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Short question biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 14 Reproduction
Q.1) How can vegetative methods of reproduction, be used to achieve a better yield.
Through the grafting method, better quality and quantity of yield can be achieved. In grafting the branch of a desired variety of plants is attached (grafted) on to a stem of an ordinary plant. The grafted branch grows and bears fruit of better quality. This method is used to propagate almost all fruit trees (almond, palm, cherries. etc), and many ornamental trees.
Q.2) Differentiate between internal and external fertilization. Which type of fertilization ensure better chances of fusion of gametes?
Internal fertilization: When fertilization takes place inside the female body and young one also develops inside the body of female. Example mammals
External Fertilization: When fertilization takes place of side the body specially in fish and amphibians.
Q.3) What is population planning? Why is it important?
It means the control of the population.
- The control of the population is known as population planing.
- Rapid population puts great pressure on the agriculture land.
- One of the manifestations of poverty is the growth of population beyond available resources.
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Q.4) How does self-pollination bring more variations in plants?
Self-pollination leads to the production of plants with less genetic diversity, since genetic material from the same plant is used to form gametes, and eventually, the zygote. In contrast, cross-pollination—or out-crossing—leads to greater genetic diversity.
Q.5) How can the spread of HIV be controlled? What is the role of the community and NGO’s in the control of AIDS?
Control of HIV:
- Do not use used syringes.
- Do not use used shaving blades
- Always ask for new syringes and shaving blades.
- Avoid any sexual or blood contact other than your partner.
Role of Community and NGOs:
The National AIDS Control Program and its provincial units currently implementing a comprehensive program throughout the country to halt the HIV epidemic. They educate common people as well as parliamentarians, media personnel, educationists, and religious leaders, etc. They also organize events like in the World AIDS day to raise awareness about the issue.
Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs):
Many NGOs serve to coordinate HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities in all the provinces of Pakistan. Although NGOs are active in educating people and supporting HIV/AIDS patients, it is believed that they are reaching less than 5 percent of the vulnerable population.
Q.6) Name the four whorls present in a flower and also describe the components of each whorl.
Sepal makes the outermost whorl (Calyx). Sepals are usually green and they protect the inner parts of developing flower before it opens.
Petals make the next whorl (Corolla). Most flowers have coloured patels.
The third whorl (Androecium) contains the male reproductive structures called stamens. Each stamen consists of an anther and filament. The Anther contains pollen sacs, which produce microspores. The stalk-like filament supports the anther.
The innermost whorl contains female reproductive structures, which are called carpels. The enlarged base of the carpel is ovary, while the style is stalk-like. Its tip is called stigma.
Q.7) How are wind-pollinated flowers different from insect-pollinated flowers?
Difference between Wind and Insect Pollinated Flowers:
- Wind pollinated flowers lack scent or fragrance and do not produce nectar, whereas insect-pollinated flowers do.
- Wind pollinated flower pollens are small, smooth, and easily removable from the anther. In insect-pollinated flowers pollen are sticky which can stick to the legs of insects.
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Q.8) Why do seeds need water and oxygen for germination?
Seeds absorb water through the micropyle. Water softens the seed coat and makes it burst. Water also helps to activate enzymes that digest the food of seeds, and make It available to the growing embryo.
Oxygen is also necessary for seed germination. The cells of the seed embryo use oxygen for cellular respiration so that they can get energy from stored food.
Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 14 Long Question
Q.1) Describe the alternation of generation in a flowering plant.
Alternation of Generation:
In the life cycle of the major groups of plants, two different stages or generations are involved:
- Sporophyte (spore-producing) generation
- Gametophyte (gamete producing) generation
These two generations alternate with each other i.e. the sporophyte develops into gametophyte and vice versa. This type of life cycle is called alternation of generation.
The sporophyte generation is diploid (2n). It produces haploid (n) spores by meiosis. The spores develop into the haploid gametophyte generation. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes fuse to form diploid zygote, which develops into the next sporophyte stage.
Q.2) Explain the different plant structures modified for vegetative propagation.
Vegetative propagation is a type of sexual reproduction in which a plant produces a new generation by using its vegetative parts i.e. stems, leaves, and roots.
Vegetative propagation through Leaves:
In plants such as the Bryophyllum, the leaves have buds at their margins. When a leaf falls on the ground, the buds form tiny shoots. When the shoots break off from the original leaf, they fall on the ground and develop roots.
