upon a beautiful butterfly, which was dreadfully caught in spider’s web. Tears rolled down from her eyes, as she tried hard to get out of it, but all in vain, My Lord. The struggle she made just vibrate the web and alert the spider. The spider slowly and gradually approached it. I didn’t want it to fulfill its desire so I struggled to break its web so to free the butterfly.”
After listening the little blade of grass, the God rose from His throne and opened His arms lovingly and said, “I know your lives, and I have seen your deeds, and you, little blade of grass, have indeed done good deeds and lived a just life by serving others in good spirit.”
Q 2. This poem uses a personification. Personification is talking about inanimate and abstract objects as if they were human. Why does the poet use blades of grass to communicate such a fundamental idea? Why didn’t he use man to convey his idea?
Personification is one of the best techniques used in poetry to convey the important messages to the masses craftily. The poet uses blades of grass to communicate the fundamental idea of doing good deeds just for the sake of virtuousness, not for the fear of punishment or the hope of reward. He uses blades of grass because he wanted to tell people that whether anyone is weak or powerful in this world, would get reward or punishment in the world hereafter. He didn’t use man in his poem as he wanted to give a vibrant colour and interesting taste to his poetry and took his poetry to a new destination.
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #02
Q 1. When and where did MA Jinnah deliver this speech?
M.A Jinnah was given the title of “Quaid-e-Azam” by the people of Pakistan which means “Great Leader” for his services and being a staunch supporter of Muslims’ rights in the sub-continent. After independence, M.A Jinnah holds the position of a Governor General of the newly born state named “Pakistan”. Before partition, M.A Jinnah delivered his one of the famous speech on August 11, 1947, to the Constituent Assembly in which he comprehensively expressed his views about the vision and basis for the creation of an independent nation for the Muslims.
Q 2. What two functions of the Constituent Assembly did MA Jinnah refer to in the beginning of his speech?
MA Jinnah focused quite evidently on the two main functions for which the Constituent Assembly has to be responsible. The first one is to outline the future constitution of Pakistan and the second function is to perform the responsibility as a complete and absolute sovereign body as the Federal legislature of the state.
Q 3. What did he say about the first function of the Assembly?
M.A Jinnah was very much concerned about the future of the newly independent state, that’s why he put emphasis on some of the most important aspects in his speech. Regarding the first function of the Assembly i.e. to structure the future constitution on firm grounds, he said that the first task is to take prudent decisions as you are now a sovereign state and you are responsible for each and every act of yours. It is the sole responsibility of the government to enforce law and order in the society so as to provide maximum protection to its citizens with respect to life, property and religious beliefs.
Q 4. What did he say about the second function?
While stressing on the second function of the Assembly in his speech, M.A. Jinnah said that one of the greatest dilemmas which would spoil the land of Pakistan was the problem of bribery and corruption. He further added that in order to have a safe and sound environment in the state we had to crush these evils with an iron hand and should not compromise on this issue under any circumstance. He considered these evils the root cause for the destruction of the society both communally and morally.
Q 5. Which legacy does MA Jinnah refer to in his speech?
M.A Jinnah had a strong desire to see his nation free from all the evils which had already polluted the environment of the sub-continent drastically. He talked about the legacy of good and bad activities but focused on the greatest evil of nepotism and jobbery. He further added that he would not bear if such acts would prevail in the society of Pakistan. According to him, it would be quite difficult for him to give approval to nepotism and jobbery if he would be encountered with them at any level.
Q 6. What are the Quaid’s views about the division of India?
Quaid-e-Azam knew it very well that majority of the people who consider the land of the sub-continent a sacred thing for them, were not in favor to divide it in any way. But according to the ideology of Quaid, there was no other solution except the partition in order to protect the rights of the Muslims who were in minority in the sub-continent. He, then said that as the decision had been taken so now it is the responsibility on the shoulders of every one of us to serve diligently and follow the rules and regulations sincerely so to be the true citizens of either Pakistan or Hindustan. He put emphasis on the need of the division of India by saying that it would also be beneficial to India’s constitutional problem. He advocated for the rights of the minorities who were facing intense oppression by the people in the majority in united India.
Q 7. What does he say about the minorities?
Muslims lived on the land of the sub-continent as a minority that’s why they suffered a lot of hardships from the majority side i.e. Hindus. M.A Jinnah valiantly fought for the rights of the Muslims. With respect to the minorities that would comprise the land of Pakistan, he was sure that it would not take a long time to erase the differences between the majority and minority community and no one could ever have to face the same adversity as they had experienced in united India. He further strengthened his point of view by giving true liberty to the minorities in a sense that they would definitely be free to go their temples or to mosques or any other place of worship. Caste, colour, creed or religion would never come in the way of the success of Pakistan.
Q 8. What kind of freedom does MA Jinnah envision for the people of Pakistan in general?
