All Chemsitry Chapters Punjab Board Class XII
1st Years – Chemistry Notes Part-1 for Punjab Board (PTBB) Notes, Mcqs and Solved Numericals and Exercise, all Chapters Pdf Download best and high-resolution format.
- Reaction Kinetics
- Liquids and Solids
- Experimental Techniques
- Chemical Equilibrium
- Chemical Bonding
- Basic concepts
- Atomic Structure
Chemistry PTBB Class 11th Basic concepts Chemsitry Chapter 1
“The branch of science which deals with the study of the structure of mane: composition of matter. properties of matter. changes in matter and laws and principles which govern these changes are called chemistry.”
There are many branches of chemistry like physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry biochemistry, analytical chemistry, industrial chemistry etc. The American chemical society (ACS) has divided chemistry is to thirty divisions.
“The smallest particle of ar. the element which may or may not exist independently and can take part in a chemical reaction is called an atom.”
For example, He, Ne, Ar, N, O, S, Fe etc. are all atoms. Atoms of Il, 0 and N do not exist independently but Ile. Ne and Ar exist independently.
Related Notes: Best Punjab Baord Class 11 Math Notes
Concept of Atom
A long time ago, it was believed that matter is made up of simple, indivisible particles.
In early times, it was thought that matter is made up of particles that cannot be divided. Greek Philosophers thought that matter could be divided into smaller and smaller particles to reach basic units, which could not be further divided. Democritus (460 — 370 B.C.) called these particles atoms, derived from the word “atomos” mean indivisible. The ideas of Greek Philosophers were not based on experimental evidence.
In the late 17th century, the quantitative study of the composition of pure substances disclosed that a few elements are the components of many different substances. It was also investigated that how elements combine to form compounds and how compounds could be broken down into their constituent elements.
In INK an English school teacher John Dalton recognized that the law of conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions could be explained by the existence of atoms. He developed an atomic theory, the main point of which is that all matter is composed of atoms of different elements, which differ in their properties.
Modern researches have clear:y shown that an atom is further composed of subatomic particles like electron. proton, neutron, hypron, neutrino. anti—neutrino, meson, positron etc. More than 100 fundamental particles are thought to exist in an atom.
Part-1 1st Year Chemsitry Notes for Punjab Board
Chemistry Class 11th Notes for Punjab Board include all Chapters Short Long Questions, Numericals Problems, and Chapter overview.
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