Vegetative Propagation through stem:
Many plants use their specialized stems to develop a new plant. For example;
- The strawberry plant reproduces by using its above-ground horizontal stem called stolon. The stolon is a horizontal, above-ground stem. It produces leaves and roots at its nodes, which develop into plantlets. Thus a new plantlet can grow from each node. If placed in the soil under suitable conditions, these plantlets grow into strawberry plants.
- Ferns and ginger reproduce from the rhizome. Rhizomes are horizontal underground plant stems capable of producing the shoot and root systems of a new plant, under suitable conditions.
- Tulips, onions and lilies reproduce through bulbs. Bulbs are underground buds that have fleshy leaves extending from them. Bulbs are food storage units for further developing plants. Bulbs contain several buds near the node where leaves are produced. The new buds con eventually develop into new plants. Bulbs divide naturally to produce new plants.
Vegetative Propagation through Root:
Red raspberries and many other shrubs can reproduce through their specialized roots. The root can give rise to a shoot, which begins to grow. The new shoots are called root sprouts or “suckers”. If these get detached from the original plant they can grow into independent plants.
Q.3) Explain gametogenesis.
Sexual reproduction is the method of producing new generations in most animals. The male and female animals make qametes in their gonads. This process is called gametogenesis. The male gametes join with the female gamete to form zygote, which develops into anew individual.
In animals, sex cells or gametes are produced in special organs called gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females). The formation of gametes involves meiosis. Meiosis results in a reduction of the number of chromosomes in gametes to haploid (n) as compared to the diploid (2n) number in other body cells. The formation of male gametes or sperm is called spermatogenesis while the formation of female gamete or ovum is called oogenesis.
In the testes, there are many diploid gametes mother cells called primary spermatocytes. Each primary spermatocyte divides by meiosis and makes four haploid (n) cells called spermatids. Each spermatid develops into a motile sperm.
In the follicle of the ovary, there are diploid gametes mother cells called primary oocytes. These divide by meiosis. As a result of the first meiotic division, two haploid cells are produced. The larger cell is called the secondary oocytes while the smaller cell is called the first polar body. In meiosis lI, the secondary oocyte produces two haploid cells i.e. a second polar body and an egg.
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Q.4) How are seeds produced? What is the structure of a seed?
Structure of a Seed:
A seed (mature ovule) is a miniature plant with a protective cover. Typically a seed consists of the following structure.
The outer covering of a seed is called the seed coat or testa. It is black or brown in colour and protects the embryo.
On one end of the seed coat, is a small scar or hilum. it indicates the place of attachment of the seed in the fruit.
It is a minute pore near the hilum, The seed absorb water through the micropyle at the time of germination.
It is present beneath the seed coat The embryo consists of the following ports;
i. Cotyledons: In a monocot seed there is one lea like cotyledon In a dicot seed, there are two large, fleshy cotyledons
ii. Plumule and radicle: There is a minute bud (plumule) at the upper end of the hypocotyle. It gives rise to the future stem. The lower part of the hypocotyle is called the radicle. It gives rise to the future root The portion between the plumule and the cotyledon is called the epicotyl. The portion between the cotyledons and the radicle is called the hypocotyl.
iii. Endosperm: This tissue is formed from endosperm nucleus. It stores nutrients, Dicot seeds have no endosperm while monocot seeds have endosperm In these seeds, the cotyledon absorbs nutrients from the endosperm and transfers them to the embryo.
Q.5) Write a comprehensive note in seed germination and its types.
The development of the embryo of a seed, into the seedling is called seed germination. In the dry seed the embryo is alive but inactive. When it is placed in the soil under suitable conditions, the embryo becomes active and grows into a seedling.
Germination of the seed starts with the absorption of water through the micropyle. This is followed by the emergance of the radicle, which forms the first root. After the radicle breaks the seed coat, the plumule begins to grow to form a shoot.
On the basis of the growth of the plumule there are two types of germination
Epigeal and Hypogeal Germination:
In epigeal germination, the hypocotyle elongates and it forces cotyledons to come above the ground. The seed coat also emerges from the soil. Seeds of melons, cucumber and beans show epigeal germination.
During hypogeal germination, the epicotyl elongates and the cotyledons remain below the surface of the ground. e.g. maize grain, pea etc.
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