The foundation of M.A Jinnah’s speech rests on true freedom which the Muslims of the sub-continent would soon be enjoying in an independent state. The freedom tree which M. A Jinnah seeded for the people of Pakistan had given birth to a number of leafy branches in the form of different kinds of freedom such as:
- Freedom from subjugated acts of Hindus and English
- Freedom to practice religious beliefs
- Freedom from the evil of bribery and corruption
- Freedom to observe law and order
- Freedom from nepotism and jobbery
- Freedom from the thought of discriminating people on the basis of caste, color, or creed
- Freedom to enjoy equal rights, privileges, and obligations
- Freedom to work in co-operation for the betterment of the country
Bise Swat 2nd years English Notes Chapter #01
Q 1. When and where did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W)deliver his last sermon?
The last prophet of Muslim Ummah Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W) was blessed with the eminence of knowing about the events of the future. That’s why Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) knew well that He might not be among His (S.A.W.W) people next year so He (S.A.W.W) decided to deliver His (S.A.W.W) last sermon for the utmost benefit of the people of Arabia in particular and Muslim Ummah in general. At the end of the Holy Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) first and the last pilgrimage to Makkah, the Ninth Day of Dhulhijjah 10 A.H. (632 CE) Prophet (S.A.W.W) delivered His (S.A.W.W) last sermon. For this purpose, He (S.A.W.W) chose the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat in the holy city of Mecca.
Q 2. Who did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) ask to repeat the sermon sentence by sentence after him and why?
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) owned a humble and soft-spoken personality and set an example for the Muslims to follow. Muhammad (S.A.W.W) led a huge crowd of over 120,000 pilgrims from Makkah towards the Valley of Uranah. He (S.A.W.W) sat on his camel and delivered the sermon. Being a soft-spoken and low voice person, it was not possible for everyone to listen to Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) voice clearly. So He (S.A.W.W) asked Rab’ah lbn Umayya lbn Khalaf to repeat the sermon after him, sentence by sentence so that everyone could hear.
Q 3. State in your own words what did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) say about the sanctity of the life and property of Muslim Brethren?
Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) gave utmost stress on such issues which are the building blocks for a civilized society. Life and property are the two most vital things which are a source of either satisfaction or trouble. Nowadays, life and property of others are the two cheapest things that can easily be snatched from others. That’s why the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) declared them as a holy thing to respect all the Muslim brethren so to avoid any conflict, tension or to get involved in any criminal offense.
Q 4. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) instruct the people with regard to their women?
Holy Prophet (SAW) was a great advocate of human rights. He not only gave importance to human rights but focused on animal rights too. He (SAW) presented a comprehensive description of the rights of everyone including women who were the most neglected and oppressed class of Arab society at His time. In His last sermon, He declared women as “partners” and “committed helpers” of men. He said that according to Islamic principles women have the benefit of the same rights as of men. He made it obligatory for the men to treat their women with kindness and justice. He added that if the wives fulfilled the needs of their men and follow their rules then it is the responsibility of the men to facilitate them by providing good food to eat and the finest clothes to wear.
Q 5. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) say about the superiority of one individual over another? What it depends upon?
According to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) all human beings are equal in the eyes of Allah Almighty. He said that there is no question of superiority of any individual on another individual. He further added that no Arab should feel himself superior over a non-Arab and similarly non-Arab should not consider him a superior being over an Arab. Another example quoted by Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) was of black and white people that one should not believe himself superior over the other one. After this, He (S.A.W.W) affirmed that if someone wants to feel superior in front of Allah, the one and the only way which he has to follow is to tread on the path of good deeds and piousness.
Q 6. What did he say about Khatme Nobuwwat?
Being a Muslim we have firm belief on the oneness of Allah, the finality of Holy Quran, four caliphs, Day of Judgment and Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) as the last prophet of Muslim Ummah. In the last sermon, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) put emphasis on the last aspect which is essentially required for the one who wants to enter into the frame of absolute faith and that was “khatm-e-Nabuwwat.” This expression means that after the departure of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) from this transitory world, no prophet will ever make his appearance on the land and no new faith will become known for the Muslims to follow. Furthermore, Allah Almighty conveyed all His messages for everyone who is residing on the planet earth through the words of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) therefore, He needs no one to do this job for Him ever again.
Q 7. What did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) ask the people towards the end of the sermon?
After conveying all the important instructions to the people who were present at Mount Arafat listening attentively to Holy Prophet’s (S.A.W.W) sermon, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) asked them to transfer His words to them who were not present there and pass His words sentence by sentence so the last man on this earth should know exactly whatever I have said to you. He further said that all the people who have listened to His sermon should be His witness on the Day of Judgment and should give confirmation to Allah that He (S.A.W.W) has conveyed Allah’s messages to the people as per His aspiration.